George C Velmahos

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (396)1047.06 Total impact

  • New England Journal of Medicine 04/2014; 370(15):1441-51. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: MALNUTRITION AND UNDERFEEDING ARE MAJOR CHALLENGES IN CARING FOR CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS. OUR GOAL WAS TO CHARACTERIZE INTERRUPTIONS IN ENTERAL NUTRITION (EN) DELIVERY AND THEIR IMPACT ON CALORIC DEBT IN THE SURGICAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective, observational study of adults admitted to surgical ICUs at a Boston teaching hospital (March-December 2012). We categorized EN interruptions as "unavoidable" vs "avoidable" and compared caloric deficit between patients with ≥1 EN interruption (group 1) vs those without interruptions (group 2). Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate the association of EN interruption with the risk of underfeeding. Poisson regression was used to investigate the association of EN interruption with length of stay (LOS) and mortality. Ninety-four patients comprised the analytic cohort. Twenty-six percent of interruptions were deemed "avoidable." Group 1 (n = 64) had a significantly higher mean daily and cumulative caloric deficit vs group 2 (n = 30). Patients in group 1 were at a 3-fold increased risk of being underfed (adjusted odds ratio, 2.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-8.11), had a 30% higher risk of prolonged ICU LOS (adjusted incident risk ratio [IRR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14-1.42), and had a 50% higher risk of prolonged hospital LOS (adjusted IRR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.41-1.67) vs group 2. In our cohort of critically ill surgical patients, EN interruption was frequent, largely "unavoidable," and associated with undesirable outcomes. Future efforts to optimize nutrition in the surgical ICU may benefit from considering strategies that maximize nutrient delivery before and after clinically appropriate EN interruptions.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 04/2014; · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet dysfunction following trauma has been identified as an independent predictor of mortality. We hypothesized that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation would attenuate platelet dysfunction compared with 0.9% normal saline (NS). Twelve swine were subjected to multisystem trauma (traumatic brain injury, liver injury, rib fracture, and soft tissue injury) with hemorrhagic shock (40% of estimated blood volume). Animals were left in shock (mean arterial pressure, 30-35 mm Hg) for 2 hours followed by resuscitation with three times shed volume NS (n = 6) or one times volume FFP (n = 6) and monitored for 6 hours. Platelet function was assessed by adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation at baseline, after 2 hours of shock following resuscitation, and 6 hours after resuscitation. Fibrinogen levels and markers of platelet activation (transforming growth factor β [TGF-β], sP-Selectin, and CD40L) as well as endothelial injury (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1], vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1]) were also assayed. Thromboelastography was used to measure clotting activity. ADP-induced platelet aggregation was significantly higher in the FFP group (46.3 U vs. 25.5 U, p < 0.01) following resuscitation. This was associated with higher fibrinogen levels (202 mg/dL vs. 80 mg/dL, p < 0.01) but lower endothelial activation (VCAM-1, 1.25 ng/mL vs. 3.87 ng/mL, p = 0.05). Other markers did not differ.After 6 hours of observation, ADP-induced platelet aggregation remained higher in the FFP group (53.8 U vs. 37.0 U, p = 0.03) as was fibrinogen levels (229 mg/dL vs. 153 mg/dL, p < 0.01). Endothelial activation was lower (ICAM-1, 21.0 ng/mL vs. 24.4 ng/mL, p = 0.05), whereas TGF-β levels were higher (2,138 pg/mL vs. 1,802 pg/mL, p = 0.03) in the FFP group. Other markers did not differ. Thromboelastography revealed increased clot strength in the FFP group at both postresuscitation time points. Resuscitation with FFP resulted in an immediate and sustained improvement in platelet function and clot strength compared with high-volume NS resuscitation. This was associated with an increase in fibrinogen levels and an attenuation of endothelial activation.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 04/2014; 76(4):998-1007.
