[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abalone containing phlorotannins is produced by feeding the phlorotannin-rich brown seaweed Eisenia bicyclis after 4 days of starvation. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was used to isolate and quantify phlorotannins, which were identified by mass spectrometry and [ 1 H]-nuclear magnetic resonance to be the P1 compound, 7-phloroeckol, and eckol. When E. bicyclis was used as feed, P1 compound accumulated to an average of 1.60 mg/g dry weight of abalone muscle tissue after 18 d, 7-phloroeckolol to 0.21 mg/g after 16 d, and eckol to 0.22 mg/g after 12 d. Saccharina japonica was used as a control feed, and the abalone showed little or no accumulation of phlorotannins in muscle tissue. Feed consumption and growth rate were very similar when either E. bicyclis or S. japonica was fed for 20 d. Half-maximal reductions in the levels of P1 compound, 7-phloroeckol, and eckol accumulation were attained in 1.5, 1.9, and 3.4 days, respectively, after the feed was switched from E. bicyclis to S. japonica. Value-added abalone containing bioactive phlorotannins can be produced by simply changing the feed to the phlorotannin-rich E. bicyclis 18 d prior to harvesting.
Fisheries and Aquatic Science 07/2015; 18(2). DOI:10.5657/FAS.2015.0165
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related neurological disorders are of growing concern among the elderly, and natural products with neuroprotective properties have been attracting increasing attention as candidates for the prevention or treatment of neurological disorders induced by oxidative stress. In an effort to explore natural resources, we collected some common marine seaweed from the Korean peninsula and Indonesia and screened them for neuroprotective activity against hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)-induced oxidative stress. Of the 23 seaweeds examined, the ethanol extract of Gracilariopsis chorda (GCE) provided maximum neuroprotection at an optimum concentration of 15 μg/mL, followed by Undaria pinnatifida. GCE increased cell viability after H/R, decreased the formation of reactive oxygen species (measured by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate [DCF-DA] staining), and inhibited the double-stranded DNA breaks (measured by H2AX immunocytochemistry), apoptosis (measured by Annexin V/propidium iodide staining), internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (measured by DNA laddering), and dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential (measured by JC-1 staining). Using reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography, we quantitated the arachidonic acid (AA) in GCE, which provides neuroprotection against H/R-induced oxidative stress. This neuroprotective effect of AA was comparable to that of GCE. These findings suggest that the neuroprotective effect of GCE against H/R-induced neuronal death is due, at least in part, to the AA content that suppresses neuronal apoptosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Freshwater softshell turtle (Trionyx sinensis) extract has been used traditionally as a tonic soup, and to recover from physical fatigue. To support these claims, the forelimb grip strength of mice was measured after feeding a soft-shell turtle extract for 7 days. The T. sinensis extract significantly increased the grip strength to 1.25±0.07 N (P<0.01), which is 16.8% higher than the force on day 0. After exercising, the blood glucose levels in extract-fed mice were 202% higher and urea levels were 73% lower, which were both significantly different than the levels observed after control treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase was significantly higher by 314%, and glutathione peroxidase increased by 165%. In addition, the obesity markers, serum triglyceride and cholesterol, decreased to 62% and 49%, respectively, after mice were fed the extract. These data show that the T. sinensis extract provided more energy for forelimb exercise, prevented protein catabolism and muscle fatigue, and decreased the oxidative stress caused by an exhaustive workout.
Preventive Nutrition and Food Science 06/2015; 20(2):133-6. DOI:10.3746/pnf.2015.20.2.133
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The encrusting bryozoan Membranipora membranacea frequently colonizes late-harvested blades of the cultured Saccharina japonica. We measured the proximate compositions, amino acid and fatty acid profiles and metal contents of bryozoans, colonized blades and healthy blades. Bryozoans contained high levels of crude ash (657 g kg-1 dry weight) and arsenic (As; 49 mg kg-1 dry weight) contents, exceeding the recommended range for human food, and had relatively low levels of essential amino acids. The content of inorganic As in bryozoans was 31% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake for inorganic As established by the World Health Organization. Hence, bryozoans decrease the food and fodder quality of the seaweed product. After removing the bryozoans, we found that the seaweed blade tissues beneath the colonies had elevated levels of potassium, iodine and docosahexaenoic acid and reduced levels of copper, chromium and cadmium compared to healthy tissues. Thus, lacy crust bryozoans must be removed from the surface of seaweed prior to its use as food or fodder.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gelidium latifolium was selected as a potential resource for bioethanol production among 25 tropical red seaweed species candidates due to its high carbohydrate content. This report shows a catalytic efficiency comparison between sulfuric (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid (HCl) as feasible catalysts, which are used for the hydrolysis of G. latifolium. H2SO4 showed better hydrolysis compared to HCl based on sugar production, catalytic efficiency, and ethanol production. These results are important for future applications of bioethanol production on an industrial scale.
