G E Hanks

Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States

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Publications (476)2332.99 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Biochemical failure (BF) after radiation therapy is defined on the basis of a rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (A1 failure) or any event that prompts the initiation of salvage androgen-deprivation therapy without PSA failure (A2). It was hypothesized that A2 failure may have a different prognosis.METHODS Data for 2799 eligible patients from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9202 and RTOG 9413 were analyzed. BF was defined according to the 1997 American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology consensus definition as A1 for PSA failure or as A2 for the start of salvage hormone therapy before 3 consecutive PSA rises.RESULTSRates of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-2.0; P < .0001) and distant metastasis (DM; HR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.3-2.0; P < .0001) were greater with A2 failure. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 88.2% and 74.6% for A1 and A2, respectively (P < .0001), and the DM rates were 15.7% and 29.0%, respectively (P < .0001). The DM rate was greater at 5 years for A2 patients with DM as the first sign of failure versus patients with other A2 failures (87.3% vs 11.7%, P < .001), and this also correlated with worse OS at 5 years: 81.1% for A2 failure without DM and 52.8% with DM (P < .001). After the removal of patients with DM, the difference between A1 and A2 BF persisted for OS (P = .002) but not for DM (P = .16)CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that patients with rising PSA levels alone have less risk than those with A2 failures; although DM was the largest contributor of adverse risk to A2 failure, it did not account for all excess risk in A2 failure. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 11/2014; · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: To examine the relationship between the expression of 7 promising apoptotic/cell proliferation proteins (Ki-67, p53, MDM2, bcl-2, bax, p16, and Cox-2) and risk of distant metastasis (DM). Experimental Design: RTOG 92-02 compared external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) to ~70 Gy+short term androgen deprivation therapy (STADT) with EBRT+long term ADT (LTADT). Immunohistochemical analysis was available for ≥4 biomarkers in 616 of 1521 assessable cases. Biomarkers were evaluated individually and jointly via multivariable modeling of DM using competing risks hazards regression, adjusting for age, PSA, Gleason score, T-stage, and treatment. Results: Modeling identified four biomarkers (Ki-67, MDM2, p16 and Cox-2) that were jointly associated with DM. The c-index was 0.77 for the full model and 0.70 for the model without the biomarkers; a relative improvement of about 10% (likelihood ratio p < 0.001). Subdivision of the patients into quartiles based on predicted DM risk identified a high risk group with 10-year DM risk of 52.5% after EBRT+STADT and 31% with EBRT+LTADT; associated 10-year prostate cancer specific mortality (PCSM) risks were 45.9% and 14.5% with STADT and LTADT. Conclusions: Four biomarkers were found to contribute significantly to a model that predicted DM and identified a subgroup of patients at a particularly high risk of both DM and PCSM when EBRT+STADT was used. LTADT resulted in significant reductions in DM and improvements in PCSM, and there was a suggestion of greater importance in this very high risk subgroup.
    Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Men with Gleason score (GS) 8-10 prostate cancer (PCa) are assumed to have a high risk of micrometastatic disease at presentation. However, local failure is also a major problem. We sought to establish the importance of more aggressive local radiotherapy (RT) to ≥80 Gy. There were 226 men treated consecutively with RT ± ADT from 1988 to 2002 for GS 8-10 PCa. Conventional, three-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated (IM) RT was used. Radiation dose was divided into three groups: (1) <75 Gy (n = 50); (2) 75-79.9 Gy (n = 60); or (3) ≥80 Gy (n = 116). The endpoints examined included biochemical failure (BF; nadir + 2 definition), distant metastasis (DM), cause-specific mortality, and overall mortality (OM). Median follow-up was 66, 71, and 58 months for Groups 1, 2, and 3. On Fine and Gray's competing risk regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced BF were RT dose ≥80 Gy (p = 0.011) and androgen deprivation therapy duration ≥24 months (p = 0.033). In a similar model of DM, only RT dose ≥80 Gy was significant (p = 0.007). On Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of reduced OM were RT dose ≥80 Gy (p = 0.035) and T category (T3/4 vs. T1, p = 0.041). Dose was not a significant determinant of cause-specific mortality. Results for RT dose were similar in a model with RT dose and ADT duration as continuous variables. The results indicate that RT dose escalation to ≥80 Gy is associated with lower risks of BF, DM, and OM in men with GS 8-10 PCa, independently of androgen deprivation therapy.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 07/2011; 82(5):1949-56. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To assess ultrahigh (UH; prostate-specific antigen [PSA] levels ≥50 ng/ml) patient outcomes by comparison to other high-risk patient outcomes and to identify outcome predictors. Prostate cancer patients (PCP) from two Phase III Radiation Therapy Oncology Group clinical trials (studies 9202 and 9413) were divided into two groups: high-risk patients with and without UH baseline PSA levels. Predictive variables included age, Gleason score, clinical T stage, Karnofsky performance score, and treatment arm. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), distant metastasis (DM), and biochemical failure (BF). Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using either the Cox or Fine and Gray's regression model with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI) and p values. There were 401 patients in the UH PSA group and 1,792 patients in the non-UH PSA PCP group of a total of 2,193 high-risk PCP. PCP with UH PSA were found to have inferior OS (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39, p = 0.02), DM (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92; p = 0.0006), and BF (HR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.29-1.73; p < 0.0001) compared to other high-risk PCP. In the UH cohort, PSA level was found to be a significant factor for the risk of DM (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.001-1.02) but not OS and BF. Gleason grades of 8 to 10 were found to consistently predict for poor OS, DM, and BF outcomes (with HR estimates ranging from 1.41-2.36) in both the high-risk cohort and the UH cohort multivariable analyses. UH PSA levels at diagnosis are related to detrimental changes in OS, DM, and BF. All three outcomes can be modeled by various combinations of all predictive variables tested.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 06/2011; 80(2):445-52. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The impact of age on prostate cancer (PCa) outcome has been controversial; therefore, we analyzed the effect of age on overall survival (OS), distant metastasis, prostate cancer-specific death (PCSD), and nonprostate cancer death (NPCD) on patients with locally advanced PCa. Patients who participated in four Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) phase III trials, 8531, 8610, 9202, and 9413, were studied. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for OS analysis, and cumulative events analysis with Fine and Gray's regression was used for analyses of metastasis, PCSD, and NPCD. Median follow-up of 4,128 patients with median age of 70 (range, 43-88 years) was 7.3 years. Most patients had high-risk disease: cT3 to cT4 (54%) and Gleason scores (GS) of 7 (45%) and 8 to 10 (27%). Older age (≤70 vs. >70 years) predicted for decreased OS (10-year rate, 55% vs. 41%, respectively; p<0.0001) and increased NPCD (10-year rate, 28% vs. 46%, respectively; p<0.0001) but decreased metastasis (10-year rate, 27% vs. 20%, respectively; p<0.0001) and PCSD (10-year rate, 18% vs. 14%, respectively; p<0.0001). To account for competing risks, outcomes were analyzed in 2-year intervals, and age-dependent differences in metastasis and PCSD persisted, even in the earliest time periods. When adjusted for other covariates, an age of >70 years remained associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-1.70] p<0.0001) but with decreased metastasis (HR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.63-0.83] p<0.0001) and PCSD (HR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.66-0.92] p<0.0001). Finally, the impact of the duration of androgen deprivation therapy as a function of age was evaluated. These data support less aggressive PCa in older men, independent of other clinical features. While the biological underpinning of this finding remains unknown, stratification by age in future trials appears to be warranted.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 03/2011; 81(5):1293-301. · 4.59 Impact Factor
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 81(2).
