Akiko Kanayama

Toho University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (29)35.72 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Biapenem has been widely used to treat bacterial pneumonia; however, there is little information concerning its efficacy and safety in elderly patients. Based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic theory, administration of biapenem thrice rather than twice daily would be expected to be more effective because of longer time above the minimum inhibitory concentration. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of biapenem (300 mg) administered thrice daily in pneumonic patients aged 65 years or older. Biapenem was effective in 22 of 25 patients, as assessed by the improvement in clinical symptoms and/or the eradication of the causative organisms, and caused no serious adverse events. The pharmacokinetic profile was established based on simulations using a modeling program. Among 17 patients whose causative organisms were detected, time above the minimum inhibitory concentration was estimated to be 100% in 16 patients, all of whom showed clinical improvement. The results of this study confirmed the efficacy and safety of 300 mg of biapenem administered thrice daily for the treatment of pneumonia in elderly patients.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Here we report on the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis from a nationwide antimicrobial resistance survey in different geographical regions of Japan. A total of 799 P. mirabilis isolates recovered between July 2009 and June 2010 from 314 healthcare facilities were characterised according to ESBL production, source, location and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. ESBL production was found in 364 (45.6%) of the isolates, among which 354 (97.3%) produced CTX-M-2 group β-lactamases. Of the 349 ESBL-producing isolates in which the inpatient or outpatient status of the source was known, 324 (92.8%) were from inpatients and 25 (7.2%) were from outpatients (P < 0.05). Results of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis performed on 66 of the ESBL-producers generated a distribution of PFGE patterns into 21 groups. Genetic relatedness was seen among isolates within a region, which is consistent with horizontal transmission. With respect to the frequency of ESBL-producers by specimen source, 12/14 (85.7%) central venous catheter specimens yielded ESBL-producing P. mirabilis compared with 159/405 (39.3%), 119/209 (56.9%), 42/77 (54.5%) and 20/49 (40.8%), respectively, for isolates from urine, sputum, decubitus ulcer and wound specimens. Among the ESBL-producers, non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin was found in 74.2% of the ESBL-producing isolates compared with 17.7% of the ESBL-non-producing isolates. These results show that approximately one-half of the P. mirabilis isolates from clinical specimens in Japan are ESBL-producers and that the potential for concomitant fluoroquinolone resistance must also be considered.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) now recommend combination therapy with ceftriaxone 250 mg plus azithromycin (AZM) 1 g as a first-line regimen for gonorrhea because the increase of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents. However, reports on the in vitro activity of antimicrobial combinations against clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae are very rare. In the present study, a checkerboard method was utilized to examine the in vitro activity of ceftriaxone (CTRX), cefodizime (CDZM), spectinomycin (SPCM), or gentamicin (GM) in combination with AZM against 25 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. The SPCM + AZM combination demonstrated the lowest mean fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.69, followed by the CDZM + AZM combination (mean FICI, 0.75), the CTRX + AZM combination (mean FICI, 0.81), and the GM + AZM combination (mean FICI, 0.83). Additivity/indifference effect was detected for the SPCM + AZM combination, the CDZM + AZM combination, the CTRX + AZM combination, and the GM + AZM combination, against 96 %, 72 %, 92 %, and 100 % of the isolates, respectively. There was no antagonism for any of the antimicrobial combinations against the 25 N. gonorrhoeae isolates. These results suggest that the antimicrobial combinations may be worthy of clinical evaluation as an alternative regimen for gonococcal infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant strains.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 04/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL) producing Serratia marcescens isolate was recovered from a study patient in September, 2007 in whom MBL non-producing S. marcescens had been isolated 2 months previously. Two S. marcescens isolates recovered from the study patient showed the same pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) pattern. Seven S. marcescens isolates were recovered from other patients in our hospital during August, 2007 and November, 2007. Five of the seven isolates produced MBL. All of the MBL-producing isolates showed the same PFGE pattern and harbored plasmids of the same size and bla(IMP) genes. The bla(IMP) genes were easily transferred to Escherichia coli DH5alpha by transformation of a plasmid purified from the MBL-producing isolate. Those transformation experiments suggested that bla(IMP) genes were encoded by the plasmid. From these observations, it was speculated that the MBL non-producing S. marcescens isolate recovered from the study patient had acquired the plasmid which encoded bla(IMP) genes and a monoclone of MBL-producing S. marcescens spread horizontally in our hospital.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 03/2013; 87(2):189-94.