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 12/2014; 27. DOI:10.1016/j.jiec.2014.12.024 · 3.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar and Saccharina japonica Areschoug are two common seaweeds, and both are known to have numerous pharmacological properties that include neuroprotective effects. In a previous study, we found that the ethanol extracts of U. pinnatifida (UPE) and S. japonica (SJE) had neurite promoting activities on developing hippocampal neurons. In the present study, we studied and compared the effects of UPE and SJE on neuronal maturation. Both UPE and SJE promoted neurite outgrowth in a dose-dependent manner with optimal concentrations of 5 and 15 μg/mL, respectively. Initial neuronal differentiation was significantly promoted by UPE and SJE. Subsequently, treatment with both increased indices of axonal and dendritic cytoarchitecture, such as, the numbers and lengths of primary processes, although only UPE had a significant effect on branching frequencies. In addition, UPE and SJE showed no evidence of cytotoxicity, rather they protected neurons from naturally occurring death in vitro. These results indicate that UPE and SJE promote axodendritic maturation and neuronal survival and suggest that these algal extracts, especially UPE, have beneficial effects on the nervous system.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 11/2014; 42(06):1-14. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X14500864 · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute-phase response (APR) is an important systemic reaction that occurs within hours of an inflammatory signal caused by physical bodily injury or microbial infection. To investigate the APR of the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) following infection with a pathogen, we established an expressed sequence tag (EST)-based cDNA microarray chip composed of 13,061 PCR-amplified cDNAs encoding unique genes selected from an olive flounder EST analysis. Microarray analyses showed that the set of genes involved in the APR was strongly up-regulated in the liver of the olive flounder after infection with Edwardsiella tarda. Among the up-regulated genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase domain-containing protein 1, six-transmembrane prostate protein, haptoglobin precursor, and toll-like receptor 5 soluble form were particularly strongly up-regulated. Interestingly, the toll-like receptor 5 soluble form, which has not yet been detected in mammals, was up-regulated as much as 250-fold upon E. tarda infection. These results suggest that the APR mechanism of fish may be regulated differently from that of mammals. The data described here contribute toward our collective understanding of APR, especially in fish.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 °C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study employed a statistical methodology to investigate the optimization of conversion conditions and evaluate the reciprocal interaction of reaction factors related to the process of red-algae Gracilaria verrucosa conversion to sugars (glucose, galactose), levulinic acid and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) by acidic hydrolysis. Overall, the conditions optimized for glucose formation included a higher catalyst concentration than did those for galactose, and these conditions for galactose were similar to those for 5-HMF. Levulinic acid production, meanwhile, was optimized at a higher reaction temperature, a higher catalyst concentration, and a longer reaction time than was glucose, galactose or 5-HMF production. By this approach, the optimal yields (and reaction conditions) for glucose, galactose, levulinic acid, and 5-HMF were as follows: glucose 5.29 g/L (8.46 wt%) (reaction temperature 160 °C, catalyst concentration 1.92 %, reaction time 20 min), galactose 18.38 g/L (29.4 wt%) (160 °C, 1.03 %, 20 min), levulinic acid 14.65 g/L (18.64 wt%) (180.9 °C, 2.85 %, 50 min), and 5-HMF 3.74 g/L (5.98 wt%) (160.5 °C, 1 %, 20 min).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phlorotannins are polyphenols of marine algae, particularly brown seaweed, having multiple biological activities. A reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for rapid and routine quantification of two major phlorotannins, dieckol and phlorofucofuroeckol-A (PFE-A), from boiling water- and organic solvent-extracts of brown seaweeds Ecklonia cava, E. stolonifera and Eisenia bicyclis. The regression equations for dieckol and PFE-A were as follows: the concentration (mg ml(-1)) = 16.56 x peak height (cm) + 0.44, and the concentration = 20.60 x peak height (cm) + 0.11, with correlation coefficients of 0.996 and 0.999, respectively. Compared to organic solvent extraction, the recovery yield of dieckol from boiling water extracts of E. cava, E. stolonifera and E. bicyclis was 86%, 93%, and 98%, respectively. The recovery yield of PFE-A was 74%, 86% and 62%, respectively. Antioxidant activity was detected in each E. bicyclis water extract (91%), followed by E. stolonifera (90%) and E. cava (74%). Dieckol and PFE-A showed almost 9- and 7-fold stronger antioxidant activity than the standard butylhydroxytoluene, and 6-and 4-fold greater than L-ascorbic acid in molar concentration, respectively.