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    ABSTRACT: It is believed that men diagnosed with prostate cancer and a low baseline serum testosterone (BST) may have more aggressive disease, and it is frequently recommended they forego testosterone replacement therapy. We used two large Phase III trials involving androgen deprivation therapy and external beam radiation therapy to assess the significance of a BST. All patients with a BST and complete data (n = 2,478) were included in this analysis and divided into four categories: "Very Low BST" (VLBST) ≤16.5th percentile of BST (≤248 ng/dL; n = 408); "Low BST" (LBST) >16.5th percentile and ≤33rd percentile (>248 ng/dL but ≤314 ng/dL; n = 415); "Average BST" (ABST) >33rd percentile and ≤67th percentile (314-437 ng/dL; n = 845); and "High BST" (HBST) >67th percentile (>437 ng/dL; n = 810). Outcomes included overall survival, distant metastasis, biochemical failure, and cause-specific survival. All outcomes were adjusted for the following covariates: treatment arm, BST, age (<70 vs. ≥70), prostate-specific antigen (PSA; <10 vs. 10 ≤ PSA <20 vs. 20 ≤), Gleason score (2-6 vs. 7 vs. 8-10); T stage (T1-T2 vs. T3-T4), and Karnofsky Performance Status (60-90 vs. 100). On multivariable analysis age, Gleason score, and PSA were independently associated with an increased risk of biochemical failure, distant metastasis and a reduced cause-specific and overall survival (p < 0.05), but BST was not. BST does not affect outcomes in men treated with external beam radiation therapy and androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer.
    International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 04/2010; 78(5):1314-22. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE MDM2 regulates p53, which controls cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Both proteins, along with Ki-67, which is an established strong determinant of metastasis, have shown promise in predicting the outcome of men treated with radiation therapy (RT) with or without short-term androgen deprivation (STAD). This report compares the utility of abnormal expression of these biomarkers in estimating progression in a cohort of men treated on RTOG 92-02. PATIENTS AND METHODS Adequate tissue for immunohistochemistry was available for p53, Ki-67, and MDM2 analyses in 478 patient cases. The percentage of tumor nuclei staining positive (PSP) was quantified manually or by image analysis, and the per-sample mean intensity score (MIS) was quantified by image analysis. Cox regression models were used to estimate overall mortality (OM), and Fine and Gray's regressions were applied to the end points of distant metastasis (DM) and cause-specific mortality (CSM). Results In multivariate analyses that adjusted for all markers and treatment covariates, MDM2 overexpression was significantly related to DM (P = .02) and OM (P = .003), and Ki-67 overexpression was significantly related to DM (P < .0001), CSM (P = .0007), and OM (P = .01). P53 overexpression was significantly related to OM (P = .02). When considered in combination, the overexpression of both Ki-67 and MDM2 at high levels was associated with significantly increased failure rates for all end points (P < .001 for DM, CSM, and OM). CONCLUSION Combined MDM2 and Ki-67 expression levels were independently related to distant metastasis and mortality and, if validated, could be considered for risk stratification of patients with prostate cancer in clinical trials.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2009; 27(19):3177-84. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The identification of surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival may shorten the length of clinical trials for prostate cancer. We evaluated distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure as potential surrogates for prostate cancer-specific survival by use of data from the Radiation Therapy and Oncology Group 92-02 randomized trial. Patients (n = 1554 randomly assigned and 1521 evaluable for this analysis) with locally advanced prostate cancer had been treated with 4 months of neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy with external beam radiation therapy and then randomly assigned to no additional therapy (control arm) or 24 additional months of androgen deprivation therapy (experimental arm). Data from landmark analyses at 3 and 5 years for general clinical treatment failure (defined as documented local disease progression, regional or distant metastasis, initiation of androgen deprivation therapy, or a prostate-specific antigen level of 25 ng/mL or higher after radiation therapy) and/or distant metastasis were tested as surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years by use of Prentice's four criteria. All statistical tests were two-sided. At 3 years, 1364 patients were alive and contributed data for analysis. Both distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure at 3 years were consistent with all four of Prentice's criteria for being surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years. At 5 years, 1178 patients were alive and contributed data for analysis. Although prostate cancer-specific survival was not statistically significantly different between treatment arms at 5 years (P = .08), both endpoints were consistent with Prentice's remaining criteria. Distant metastasis and general clinical treatment failure at 3 years may be candidate surrogate endpoints for prostate cancer-specific survival at 10 years. These endpoints, however, must be validated in other datasets.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 03/2009; 101(4):228-36. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in men with prostate cancer, but little is known about potential impact on cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the relationship between GnRH agonists and cardiovascular mortality in a large randomized phase III trial of men treated with or without adjuvant goserelin after radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Between 1987 and 1992, 945 men with locally advanced prostate cancer were randomly assigned to RT and adjuvant goserelin or RT alone. Fine and Gray's regression was used to evaluate treatment effect on cardiovascular mortality. Covariates included age, prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), body mass index, race, Gleason score, stage, acid phosphatase level, prostatectomy history, and nodal involvement. After a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 117 cardiovascular-related deaths but no treatment-related increase in cardiovascular mortality. At 9 years, cardiovascular mortality for men receiving adjuvant goserelin was 8.4% v 11.4% for men treated without adjuvant goserelin (Gray's P = .17). In multiple regression analyses, treatment arm was not significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.47 to 1.15; P = .16; when censoring at time of salvage goserelin therapy, HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.69; P = .97). Traditional cardiac risk factors, including prevalent CVD and DM, were significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. GnRH agonists do not seem to increase cardiovascular mortality in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to evaluate adverse effects of GnRH agonists in men with lower cancer-specific mortality.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2009; 27(1):92-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are associated with greater risk of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction in men with prostate cancer, but little is known about their potential effects on cardiovascular mortality. We assessed the relationship between duration of GnRHa therapy and cardiovascular mortality in a large randomized trial of men treated with short-term versus longer-term adjuvant goserelin and radiation therapy (RT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. From 1992 to 1995, 1554 men with locally advanced prostate cancer (T2c-4, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] <150 ng/ml) received RT and 4 mo of goserelin and then were randomized to no additional therapy (arm 1) or 24 mo adjuvant goserelin (arm 2) in a phase 3 trial (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 92-02). Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between treatment arm and cardiovascular mortality. Covariates included age, prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes (DM), race, PSA, Gleason score, and stage. After median follow-up of 8.1 yr, 185 cardiovascular-related deaths had occurred. No increase in cardiovascular mortality occurred for men receiving a longer duration of goserelin. At 5 yr, cardiovascular mortality for men receiving longer-term adjuvant goserelin was 5.9% versus 4.8% with short-term goserelin (Gray's p=0.16). In multivariate analyses, treatment arm was not significantly associated with increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.47; p=0.58; when censoring at time of salvage goserelin, HR=1.02, 95%CI, 0.73-1.43; p=0.9). Traditional cardiac risk factors, including age, prevalent CVD, and DM, were significantly associated with greater cardiovascular mortality. Longer duration of adjuvant GnRHa therapy does not appear to increase cardiovascular mortality in men with locally advanced prostate cancer.