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    ABSTRACT: There is currently no systematic approach to evaluating the severity of intraoperative adverse events (iAEs). A 3-phase project was designed to develop and validate a novel severity classification scheme for iAEs. Phase 1 created the severity classification using a modified Delphi process. Phase 2 measured the classification's internal consistency by calculating inter-rater reliability among 91 surgeons using standardized iAEs scenarios. Phase 3 measured the classification's construct validity by testing whether major iAEs (severity class ≥3) correlated with worse 30-day postoperative outcomes compared with minor iAEs (severity class <3). This was achieved by creating a matched database using American College of Surgeons NSQIP and administrative data, querying for iAEs using the Patient Safety Indicator #15 (Accidental Puncture/Laceration), and iAE confirmation by chart review. Phase 1 resulted in a 6-point severity classification scheme. Phase 2 revealed an inter-rater reliability of 0.882. Of 9,292 patients, phase 3 included 181 confirmed with iAEs. All preoperative/intraoperative variables, including demographics, comorbidities, type of surgery performed, and operative length, were similar between patients with minor (n = 110) vs major iAEs (n = 71). In multivariable logistic analysis, severe iAEs correlated with higher risks of any postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4; p < 0.001), surgical site infections (OR = 3.7; 95% CI, 1.7-8.2; p = 0.001), systemic sepsis (OR = 6.0; 95% CI, 2.1-17.2; p = 0.001), failure to wean off the ventilator (OR = 3.2; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9; p = 0.022), and postoperative length of stay ≥7 days (OR = 3.0; 95% CI, 1.5-5.9; p = 0.002). Thirty-day mortalities were similar (4.5% vs 7.1%; p = 0.46). We propose a novel iAE severity classification system with high internal consistency and solid construct validity. Our classification scheme might prove essential for benchmarking quality of intraoperative care across hospitals and/or individual surgeons.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 02/2014; · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Of the patients with a Clostridium difficile infection, 2% to 8% will progress to fulminant C. difficile colitis (fCDC), which carries high morbidity and mortality. No system exists to rapidly identify patients at risk for developing fCDC and possibly in need of surgical intervention. Our aim was to design a simple and accurate risk scoring system (RSS) for daily clinical practice. We prospectively enrolled all patients diagnosed with a C. difficile infection and compared patients with and without fCDC. An expert panel, combined with data derived from previous studies, identified four risk factors, and a multivariable logistic regression model was performed to determine their effect in predicting fCDC. The RSS was created based on the predictive power of each factor, and calibration, discrimination, and test characteristics were subsequently determined. In addition, the RSS was compared with a previously proposed severity scoring system. A total of 746 patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection were enrolled between November 2010 and October 2012. Based on the log (odds ratio) of each risk factor, age greater than 70 years was assigned 2 points, white blood cell count equal to or greater than 20,000/μL or equal to or less than 2,000/μL was assigned 1 point, cardiorespiratory failure was assigned 7 points, and diffuse abdominal tenderness on physical examination was assigned 6 points. With the use of this system, the discriminatory value of the RSS (c statistic) was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1).The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test showed a p value of 0.78, and the Brier score was 0.019. A value of 6 points was determined to be the threshold for reliably dividing low-risk ( <6) from high-risk (≥6) patients. The RSS is a valid and reliable tool to identify at the bedside patients who are at risk for developing fCDC. External validation is needed before widespread implementation. Prognostic study, level II.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 02/2014; 76(2):424-30.