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a study assess the bactericidal activity of sitafloxacin (STFX) against Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from respiratory infections including penicillin-resistant (PRSP) isolates, macrolide resistant isolates possessing mefA and ermB resistance genes and quinolone resistance isolates with mutations in gyrA or gyrA and parC. Each isolate tested was grown in hemosupplemented Mueller-Hinton broth and adjusted to approximately 10(5) CFU/ mL. Isolates were than exposed to a Cmax antimicrobial blood level that would be attained with routine antimicrobial administration and an antimicrobial level that would be expected 4 hours post-Cmax (Cmax 4hr). Bactericidal activity was measured for up to 8 hours. Excluding a subset of S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR), all quinolones showed bactericidal activity at Cmax and Cmax 4 hr antimicrobial concentrations for up to 8 hours. Against S. pneumoniae isolates with either gyrA or gyrA and parC mutations, bactericidal activity of STFX was shown for up to 4 to 8 hours following Cmax based on a limit of detection of < 1.3 log CFU/mL. Garenoxacin (GRNX) did not showed bactericidal activity below the limit of detection for up to 8 hours with exposure to Cmax and no bactericidal activity was seen with levofloxacin. When all quinolones tested where adjusted to concentrations corresponding to their MICs, STFX showed the most rapid bactericidal activity against PRSP. This rapid bactericidal activity in PRSP is a key to the effectiveness of STFX. Our findings show that beyond inhibition of bacterial replication by blocking their DNA replication pathway and synthesis of proteins, STFX demonstrated characteristics contributing to greater bactericidal activity compared to GRNX. In conclusion, of the newer quinolones, STFX showed the strongest bactericidal activity against S. pneumoniae isolates with mutations in the QRDR which indicates that it may show the most effective clinical utility among the quinolones in respiratory infections.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 02/2013; 66(1):25-35.
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    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial susceptibility of 93 Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates from clinical specimens collected nationwide between May and October 2009 were measured by microdilution antimicrobial susceptibility testing based on CLSI M100-S20. Beta-lactamase genes, including classes B and D and ISAbal in meropenem nonsusceptible, including intermediate or resistant isolates, were detected using PCR. Rates of isolates nonsusceptible to meropenem were 18%, to ciprofloxacin 41% and to amikacin 14%. L7-L8: The rate of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter (MDRA) isolates which were resistant to all 3 antimicrobial agents was 4.3%. MDRA isolates were classified into ST92 by multilocus sequence typing. No metallo-beta-lactamase producer was seen among the 17 meropenem nonsusceptible isolates. The blaoxa-51-like carbapenemase gene and ISAbal were detected in all 17 isolates. ISAba1 upstream presence of the blaOXA-51-like gene was observed in 7 of 17 isolates and the blaOXA-23 like gene in 5 of 17. Consistent with overseas reports, our results confirm the existence of MDRA isolates and isolates harboring OXA carbapenemase genes in Japan. While resistance rates were lower than reports elsewhere, it is clear that resistance trends must be carefully monitored.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 85(5):501-7.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the antibiotic susceptibility and the genotype distributions of N. gonorrhoeae isolates in Fukuoka, Japan, and to evaluate the specific associations between genotypes and antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic susceptibility testing and N. gonorrhoeae multiantigen sequence typing (NG-MAST) were performed on 242 and 239 N. gonorrhoeae isolates, respectively, in Fukuoka, Japan in 2008. No isolates showed resistance to spectinomycin, ceftriaxone, or cefixime, although 34 (14.0%) and 149 (61.6%) isolates displayed decreased susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration range, 0.06-0.5 mg/L) and cefixime (minimum inhibitory concentration range, 0.06-0.5 mg/L), respectively. Furthermore, 171 (70.7%), 68 (28.1%), 39 (16.1%), and 1 (0.4%) isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, penicillin, and azithromycin, respectively. The 239 isolates were divided by NG-MAST into 67 sequence types (STs); the 4 most common STs were ST2958 (20.5%), ST4018 (7.5%), ST1407 (6.7%), and ST4487 (5.9%). ST2958 and ST1407 were characterized by a multidrug-resistant phenotype, whereas ST4018 and ST4487 presented a susceptible phenotype. Interestingly, ST1407, which is now common in Europe and Australia, was identified as a predominant ST in this study. This is the first report combining N. gonorrhoeae antibiotic susceptibility testing with molecular typing by using NG-MAST in Japan. Although a large diversity in NG-MAST was identified, based on comparisons with the international data, the ST1407 with a multidrug-resistant phenotype currently seems to be circulating worldwide.