    European Urology 10/2008; 54(4):816-23. · 10.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes is associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. Most men with diabetes are obese, and obesity is associated with greater prostate cancer mortality. Whether diabetes influences outcomes after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We assessed the relationship between prevalent diabetes and mortality using data from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Protocol 92-02, a large randomized trial of men (N = 1,554) treated with radiation therapy and short-term versus long-term adjuvant goserelin for locally advanced prostate cancer. Regression and proportional hazard models were performed to evaluate relationships between prevalent diabetes and all-cause mortality, prostate cancer mortality, and non-prostate cancer mortality. Covariates included age, race, tumor stage, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, weight, and treatment arm. There were a total of 765 deaths; 210 (27%) were attributed to prostate cancer. In univariate analyses, prevalent diabetes was associated with greater all-cause mortality and non-prostate cancer mortality but not prostate cancer mortality. After controlling for other covariates, prevalent diabetes remained significantly associated with greater all-cause mortality and non-prostate cancer mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.12; 95% CI, 1.69 to 2.66; P < .0001) but not prostate cancer mortality (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.25; P = .34). In contrast, weight was associated with greater prostate cancer mortality (HR = 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.55; P = .002) but not all-cause or non-prostate cancer mortality. Weight but not prevalent diabetes is associated with greater prostate cancer mortality in men receiving combined modality treatment for locally advanced disease. These observations suggest that the association between obesity and greater prostate cancer mortality is mediated by mechanism(s) other than the characteristic metabolic alterations of diabetes.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 09/2008; 26(26):4333-9. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 08/2008; 71(4):1288-9. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether adding 2 years of androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) improved outcome for patients electively treated with ADT before and during radiation therapy (RT). Prostate cancer patients with T2c-T4 prostate cancer with no extra pelvic lymph node involvement and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) less than 150 ng/mL were included. All patients received 4 months of goserelin and flutamide before and during RT. They were randomized to no further ADT (short-term ADT [STAD] + RT) or 24 months of goserelin (long-term ADT [LTAD] + RT). A total of 1,554 patients were entered. RT was 45 Gy to the pelvic nodes and 65 to 70 Gy to the prostate. Median follow-up of all survival patients is 11.31 and 11.27 years for the two arms. At 10 years, the LTAD + RT group showed significant improvement over the STAD + RT group for all end points except overall survival: disease-free survival (13.2% v 22.5%; P < .0001), disease-specific survival (83.9% v 88.7%; P = .0042), local progression (22.2% v 12.3%; P < .0001), distant metastasis (22.8% v 14.8%; P < .0001), biochemical failure (68.1% v 51.9%; P <or= .0001), and overall survival (51.6% v 53.9%, P = .36). One subgroup analyzed consisted of all cancers with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 cancers. An overall survival difference was observed (31.9% v 45.1%; P = .0061), as well as in all other end points herein. LTAD as delivered in this study for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer is superior to STAD for all end points except survival. A survival advantage for LTAD + RT in the treatment of locally advanced tumors with a Gleason score of 8 to 10 suggests that this should be the standard of treatment for these high-risk patients.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2008; 26(15):2497-504. · 18.04 Impact Factor
  • International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 02/2008; 70(2):645–646. · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) morbidity from external beam irradiation used to treat adenocarcinoma of the prostate continue to be a concern of physicians and patients alike. In addition, for locally advanced/high-risk cancer, the appropriate use of hormonal manipulation in addition to radiation therapy (RT) may increase toxicity. We analyzed three large Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) studies (85-31, 86-10, and 92-02) to try to address these issues. A total of 2,922 patients were accrued with a median follow-up of 10.3 years for surviving patients. The RTOG scoring scheme was used to assess GI, GU, and other toxicities. Toxicity reported was Grade 3 or higher late toxicity. Patient toxicity level was assessed by study and by treatment type combining RT only vs. RT + short-course hormone therapy (STH) vs. RT + long-term hormone therapy (LTH). Multivariate analysis reveals that age >70 was statistically significantly associated with a decrease in late any Grade 3+ toxicity (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.78, p = 0.0476) adjusted for treatment type. Comparing treatment type, patients treated with RT+STH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GI, GU, and other toxicity compared with RT alone (p = .00006; p = 0.0037; p = 0.0127, respectively). Patients treated with RT+LTH had a statistically significant lower probability of Grade 3+ GU toxicity compared with RT alone (p = 0.023). These data show that external beam radiation therapy remains a safe option for locally advanced/high-risk prostate cancer, and the use of hormonal manipulation does appear to be protective for GU and GI toxicity depending upon length of treatment.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 02/2008; 70(2):437-41. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Greater body mass index (BMI) is associated with shorter time to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure following radical prostatectomy and radiation therapy (RT). Whether BMI is associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) was investigated in a large randomized trial of men treated with RT and androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for locally advanced prostate cancer. Between 1987 and 1992, 945 eligible men with locally advanced prostate cancer were enrolled in a phase 3 trial (RTOG 85-31) and randomized to RT and immediate goserelin or RT alone followed by goserelin at recurrence. Height and weight data were available at baseline for 788 (83%) subjects. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relations between BMI and all-cause mortality, PCSM, and nonprostate cancer mortality. Covariates included age, race, treatment arm, history of prostatectomy, nodal involvement, Gleason score, clinical stage, and BMI. The 5-year PCSM rate for men with BMI <25 kg/m(2) was 6.5%, compared with 13.1% and 12.2% in men with BMI > or =25 to <30 and BMI > or =30, respectively (Gray's P = .005). In multivariate analyses, greater BMI was significantly associated with higher PCSM (for BMI > or =25 to <30, hazard ratio [HR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-2.27, P = .04; for BMI > or =30, HR 1.64, 95% CI, 1.01-2.66, P = .04). BMI was not associated with nonprostate cancer or all-cause mortality. Greater baseline BMI is independently associated with higher PCSM in men with locally advanced prostate cancer. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the mechanism(s) for increased cancer-specific mortality and to assess whether weight loss after prostate cancer diagnosis alters disease course.