Journal of Environmental Biology 07/2014; 35(4):713-9. · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coralline algae, the algal whitening phenomenon-causing seaweeds, are characterized by calcareous deposits in the cell wall. The viability of the coralline algae Lithophyllum yessoense and Corallina pilulifera was quantitated using a triphenyltetrazolium chloride assay and eight calcification inhibitors. Among these inhibitors, ferric citrate showed the strongest inhibition of coralline algae viability. The concentrations of ferric citrate conferring 50% inhibition were 1.7 and 3.8 mM for L. yessoense and C. pilulifera, respectively. Thus, at a specific concentration and in a localized area, ferric citrate may be used to prevent the blooming of coralline algae.
Fisheries and Aquatic Science 06/2014; 17(2):269-273. DOI:10.5657/FAS.2014.0269
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The decrease in the seaweed fl ora in some rocky areas, known as algal whitening or barren ground, is associated with some species of coralline algae. To determine the biological characteristics of a representative species of branched coralline alga, the number of medullary tiers was counted and ranged from 12 to 16. The 18S rDNA, psbA, and rbcL genes were used to confi rm the identifi cation of Corallina pilulifera. Measuring viability using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride showed highly viability from December to January. Cultural conditions of 16 °C, 16 h light:8 h dark cycle, and 40 μE m-2 s-1 light intensity were optimal for maintaining the viability of the coralline alga for up to three days. The fatty acids included 31.4% ?-3 eicosapentaenoic acid. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface structure revealed unique round wells about 7.9 ± 1.3 μm in diameter. The coralline alga, preventing fl eshy seaweeds, may be used as a potential template for the creation of new environmentally friendly biomimetic antifouling material against the attachment of soft foulants, especially micro-and macroalgae.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The lacy crust bryozoan Membranipora membranacea frequently colonizes the late harvested blades of aquacultured Saccharina japonica. From proteomic profiles of S. japonica, 145 and 91 protein spots were detected from colonized and healthy tissues, respectively. Among them, 69 and 32 spots were significantly up- and downregulated, respectively, in expression level upon colonization. In M. membranacea colonized tissue, tripartite motif protein 2-like, microcompartments protein, carboxysome peptide shell peptide, trypsin precursor-like, transmembrane protein, two-component response regulator PilR, spermine/spermidine synthase, vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase, peptide chain release factor 1, interaptin, 50S ribosomal protein L1P, plus agglutinin and leucine-rich repeat protein were upregulated, whereas protoporphyrinogen oxidase, PIH1 domain-containing protein 2, GTPase-activating protein alpha, cytoplasmic threonyl-tRNA synthetase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 proteins were downregulated. Moreover, DEAD/DEAH box helicase, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, and chaperone DnaJ protein were newly expressed in the colonized tissue. Most of the up- and downregulated proteins are known to be related to stress control, defense mechanisms, signal transduction, photosynthesis, protein metabolism, and the cytoskeleton.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurotrophic factors are essential for the differentiation and maturation of developing neurons as well as providing survival support to the mature neurons. Moreover, therapeutically neurotrophic factors are promising to reconstruct partially damaged neuronal networks in neurodegenerative diseases. In the previous study, we reported that the ethanol extract of an edible marine alga, Gelidium amansii (GAE) had shown promising effects in the development and maturation of both axon and dendrites of hippocampal neurons. Here, we demonstrate that in primary culture of hippocampal neurons (1) GAE promotes a significant increase in the number of filopodia and dendritic spines; (2) promotes synaptogenesis; (3) enhances N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor recruitment; and (4) modulates NMDA-receptor-mediated postsynaptic current. Taken together these findings that GAE might be involved in both morphological and functional maturation of neurons suggest the possibility that GAE may constitute a promising candidate for novel compounds for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) by virtue of its high nutritional as well as ethnomedical values has been gaining profound interest both in nutrition and medicinal research. The leaf of this plant is used in ayurvedic medicine to treat paralysis, nervous debility and other nerve disorders. In addition, research evidence also suggests the nootropic as well as neuroprotective roles of M. oleifera leaf in animal models.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of M. oleifera leaf in the primary hippocampal neurons regarding its neurotrophic and neuroprotective properties.