    Sexually transmitted diseases 09/2011; 38(9):871-5. · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In a nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility survey of 494 Nesseria gonorrhoeae isolates collected from February 2008 to December 2009 in 3 regions of Japan, 112 (22.7%) were collected from western Japan (Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, and Kyushu), 277 (56.1%) from mid-eastern Japan (Kanto), and 105 (21.1%) from eastern Japan (Tokai, Hokuriku, Koushinetsu, Tohoku, and Hokkaido). Resistance to ciprofloxacin (CPFX) was 72.8%, to penicillin G (PCG) 19.8%, and to tetracycline (TC) 18.2%. Intermediate resistance to CPFX was 1.8%, to PCG 73.7%, and to TC 43.7%. These results indicate that both types of resistance to the 3 agents were very high. Intermediate resistance to cefixime (CFIX) was 38.1% and to cefozidim (CDZM) 13.4%. Resistance to CFIX was only 0.4% and to CDZM 0%. Susceptibility to azithromycin was 96.6%, to ceftriaxone 99.8%, and to spectinomycin 100%. No significant difference in resistance was seen to different antimicrobial agent classes tested in the 3 regions, although intermediate resistance to CFIX in western Japan was significantly higher than in mid-eastern Japan.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 07/2011; 85(4):360-5.
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, increased isolation of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Proteus mirabilis has been reported in Japan. We undertook an investigation to determine the prevalence of ESBL-producing P. mirabilis isolated in Japan and to characterise the genotype. Seventy-four P. mirabilis isolates recovered from specimens at 54 hospitals in Japan between March and October 2006 were included in the study. Of the 74 P. mirabilis isolates examined, 28 (37.8%) were ESBL-producers. The bla(CTX-M-2) gene was found in 27 isolates, whilst 1 isolate possessed bla(CTX-M-3). Amongst the 28 ESBL-producers, 25 (89.3%) were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin, whilst 11 (23.9%) of 46 ESBL-non-producing isolates were non-susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the 28 ESBL-producing isolates from 19 hospitals revealed 17 clusters. The same PFGE type was observed in two or more hospitals especially in the greater Tokyo area, suggesting possible clonal spread and the need for monitoring to determine whether emergence of a dominant clone occurs. Our results show that in Japan there is a high prevalence of CTX-M-type beta-lactamase-producing P. mirabilis. Moreover, these isolates are characterised by reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones.
    International journal of antimicrobial agents 10/2010; 36(4):340-2. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As the most common cause of neonatal sepsis, Lancefield Group B Streptococcus (GBS) must be diagnosed as early as possible in pregnant women is prevent neonatal infection. A selective enrichment broth medium has been widely recommended to optimally recover GBS from genital and anorectal samples. To establish a culture suitable for screening vaginal swab specimens, we compared subcultures of three selective enrichment media to direct culture on agar medium. Vaginal swab samples were inoculated directly onto 5% sheep blood agar and into New Granada medium (Eiken), Lim broth (Becton, Dickinson, and Company), and Todd Hewitt broth with gentamicin and nalidixic acid (Becton, Dickinson, and Company, Todd). Of the 288 specimens tested, GBS was recovered from 43 samples (14.9%) on direct agar media, with 82 (28.5%), positive on New Granada medium subculture, 67 (23.3%) on Lim broth subculture, and 61 (21.2%) on Todd, subculture. These results demonstrates that selective enrichment broth media provides more superior sensitivity than direct agar media for detection of GBS colonization in vaginal specimens, underscoring the usefulness of selective enrichment broth media in GBS screening for vaginal swabs in pregnant woman.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 02/2009; 83(1):52-5.