    Cancer 12/2007; 110(12):2691-9. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to verify the significance of p53 as a prognostic factor in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9202, which compared short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) with radiation therapy (RT) to long-term androgen deprivation + RT in men with locally advanced prostate cancer (Pca). Tumor tissue was sufficient for p53 analysis in 777 cases. p53 status was determined by immunohistochemistry. Abnormal p53 expression was defined as 20% or more tumor cells with positive nuclei. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationships of p53 status to patient outcomes. Abnormal p53 was detected in 168 of 777 (21.6%) cases, and was significantly associated with cause-specific mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 - 3.14; p = 0.014) and distant metastasis (adjusted HR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.13-2.62; p = 0.013). When patients were divided into subgroups according to assigned treatment, only the subgroup of patients who underwent STAD + RT showed significant correlation between p53 status and cause-specific mortality (adjusted HR = 2.43; 95% CI = 1.32-4.49; p = 0.0044). When patients were divided into subgroups according to p53 status, only the subgroup of patients with abnormal p53 showed significant association between assigned treatment and cause-specific mortality (adjusted HR = 3.81; 95% CI 1.40-10.37; p = 0.0087). Abnormal p53 is a significant prognostic factor for patients with prostate cancer who undergo short-term androgen deprivation and radiotherapy. Long-term androgen deprivation may significantly improve the cause-specific survival for those with abnormal p53.
    International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 12/2007; 69(4):1117-23. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines for screening men at high risk for prostate cancer remain under investigation. We report our 10-year cancer detection data from the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program, a longitudinal screening program for men at high risk. Men between ages 35 and 69 years with a family history of prostate cancer, any black man regardless of family history or any patient with a known mutation in the BRCA 1 gene are eligible for the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program and undergo longitudinal followup. Cancer detection, prostate cancer features and the predictive value of screening parameters were determined based on Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program biopsy criteria. A total of 609 men were accrued to the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program as of the end of June 2006, of whom 61.2% were black. Of all participants 19% underwent prostate biopsies. The prostate cancer incidence was 9.0%, more than 90% of prostate cancers were Gleason score 6 or higher and 22% were Gleason score 7 or higher. The majority were organ confined. Of men diagnosed with prostate cancer 20% had a prostate specific antigen of less than 2.5 ng/ml and a free prostate specific antigen of less than 25% with a normal digital rectal examination. Our results support aggressive screening measures for men at high risk for prostate cancer. The majority of cancers detected were at a prostate specific antigen of less than 4.0 ng/ml with a fifth diagnosed at a prostate specific antigen of below 2.5 ng/ml. These cancers were intermediate to high grade and organ confined, indicating a greater likelihood of cure following local therapy in these men.