  • George C Velmahos
    Surgical Clinics of North America 02/2014; 94(1):xiii-xv. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial diarrhea, affecting up to 10% of hospitalized patients. Preliminary studies suggest an association between vitamin D status and C difficile infections (CDIs). Our goal was to investigate whether serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels are associated with CDI severity. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients diagnosed with CDI and divided them into 2 severity groups: group A (positive toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay only) and group B (positive toxin A/B enzyme immunoassay with abdominal computed tomography scan findings consistent with colitis). Serum 25(OH)D levels (25(OH)D3, 25(OH)D2, and total 25(OH)D) were measured on all patients after diagnosis of CDI. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to investigate the association between 25(OH)D levels and CDI severity, while adjusting for age, Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index, recent hospitalization, and vitamin D supplementation. Results: One hundred patients were enrolled between July 2011 and February 2013. The mean (standard deviation) cohort age and Deyo-Charlson Comorbidity Index were 62 (19) years and 4 (3), respectively; 54% of patients were male. Mean serum total 25(OH)D level was 22 (10) ng/mL. Mean 25(OH)D3 level was significantly higher in group A (n = 71) than in group B (n = 29): 21 (1) vs 15 (2) ng/mL, respectively (P = .005). There was no observed difference in mean 25(OH)D2 levels and total 25(OH)D levels between the 2 groups. Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated an association between 25(OH)D3 levels and CDI severity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-0.98). Conclusions: We found a significant inverse association between 25(OH)D3 levels and CDI severity. Further studies are needed to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can improve outcomes in patients with CDI.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 01/2014; · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Standard teaching is that patients with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray and clinical signs of abdominal pathology should undergo urgent surgery. It is unknown if abdominal computed tomography (CT) provides additional useful information in this scenario. The aim of this study is to determine whether or not CT scanning after identification of pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray changes clinical management or outcomes. Retrospective study carried out over 4 years at a tertiary care academic medical center. All patients in our acute care surgery database with pneumoperitoneum on plain X-ray were included. Patients who underwent subsequent CT scanning (CT group) were compared with patients who did not (non-CT group). The Wilcoxon rank-sum test, t-test and Fisher's exact test were used as appropriate to compare the groups. There were 25 patients in the non-CT group and 18 patients in the CT group. There were no differences between the groups at presentation. All patients in the non-CT group underwent surgery, compared with 83% (n = 15) of patients in the CT group (P = 0.066). 16 patients in the non-CT and 11 patients in the CT group presented with peritonitis and all underwent surgery regardless of group. For patients undergoing surgery, there were no differences in outcomes between the groups. After X-ray, patients undergoing CT required 328.0 min to arrive in the operating room compared with 136.0 min in the non-CT group (P = 0.007). In patients with pneumoperitoneum on X-ray and peritonitis on physical exam, CT delays surgery without providing any measurable benefit.
    Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock 01/2014; 7(1):3-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can be associated with coagulopathy and inflammation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that a combination of TBI and HS would disturb coagulation, damage the endothelium, and activate inflammatory and complement systems. A total of 33 swine were allocated to either TBI + HS (n = 27, TBI and volume-controlled 40% blood loss) or controls (n = 6, anesthesia and instrumentation). TBI + HS animals were left hypotensive (mean arterial pressure, 30-35 mm Hg) for 2 hours. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 3 minutes and 15 minutes after injury, as well as following 2 hours of hypotension. Markers of coagulation, anticoagulation, endothelial activation/glycocalyx shedding, inflammation, complement, and sympathoadrenal function were measured. The TBI + HS group demonstrated an immediate (3 minutes after injury) activation of coagulation (prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, 289 ng/mL vs. 232 ng/mL, p = 0.03) and complement (C5a, 2.83 ng/mL vs. 2.05 ng/mL, p = 0.05). Shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx (syndecan 1) was evident 15 minutes after injury (851.0 ng/ml vs. 715.5 ng/ml, p = 0.03) while inflammation (tumor necrosis factor α [TNF-α], 81.1 pg/mL vs. 50.8 pg/mL, p = 0.03) and activation of the protein C system (activated protein C, 56.7 ng/mL vs. 26.1 ng/mL, p = 0.01) were evident following the 2-hour hypotension phase. The combination of TBI and shock results in an immediate activation of coagulation and complement systems with subsequent endothelial shedding, protein C activation, and inflammation.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 01/2014; 76(1):12-20.