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    ABSTRACT: Urine samples collected from 422 males and 53 females visiting a clinic in Kawasaki City who were suspected to have sexually transmitted infection were tested for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by BD ProbeTecET (SDA method). The detection rates of C. trachomatis by the SDA method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method (control) were as high as 98.1% for C. trachomatis, and as high as 99.4% for N. gonorrhoeae, and the concordance rate of detection of both bacterial species was high. The detection sensitivity and specificity of the SDA method were 90.6 and 99.3%, respectively for C. trachomatis and 98.7% and 100% for N. gonorrhoeae, when PCR was used as the standard method. There were no differences in these results between males and females. The number of patients showing a discrepancy of the results obtained between the SDA method and the PCR method was 9 for C. trachomatis and 1 for N. gonorrhoeae, but the results of redetermination by the SDA method tended to coincide with those of the PCR method. Urine samples tested by the SDA method were positive for N. gonorrhoeae even in patients in whom the culture of secretions from the male urethra was negative for N. gonorrhoeae. Based on these results, the BD ProbeTecET (SDA method) was confirmed to have the equivalent capability to the PCR method for the detection of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae in urine samples.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 06/2008; 82(3):182-6.
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    ABSTRACT: A recent study indicated that Neisseria subflava, one of the commensal Neisseria species, may play an important role in the emergence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin or cephalosporin by the horizontal genetic exchange of penA genes encoding the target site for penicillin or cephalosporin. The present investigation examined the antimicrobial susceptibility of 45 isolates of N. subflava from the oral cavities of Japanese men and women to various agents used for the treatment of gonococcal infections. Of the 45 isolates, 40 (88.9%) and 4 (8.8%) were intermediately resistant and resistant to penicillin, respectively, with the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC)(50) and MIC(90) of penicillin being 0.5 mg/l and 1 mg/l, respectively. Of the 45 isolates, 13 (28.9%) and 14 (31.1%) were resistant to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin, respectively, and 3 (6.7%) showed reduced susceptibility to cefixime (although the susceptibility category was not determined). These results indicate that several isolates of N. subflava have acquired resistance or intermediate resistance to various antimicrobial agents, including penicillin, cephalosporin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. The present study may thus confirm that N. subflava may be involved in the emergence of N. gonorrhoeae strains with either intermediate or total resistance to penicillin or cephalosporin by the horizontal genetic exchange of the penA gene.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 11/2007; 13(5):302-4. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Japan, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, a sexually transmitted pathogen, has recently shown significant resistance to various antimicrobial agents. In this study, a checkerboard method was utilized to investigate the in vitro activities of cefixime (CFIX), cefteram (CFTM), or amoxicillin (AMPC) in combination with azithromycin (AZM) against 25 clinical isolates of N. gonorrhoeae. Synergy, defined as a fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of less than or equal to 0.50, was observed in 32% of isolates with CFIX+AZM, 12% of isolates with CFTM+AZM, and 4% of isolates with AMPC+AZM. Moreover, partial synergy, defined as an FIC index of greater than 0.50 and less than 1, was observed in 44% of isolates with CFIX+AZM, 68% of isolates with CFTM+AZM, and 52% of isolates with AMPC+AZM. In particular, as a result of the combination of CFIX and AZM, for all isolates, significant reductions were observed in the median CFIX minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC; from 0.25 to 0.008 microg/ml; P < 0.0001) and the median AZM MIC (from 0.12 to 0.03 microg/ml; P < 0.0001). However, antagonism, defined as an FIC index of greater than 1, was observed in only 4% of the isolates with both CFIX+AZM and CFTM+AZM, while it was seen in 12% of the isolates with AMPC+AZM. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the in vitro activity of CFIX against N. gonorrhoeae can be significantly enhanced in combination with AZM.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 08/2006; 12(4):172-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of tosufloxacin and other fluoroquinolone antimicrobials for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis, isolated, between January 2003 and July 2004, from patients suspected of having respiratory or otorhinological infections were determined. The results were compared with those for these organisms isolated in 1994, plus some H. influenzae strains isolated in 1998. Tosufloxacin was the most potent of all the antibiotics tested for antibacterial activity against S. pneumoniae (including penicillin-intermediate S. pneumoniae and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae). The MIC50 and MIC90 values did not differ from those obtained for the strains isolated in 1994. Fluoroquinolones exerted the most potent antibacterial activity against M. (B.) catarrhalis; the MICs for most of the strains were < or = 0.06 microg/ml; fluoroquinolones inhibited the growth of all the strains at 0.25 microg/ml or less. Fluoroquinolones showed the most potent antibacterial activity against H. influenzae strains isolated between 2003 and 2004, and in 1994, but, for one H. influenzae strain isolated, between 2003 and 2004, the MICs of fluoroquinolones were high. Some strains of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae were resistant to fluoroquinolones. Genetic analysis showed that all of these strains had mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region, but there were no differences according to the years of isolation. These results indicate that tosufloxacin has potent antibacterial activity against major organisms isolated from patients with respiratory or otorhinological infections; further, the results of the present study did not differ from those obtained about 10 years ago.