The primary culture of embryonic hippocampal neurons was incubated with the ethanol extract of Moringa oleifera leaf (MOE). After an indicated time, cultures were either stained directly with a lipophilic dye, DiO, or fixed and immunolabeled to visualize the neuronal morphology. Morphometric analyses for neurite maturation and synaptogenesis were performed using Image J software. Neuronal viability was evaluated using trypan blue exclusion and lactate dehydrogenase assays.
MOE promoted neurite outgrowth in a concentration-dependent manner with an optimal concentration of 30μg/mL. As a very initial effect, MOE significantly promoted the earlier stages of neuronal differentiation. Subsequently, MOE significantly increased the number and length of dendrites, the length of axon, and the number and length of both dendrite and axonal branches, and eventually facilitated synaptogenesis. The β-carotene, one major compound of MOE, promoted neuritogensis, but the increase was not comparable with the effect of MOE. In addition, MOE supported neuronal survival by protecting neurons from naturally occurring cell death in vitro.
Our findings indicate that MOE promotes axodendritic maturation as well as provides neuroprotection suggesting a promising pharmacological importance of this nutritionally and ethnomedically important plant for the well-being of nervous system.
Journal of ethnopharmacology 12/2013; 152(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jep.2013.12.036 · 3.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found that the edible green seaweed Enteromorpha linza displayed potent antimicrobial activity against Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. To elucidate the active component of E. linza, isolation procedures were performed.
The main active compound was isolated by polarity fractionation, Sephadex LH-20 gel chromatography, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The active compounds were eluted at isocratic 95% acetonitrile by RP-HPLC and identified as unsaturated fatty acids, stearidonic acid (SA, C18:4 n-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3 n-6) by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The yields of SA and GLA from dried seaweed tissue were 6.33 × 10-3% and 6.47 × 10-3%, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration values of SA and GLA were 39.06 μg/mL against P. intermedia and 9.76 μg/mL against P. gingivalis, respectively. SA and GLA were also active against several other oral pathogens, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Candida albicans, Fusobacterium nucleatum subsp. vincenti, and Streptococcus mutans, at micromolar concentrations.
These data suggest that the E. linza extracts SA and GLA are useful antimicrobial agents for the prevention and/or treatment of periodontitis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An alginate-degrading bacterium, identified as Shewanella oneidensis PKA 1008 by 16S ribosomal RNA sequence analysis, was isolated from the green alga Ulva pertusa. Optimal conditions for the alginate-degrading ability of its crude enzyme were then determined. The optimal culture conditions for the growth of S. oneidensis PKA 1008 were pH 9, 2% NaCl, , and 24 hours incubation time. The crude enzyme produced by S. oneidensis PKA 1008 showed the highest alginate-degrading activity at pH 9, and produced 1.001 g of reducing sugar per liter in 3.5% (w/v) sodium alginate for 1 hour.
Korean Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 09/2013; 41(3). DOI:10.4014/kjmb.1212.12002
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Seaweeds, particularly species of red macroalgae, are promising resources for bioethanol production because of their exceptionally high carbohydrate content. Of 20 seaweeds evaluated, Palmaria palmata (Rhodymenia palmata) contained the highest carbohydrate content (469.8 mg g−1 seaweed) with a carrageenan content of 354 mg g−1 seaweed. Such a high carrageenan content makes the high-volume production of bioethanol feasible. Acid hydrolysis of P. palmata in 0.4 M H2SO4 at 125 °C for 25 min released 27 mg of glucose, 218.4 mg of reducing sugars, and 127.6 mg of galactose per gram of seaweed. Ethanol fermentation of these hydrolysis products using an inoculum concentration of 1.5 mg mL−1 at 30 °C and 72 h in a shaking incubator at 130 rpm yielded 17.3 mg of ethanol per gram of seaweed.