    The Journal of Urology 12/2007; 178(5):1920-4; discussion 1924. · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: COX-2 is overexpressed in some cancers, including prostate cancer; however, little is known about the effect of COX-2 overexpression on outcome in radiation-treated patients with prostate cancer. We aimed to study COX-2 overexpression and outcome in a well-defined cohort of men who received treatment with short-term androgen deprivation (STAD) plus radiotherapy or long-term androgen deprivation (LTAD) plus radiotherapy. Men with prostate cancer who had participated in the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 92-02 trial and for whom sufficient diagnostic tissue was available for immunohistochemical staining and image analysis of COX-2 expression were enrolled in this study. Patients in the 92-02 trial had been randomly assigned to treatment with STAD plus radiotherapy or LTAD plus radiotherapy. Multivariate analyses by Cox proportional hazards models were done to assess whether associations existed between COX-2 staining intensity and the RTOG 92-02 primary endpoints of biochemical failure (assessed by the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] and Phoenix criteria), local failure, distant metastasis, cause-specific mortality, overall mortality, and any failure. 586 patients with sufficient diagnostic tissue for immunohistochemical staining and image analysis of COX-2 expression were included in this study. In the multivariate analyses, the intensity of COX-2 staining as a continuous covariate was an independent predictor of distant metastasis (hazard ratio [HR] 1.181 [95% CI 1.077-1.295], p=0.0004); biochemical failure by two definitions (ASTRO HR 1.073 [1.018-1.131], p=0.008; Phoenix HR 1.073 [1.014-1.134], p=0.014); and any failure (HR 1.068 [1.015-1.124], p=0.011). The higher the expression of COX-2, the greater the chance of failure. As a dichotomous covariate, COX-2 overexpression seemed to be most discriminating of outcome for those who received STAD compared with those who received LTAD. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish an association of COX-2 expression with outcome in patients with prostate cancer who have had radiotherapy. Increasing COX-2 expression was significantly associated with biochemical failure, distant metastasis, and any failure. COX-2 inhibitors might improve patient response to radiotherapy in those treated with or without androgen deprivation. Our findings suggest that LTAD might overcome the effects of COX-2 overexpression. Therefore, COX-2 expression might be useful in selecting patients who need LTAD.
    The Lancet Oncology 11/2007; 8(10):912-20. · 25.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

12k Citations
2,332.99 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1988–2014
    • Fox Chase Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2011
    • Cooper University Hospital
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Camden, New Jersey, United States
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Ann Arbor, MI, United States
    • The University of Western Ontario
      • Department of Oncology
      London, Ontario, Canada
  • 2007–2010
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center
      • • Department of Radiation Oncology
      San Francisco, CA, United States
    • Wayne State University
      • Department of Pathology
      Detroit, MI, United States
  • 1997–2008
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Boston, MA, United States
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1991–2006
    • Thomas Jefferson University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico
      San Juan, San Juan, Puerto Rico
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Chapel Hill, NC, United States
  • 1996–2004
    • Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2002
    • Columbia University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2001
    • Medical College of Wisconsin
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • Karmanos Cancer Institute
      Detroit, Michigan, United States
  • 1988–2001
    • American College of Radiology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2000
    • Temple University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
    • University of Alabama at Birmingham
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Birmingham, AL, United States
  • 1997–2000
    • Community Medical Center
      Missoula, Montana, United States
  • 1995–2000
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • • Division of Radiation Oncology
      • • Department of Radiotherapy
      Houston, TX, United States
    • Saint Vincent Hospital
      Worcester, Massachusetts, United States
    • Duke University
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 1999
    • Stanford University
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Stanford, CA, United States
  • 1988–1995
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 1988–1993
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 1992
    • Philadelphia University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center
      Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States
    • Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
    • The Hillingdon Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      अक्सब्रिज, England, United Kingdom
    • Loyola University Medical Center
      • Department of Radiotherapy
      Maywood, Illinois, United States
  • 1983–1992
    • Sutter Medical Center
      Sacramento, California, United States
  • 1989–1990
    • State University of New York Downstate Medical Center
      • Department of Radiation Oncology
      Brooklyn, NY, United States
  • 1981–1984
    • Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States