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2006; 12(3):152-6. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with a reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.5 microg/mL) was isolated among 398 clinical isolates obtained from 2000-2001 in Fukuoka City, Japan. The N. gonorrhoeae strain was negative for penicillinase production but it showed multidrug resistance against penicillin (MIC = 8 microg/mL), tetracycline (MIC = 4 microg/mL), azithromycin (MIC = 0.5 microg/mL) and ciprofloxacin (MIC = 16 microg/mL). The molecular mechanisms of the multidrug-resistant phenotype in this strain were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction and direct DNA sequencing were performed to identify mutations within the penA, ponA, mtrR, penB, gyrA and parC genes of the gonococcal strain, which thus explain the multidrug-resistant phenotype. The N. gonorrhoeae strain contained a significantly different sequence of the penA gene from that of the ceftriaxone-susceptible strains. Some regions of the transpeptidase domain within this penA gene were closely similar to those found in other Neisseria species such as Neisseria subflava, Neisseria flavescens or Neisseria perflava/sicca. This strain also included a ponA mutation that is associated with high-level resistance to penicillin, mtrR mutations that mediate overexpression of the MtrCDE efflux pump responsible for resistance to hydrophobic agents such as azithromycin, and penB mutations that reduce porin permeability to hydrophilic agents such as tetracycline. Moreover, this strain contained gyrA and parC mutations that confer high-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. These results indicate the emergence of a N. gonorrhoeae strain with reduced susceptibility to ceftriaxone, which also showed a multidrug-resistant phenotype that can be explained by the presence of multiple loci mutations associated with antibiotic resistance.
    International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 02/2006; 27(1):20-6. · 4.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated annual changes in clarithromycin resistance and resistance genes in 579 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from patients with symptomatic respiratory tract infections who visited primary medical institutions during the 5-year period from 1998 to 2002. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clarithromycin for S. pyogenes were measured using the standard broth microdilution method according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines, and strains showing MICs of 1 microg/ml or greater were regarded as being resistant to clarithromycin, according to the resistance standard specified by the NCCLS. The rates of S. pyogenes resistance to clarithromycin were 7.3% overall, 5.8% in 1998, 4.9% in 1999, 7.7% in 2000, 6.4% in 2001, and 11.1% in 2002. While the annual rates fluctuated slightly each year, an overall tendency to increase was observed during the 5-year period. Regarding the macrolide-resistance genes in the macrolide-resistant strains, mefA/E (+)/ ermB(-) was the most common genotype detected in these strains, while the ermB (+)/ mefA/E (-) and mef A/E (-)/ ermB (-) genotypes were detected at about the same rate. The MICs of clarithromycin for the ermB (+) strains tended to be higher than those of the mefA/E (+) strains, but some mefA/E (-) / ermB (-) strains also exhibited high MICs of clarithromycin, similar to those of the ermB (+) strains. The above results indicate that the number of clarithromycin-resistant strains of S. pyogenes is gradually increasing and that the resistance is becoming stronger; thus, special attention must be paid to the appearance of macrolide-resistant strains of S. pyogenes.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 05/2005; 11(2):56-8. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolates during January 2003 to July 2004 was determined to seven various antimicrobial drugs including cefteram (CFTM). The in vitro activities of these drugs against the fresh isolates were compared. The oral cephalosporins including CFTM were potently active against penicillin susceptible S. pneumoniae. The activity of CFTM and cefditoren was the most active among four oral cephalosporins. The susceptibilities of penicillin intermediate S. pneumoniae and penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae to antimicrobial agents were decreased. The MIC of CFTM was not beyond 4 microg/mL for any isolate of S. pneumoniae. The activity of CFTM was very high to beta-lactamase-negative and ampicillin-susceptible H. influenzae isolates. These MIC against all isolates were 0.03 microg/mL or less. The MIC of CFTM was not beyond 1 microg/mL for any isolate of beta-lactamase-positive H. influenzae or beta-lactamase-negative-ampicillin resistant H. influenzae. In conclusion, CFTM exhibits a potent activity against fresh isolates of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae, and has a potential of effectiveness in the infections.
    The Japanese journal of antibiotics 01/2005; 57(6):475-80.