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    ABSTRACT: Prehospital treatment for noncompressible abdominal bleeding, particularly due to large vascular injury, represents a significant unmet medical need on the battlefield and in civilian trauma. To date, few large animal models are available to assess new therapeutic interventions and hemostatic agents for prehospital hemorrhage control. We developed a novel, lethal, closed-abdomen injury model in noncoagulopathic swine by strategic placement of a cutting wire around the external iliac artery. The wire was externalized, such that percutaneous distraction would result in vessel transection leading to severe uncontrolled abdominal hemorrhage. Resuscitation boluses were administered at 5 and 12 min. We demonstrated 86% mortality (12/14 animals) at 60 min, with a median survival time of 32 min. The injury resulted in rapid and massive hypotension and exsanguinating blood loss. The noncoagulopathic animal model incorporated clinically significant resuscitation and ventilation protocols based on best evidenced-based prehospital practices. A new injury model is presented that enables screening of prehospital interventions designed to control noncompressible arterial hemorrhage.
    Journal of Surgical Research 12/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combination of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) can result in significant morbidity and mortality. We have previously shown that early administration of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in a large animal model of TBI and HS reduces the size of the brain lesion as well as the associated edema. However, FFP is a perishable product that is not well suited for use in the austere prehospital settings. In this study, we tested whether a shelf-stable, low-volume, lyophilized plasma (LSP) product was as effective as FFP. Yorkshire swine (42-50 kg) were instrumented to measure hemodynamic parameters, intracranial pressure, and brain tissue oxygenation. A prototype, computerized, cortical impact device was used to create TBI through a 20-mm craniotomy: 15-mm cylindrical tip impactor at 4 m/s velocity, 100-millisecond dwell time, and 12-mm penetration depth. Volume-controlled hemorrhage was induced (40-45% total blood volume) concurrent with the TBI. After 2 hours of shock, animals were treated with (1) normal saline (NS, n = 5), (2) FFP (n = 5), and (3) LSP (n = 5). The volume of FFP and LSP matched the shed blood volume, whereas NS was 3 times the volume. Six hours after resuscitation, brains were sectioned and stained with TTC (2, 3, 5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride), and lesion size (mm) and swelling (percent change in volume compared with the contralateral, uninjured side) were measured. This protocol resulted in a highly reproducible brain injury, with clinically relevant changes in blood pressure, cardiac output, tissue hypoperfusion, intracranial pressure, and brain tissue oxygenation. Compared with NS, treatment with LSP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased brain lesion size and swelling (51% and 54%, respectively). In a clinically realistic combined TBI + HS model, early administration of plasma products decreases brain lesion size and edema. LSP is as effective as FFP, while offering many logistic advantages. Therapeutic study, level V.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 12/2013; 75(6):976-983.
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications.A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 12/2013; 8(1):50. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emergency repair of complicated abdominal hernias is associated with poor prognosis and a high rate of post-operative complications. A World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Consensus Conference was held in Bergamo in July 2013, during the 2nd Congress of the World Society of Emergency Surgery with the goal of defining recommendations for emergency repair of abdominal wall hernias in adults. This document represents the executive summary of the consensus conference approved by a WSES expert panel.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 12/2013; 8(50). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreaticoduodenectomy for trauma (PDT) is a rare procedure, reserved for severe pancreaticoduodenal injuries. Using the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), our aim was to compare outcomes of PDT patients to similarly injured patients who did not undergo a PDT. Patients with pancreatic or duodenal injuries treated with PDT (ICD-9-CM 52.7) were identified in the NTDB 2008-2010 Research Data Sets. We excluded those who underwent delayed PDT (>4 days). The PDT group (n = 39) was compared to patients with severe combined pancreaticoduodenal injuries (grade 4 or 5) who did not undergo PDT (non-PDT group, n = 38). Patients who died in the emergency department or did not undergo a laparotomy were excluded. Our primary outcome was death. Secondary outcomes were intensive care unit length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and total ventilator days. A multivariate model was used to determine predictors of in-hospital mortality within each group and in the overall cohort. The non-PDT group had a significantly lower systolic blood pressure and Glasgow Coma Scale values at baseline and more severe duodenal, pancreatic, and liver injuries. There were no significant differences in outcomes between the two groups. The Injury Severity Score was the only independent predictor of mortality among PDT patients [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.24] and in the entire cohort (OR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.01-1.12). The operative technique did not influence any of the outcomes. Compared to non-PDT, PDT did not result in improved outcomes despite a lower physiologic burden among PDT patients. More conservative procedures for high-grade injuries of the pancreaticoduodenal complex may be appropriate.
    World Journal of Surgery 10/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identifying patients in need of a life-saving intervention (LSI) during a mass casualty event is a priority. We hypothesized that real-time, instantaneous sample entropy (SampEn) could predict the need for LSI in the Boston Marathon bombing victims. Severely injured Boston Marathon bombing victims (n = 10) had sample entropy (SampEn) recorded upon presentation using a continuous 200-beat rolling average in real time. Treating clinicians were blinded to real-time results. The correlation between SampEn, injury severity, number, and type of LSI was examined. Victims were males (60%) with a mean age of 39.1 years. Injuries involved lower extremities (50.0%), head and neck (24.2%), or upper extremities (9.7%). Sample entropy negatively correlated with Injury Severity Score (r = -0.70; P = .023), number of injuries (r = -0.70; P = .026), and the number and need for LSI (r = -0.82; P = .004). Sample entropy was reduced under a variety of conditions. Sample entropy strongly correlates with injury severity and predicts LSI after blast injuries sustained in the Boston Marathon bombings. Sample entropy may be a useful triage tool after blast injury.
    Journal of critical care 10/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2013 Guidelines on diagnosis and management of ASBO have been revised and updated by the WSES Working Group on ASBO to develop current evidence-based algorithms and focus indications and safety of conservative treatment, timing of surgery and indications for laparoscopy.Recommendations: In absence of signs of strangulation and history of persistent vomiting or combined CT-scan signs (free fluid, mesenteric edema, small-bowel feces sign, devascularization) patients with partial ASBO can be managed safely with NOM and tube decompression should be attempted. These patients are good candidates for Water-Soluble-Contrast-Medium (WSCM) with both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. The radiologic appearance of WSCM in the colon within 24 hours from administration predicts resolution. WSCM maybe administered either orally or via NGT both immediately at admission or after failed conservative treatment for 48 hours. The use of WSCM is safe and reduces need for surgery, time to resolution and hospital stay.NOM, in absence of signs of strangulation or peritonitis, can be prolonged up to 72 hours. After 72 hours of NOM without resolution, surgery is recommended.Patients treated non-operatively have shorter hospital stay, but higher recurrence rate and shorter time to re-admission, although the risk of new surgically treated episodes of ASBO is unchanged. Risk factors for recurrences are age <40 years and matted adhesions. WSCM does not decrease recurrence rates or recurrences needing surgery.Open surgery is often used for strangulating ASBO as well as after failed conservative management. In selected patients and with appropriate skills, laparoscopic approach is advisable using open access technique. Access in left upper quadrant or left flank is the safest and only completely obstructing adhesions should be identified and lysed with cold scissors. Laparoscopic adhesiolysis should be attempted preferably if first episode of SBO and/or anticipated single band. A low threshold for open conversion should be maintained.Peritoneal adhesions should be prevented. Hyaluronic acid-carboxycellulose membrane and icodextrin decrease incidence of adhesions. Icodextrin may reduce the risk of re-obstruction. HA cannot reduce need of surgery.Adhesions quantification and scoring maybe useful for achieving standardized assessment of adhesions severity and for further research in diagnosis and treatment of ASBO.