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    ABSTRACT: Six hundred and ninety-nine strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae were examined by the agar dilution method according to the M7-A5 guidelines established by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) determine to their beta-lactamase production and susceptibility to penicillin G, cefixime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, spectinomycin, ciprofloxacin, and azithromycin. The frequency of isolation of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae decreased gradually, from 7.3% of the test isolates (55 isolates) in 1995 to about 1% in 1998 and 1999. In contrast, while beta-lactamase-nonproducing N. gonorrhoeae exhibiting chromosomally mediated penicillin G resistance were not isolated from clinical specimens in 1995, the incidence of isolation of such resistant strains increased markedly, to 8.2% of 159 isolates, in 1997 and 14.9% of 242 isolates in 1999. The incidence of the isolation of tetracycline-resistant strains also increased between 1996 (none detected) and 1998-1999 (each 7%-8%), and a tendency towards an increase in the frequency of isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant strains was also observed between 1995 (9.8%) and from 1997 to 1999 (more than 20%). There were no isolates resistant to any two antibiotics among penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin until 1997, but, in subsequent surveys in recent years, multidrug-resistant isolates (resistant to penicillin G, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin) were detected in 1999.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 07/2003; 9(2):126-30. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Seventy-nine isolates of oral streptococci and Aerococcus obtained from blood specimens between December 1997 and January 2000 were tested for high-level gentamicin resistance. Three isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of > or =1024 microg/ml were selected as potential high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates. The DNA sequence of the structural gene encoding 6'-acetyltransferase-2"-phosphotransferase in the three high-level gentamicin-resistant isolates was investigated according to the method used for Enterococcus faecalis. The results of this gene analysis showed that all the DNA sequence of Aerococcus viridans no. 70, which had the highest MIC (2048 microg/ml), matched that of E. faecalis, whereas no polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products were obtained in the other two isolates that were tested. The mechanism of gentamicin resistance in these two isolates is unknown.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 03/2003; 9(1):21-4. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neisseria gonorrhoeae were isolated from pharyngeal specimens of male and female patients and also from urethral and cervical discharges of male and female patients, respectively, suspected of having gonococcal infections in a urologic clinic in Kawasaki City. Microbiological and epidemiological studies were performed in 127 male and 41 female patients. The specimens were streaked onto the modified Thayer-Martin Selective Agar and the plates were incubated at 35 degrees C for 48 h under an atmosphere of 10% CO2. In 127 male patients, N. gonorrhoeae were detected in 117 (92.1%) of the urethral specimens. In these patients, N. gonorrhoeae were detected in pharyngeal specimens from 14 (11.0%) patients, but the pathogen was also detected in urethral specimens from these patients without exception. In 41 female patients. N. gonorrhoeae were detected in 20 (48.8%) of the 41 cervical discharges. When the pharyngeal specimens were tested, N. gonorrhoeae were detected in 14 (34.1%) of the 41 specimens. N. gonorrhoeae was simultaneously detected only in pharyngeal and cervical specimens from 11 of the 41 female patients and the pathogen was detected only in pharyngeal specimens from other 3 patients. There were no marked differences in antimicrobial susceptibilities between N. gonorrhoeae isolates from pharyngeal specimens and those from urethral or cervical discharges in all the patients tested. The PFGE patterns of 50 gonococcal isolates (25 pairs) from 25 patients (14 males and 11 females) in whom N. gonorrhoeae were simultaneously detected from pharyngeal and urethral or cervical specimens were analyzed. In 24 of 25 patients. N. gonorrhoeae isolated from the pharyngeal and urethral or cervical specimens in the same patients showed the same PFGE patterns. However, the 25 pairs showed the different PFGE patterns. From these results it is clarified that N. gonorrhoeae are detected in the pharyngeal specimens from considerable numbers of patients with gonorrhea, and there is a possibility that the pathogens prevailing among the patients differ in genetic sources.
    Kansenshogaku zasshi. The Journal of the Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases 03/2003; 77(2):103-9.

Publication Stats

178 Citations
35.72 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2014
    • Toho University
      • Department of Infection Control and Prevention
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2013
    • Fukuoka University
      • Department of Urology
      Hukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
  • 2000–2002
    • Kyushu University
      • • Department of Urology
      • • Faculty of Medical Sciences
      Fukuoka-shi, Fukuoka-ken, Japan