    World Journal of Emergency Surgery 10/2013; 8(1):42. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Heart rate complexity (HRC), commonly described as a "new vital sign," has shown promise in predicting injury severity, but its use in clinical practice has been precluded by the absence of real-time data. This study was conducted to evaluate the utility of real-time, automated, instantaneous, hand-held heart rate entropy analysis in predicting the need for lifesaving interventions (LSIs). We hypothesized that real-time HRC would predict LSIs. Prospective enrollment of patients who met criteria for trauma team activation was conducted at a Level I trauma center (September 2011 to February 2012). A novel, hand-held, portable device was used to measure HRC (by sample entropy) and time-domain heart rate variability continuously in real time for 2 hours after the moment of presentation. Electric impedance cardiography was used to determine cardiac output. Patients who received an LSI were compared with patients without any intervention (non-LSI). Multivariable analysis was performed to control for differences between the groups. Of 82 patients enrolled, 21 (26%) received 67 LSIs within 24 hours of hospital arrival. Initial systolic blood pressure was similar in both groups. LSI patients had a lower Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (9.2 [5.1] vs. 14.9 [0.2], p < 0.0001). The mean (SD) HRC value on presentation was 0.8 (0.6) in the LSI group compared with 1.5 (0.6) in the non-LSI group (p < 0.0001). With the use of logistic regression, initial HRC was the only significant predictor of LSI. A cutoff value for HRC of 1.1 yields sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 86%, 74%, 94%, and 53%, respectively, with an accuracy of 77% for predicting an LSI. Decreased HRC on hospital arrival is an independent predictor of the need for LSI in trauma activation patients. Real-time HRC may be a useful adjunct to standard vital signs monitoring and predicts LSIs. Prognostic and diagnostic study, level III.
    The journal of trauma and acute care surgery. 10/2013; 75(4):607-12.
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical significance of sternal fractures (SFs) after blunt trauma is heavily debated. We aimed to test the hypothesis that isolated SF is not associated with significant morbidity or mortality. The National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) sets for 2007-2010 were retrospectively examined. Adult subjects with SF were identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnostic codes. Data collected included demographics, mechanisms of injury, clinical variables, and in-hospital mortality. The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures included hospital length of stay, intensive care unit days, and ventilator days. A total of 32,746 subjects with SF were included. Motor vehicle crash (MVC) was the most common mechanism (84%) in this group and SF was present in 3.7% of all patients admitted after MVC. The mean age was 51 y, 66% were males, and most were white (74%). Overall in-hospital mortality was 8.8% and mortality with isolated SF was 3.5%. Increasing thoracic fracture burden (rib fracture, clavicular fracture, and scapular fracture) was associated with increasing hospital length of stay, intensive care unit days, ventilator days, and mortality. On multivariate regression analysis, other significant predictors of mortality were cardiac arrest, acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary embolism, blunt cardiac injury, pulmonary contusion, increasing age, and lack of insurance. SFs occur in 3.7% of victims after MVC. With isolated SF, the mortality rate is low (3.5%); the tendency for poorer outcomes is most heavily influenced by associated injuries (pulmonary contusions, other thoracic fractures), complications (cardiac arrest, pulmonary embolism, acute respiratory distress syndrome), comorbidities (currently on or requiring dialysis, residual neurologic deficit from stroke), and lack of insurance.
    Journal of Surgical Research 09/2013; · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    The American surgeon 09/2013; 79(9):939-43. · 0.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,047.06 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Massachusetts Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Worcester, MA, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery and Surgical Critical Care
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1995–2012
    • University of Southern California
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • Marlborough Hospital
      Marlborough, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
      • Department of Surgery
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 1996–2008
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Surgery
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2005
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Oregon Health and Science University
      • Department of Surgery
      Portland, OR, United States
  • 2002
    • California State University, Sacramento
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Keck School of Medicine USC
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 1999
    • Santa Barbara Cottage Hospital
      Santa Barbara, California, United States
  • 1994–1998
    • Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa
  • 1993–1998
    • University of the Witwatersrand
      • Department of Surgery
      Johannesburg, Gauteng, South Africa