[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serum PSA (sPSA) test has low specificity for prostate cancer (PCa), since sPSA also rises in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Serum PSP94 (sPSP94), a major secreted prostate protein, is indicated as a PCa marker. The potential of sPSP94 and sPSA in conjunction with each other to improve specificity of diagnostic test for PCa needs to be evaluated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carcinoma penis is one of the common malignancies in developing world especially among rural population. Multimodality treatment with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy for advanced penile carcinoma with groin nodal metastasis is crucial to optimise the outcome. Cisplatin, fluorouracil, methotrexate, vinorelbine, bleomycin and paclitaxel are the common chemotherapeutic agents used along with local therapy. Paucity of data to show superiority of one chemotherapeutic regime over another and only modest response to any combination chemotherapy. Progression of disease after surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is associated with poor outcome and quality of life. Nimotuzumab, Anti EGFR monoclonal antibody, along with paclitaxel in our case of resistant metastatic penile carcinoma has shown good symptomatic palliation and clinical response.
Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology 01/2013; 34(1):24-7.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel and platinum doublet chemotherapy in penile cancer patients with high-risk features of local failure.
Retrospective analysis was done of patients with 19 carcinoma of the penis who were offered adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel and platinum combination. The data regarding the surgical details, high-risk features for which chemotherapy was offered, chemotherapy toxicity details (in accordance with CTCAE vs 3), failure pattern, and survival data were noted. SPSS version 16 was used for statistical analysis. Descriptive and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed.
Median age of patients was 48 years. Fifteen patients received paclitaxel in combination with cisplatin and four received paclitaxel with carboplatin in view of their low serum creatinine clearance. The treatment was completed by 12 patients (63.2%). Of 79 planned cycles, 50 were taken. The treatment was well tolerated with grade 3-4 gastrointestinal toxicity was seen in 1 patient, grade 3 neurological toxicity in one and grade 5 neutropenia in one patient. Treatment related death occured in one patient. The median follow-up was 15.33 months and 6 loco-regional relapsed had taken place. The estimated median DFS was 16.2 months and the estimated median OS was not reached. The estimated DFS for treatment completed patients was 23.13 months as against 2.16 months for patients not completing treatment.
The platinum and taxane doublet chemotherapy was found to be safe and effective.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study describes the clinicopathologic analysis of 34 cases of Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor occurring in the kidney. The patients were 21 males and 13 females with an age range of 6 to 44 years. Clinically, patients presented with multiple symptoms including hematuria, pain, and/or lump in the abdomen. Nephrectomy was performed in most of the cases. Grossly, whole of the renal parenchyma was involved by a variegated tumor. Histologically, the tumor was composed of monomorphic, small, and round cells arranged in a variety of patterns. Rosettes, geographical areas of necrosis, and arborizing vascular pattern were the prominent histologic features. The nucleus was monomorphic and round. Anisonucleosis was also noted in some cases. The nucleus was mostly hyperchromatic. A mixture of hyperchromatic and powdery chromatin was noted in few cases. Immunohistochemically, MIC2 (CD99) was positive in 32 of 34 cases followed by neuron-specific enolase (9/12 cases), vimentin (8/14 cases), synaptophysin (1/8 cases), and S-100 protein (1/4 cases). Molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction that was carried out in 26 cases revealed presence of EWS-FLI-1 type 1 translocation in 12 cases, EWS-FLI-1 type 2 translocation in 10 cases, and both type 1 and type 2 EWS-FLI-1 translocation in 2 cases. Two cases did not demonstrate any translocation. Follow-up data were available for 17 of 34 cases. Local recurrence of the tumor was seen in 4 patients, and 10 patients were recorded to have distant metastasis in various organs, such as lung, bone, and lymph node, during the course of the disease.
Annals of diagnostic pathology 04/2012; 16(4):267-74.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine carcinomas of the cervix are uncommon, characterized by a histomorphological spectrum and, mostly, an aggressive clinical course. There are only few substantial studies on such cases documented from our country, where cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women. Herein, we present a spectrum of 50 cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas, including histopathologic features, terminology, immunohistochemical (IHC) profile, and clinical outcomes, wherever available. Fifty tumors occurred in women, with their age ranging from 23 to 69 years (mean, 48.6 years; median, 46.5 years). Stagewise, among 25 cases, most cases (6, or 24%) presented with stage IB. Average tumor size was 4.7 cm. On histopathologic review, 26 tumors (52%) were classified as small cell carcinoma (SMCA); 14 (28%), as large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs); 4 (8%), as SMCA+LCNECs; and 6, as mixed carcinomas, including 3 tumors (6%) with SMCA and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 2 tumors (4%) with LCNEC and adenocarcinoma, and a single tumor (2%) with LCNEC and squamous cell carcinoma. On IHC performed in 41 tumors (82%), 36 tumors (87.8%) were positive for at least a single neuroendocrine marker, and 22 (53.6%) expressed 2 neuroendocrine markers. Synaptophysin was positive in 22 (59.4%) of 37 tumors; chromogranin, in 27 (72.9%) of 37; CD56, in 8 (100%) of 8; and neuron-specific enolase in 7 (87.5%) of 8 tumors. Treatment wise, among 30 patients (60%), 6 (20%) underwent surgery, including Wertheim hysterectomy (5) and simple hysterectomy (1); 8 (26.6%) underwent surgery with adjuvant treatment, and 10 patients (33.3%) were offered chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. On follow-up (27 patients, or 54%) over 1 to 144 months, 16 patients (59.2%) were alive with disease over median duration of 9 months, and 7 (25.9%) were free of disease over median duration of 26.5 months. There were 5 recorded deaths. Thirteen tumors (48.1%) metastasized, most commonly to liver. In cases with early stage disease and adjuvant treatment, including radiotherapy, LCNEC histology fared well. This study forms the largest documented series on cervical neuroendocrine carcinomas from our country, testifying the current histopathologic classification system. Although SMCAs can be recognized on morphology, LCNECs need to be correctly identified because these can be misdiagnosed in the absence of neuroendocrine markers. Synaptophysin, chromogranin, and CD56 are optimal IHC markers. Small cell carcinomas, pure or mixed, are relatively more aggressive. All these tumors are best treated with multimodal therapy. Early stage disease treated with radical surgery and adjuvant treatment seems to increase survival. Despite aggressive treatment, prognosis is dismal.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With an aim to analyze and document the outcome of Stage I Seminoma patients we undertook a retrospective analysis of patients treated between January 1990 and December 1998. The treatment charts of patients treated between January 1990 and December 1998 were reviewed. Patient and tumor characteristics, treatment details, relapse rates, late toxicities, or occurrence of second primary was noted. Royal Marsden Staging System was utilized because of its simplicity and wide-use in the above period. Out of 137 patients, 41 (30%) patients did not receive any further treatment, 96 (70%) patients received prophylactic radiotherapy to para-aortic and pelvic nodes. The observation group patients had a median follow-up 20 months, 9 patients had nodal relapse with 7 in retroperitoneal nodes and 2 patients in inguinal nodes. Of these, 7 patients received BEP chemotherapy and 2 patients Chemoradiation. Four patients had complete remission while remaining 5 patients had partial response. The histopathologies of all the 5 patients with partial response were reviewed to reconfirm the diagnosis. Patients of prophylactic radiotherapy group had a follow-up of 33 months, 6 patients relapsed, RP nodal disease in 5 patients and distant metastasis in 1 patient. All these patients received BEP chemotherapy. One had complete response and remaining 5 patients had partial response. The group of patients under observation had a significantly higher relapse rate and lower disease free compared to the adjuvant radiotherapy group (73.5% vs. 91% at five years, p value 0.004). Disease specific survivals for the two groups were however similar (89% vs. 93%) at five years, p value 0.18). We conclude that Stage I Seminoma patients treated with prophylactic radiation to paraaortic and pelvic region had better outcome. Key words: Seminoma, Observation, Adjuvant Radiotherapy.
gulf journal of oncology, The 01/2012; 1(11):20-4.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the potential of tomotherapy based Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) to increase the accuracy of bladder irradiation using a 'plan of the day' adaptive radiotherapy (ART) technique.
Ten patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer underwent bladder preservation with trimodality therapy in an ongoing trial. All patients received 64 Gy/32# to the whole bladder and seven of them received a boost of 68 Gy/32# to the tumour bed. The ART technique entailed the generation of six IMRT plans for each patient, using six isotropic PTVs of 5-30 mm applied to the bladder volume (CTV) to generate the PTVs. Megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging was done to correct positioning errors and choose the 'plan of the day'.
Post treatment MVCT scans (315 scans) were used to generate multiple anisotropic PTVs for three hypothetical scenarios. Overall, coverage of anterior and superior walls required larger margins than other walls. Maximum geographical miss, in spite of IGRT, was noted for the superior (13.8%) and anterior walls (10.3%).
Plan of the day ART is a feasible and promising technique for optimal treatment and dose escalation in bladder cancer.
Radiotherapy and Oncology 03/2011; 99(1):55-60. · 4.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the histological features in uterine STUMP, and atypical leiomyomas (AL), and to correlate with clinical outcome.
From January 2004 to August 2010, a total of 21 cases were retrieved from records, labeled as STUMP(7), AL (5), AL with low risk of recurrence (2), smooth muscle tumor of low malignant potential (STLMP) (2), and symplastic leiomyoma (5). The slides were reviewed for coagulative tumor cell necrosis (CTCN), hyaline necrosis/ infarction type necrosis, presence and degree of cytological atypia, mitotic activity, epithelioid morphology and myxoid features. The other characteristics (such as size, circumscription, individual tumor cell necrosis), were noted, wherever available.
The mean age was 45 years (median 46; range 24-67 yrs). CTCN was seen in 2 cases on examination of additional material; wherein a revised diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma had been given. Infarction type necrosis and individual cell necrosis was seen in 2 and 3 cases, respectively. Mitoses were less than 5/10 hpf in all the cases. One of the tumours labeled as STUMP also had concurrent endometrial adenocarcinoma. Follow up: Follow-up was available in 11 cases (52.3%). One patient had died. (cause not known). In 10 patients, the follow-up ranged from 4 to 56 months (mean 20.9 months; median 15 months) nine patients were alive and well. One patient (labeled STLMP) had metastatic liver disease 3 yrs after the primary surgery, at the last follow-up.
1) There is an overlap in using the terminologies as STUMP, AL, AL with low risk of recurrence, AL with low malignant potential. A designation of STUMP does convey a category of borderline malignancy to the gynecological surgeons. Most behave in a benign fashion and follow-up without adjuvant therapy is currently recommended. Critical evaluation of coagulative tumor necrosis is essential. Follow-up remains a challenge in our setting.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 01/2011; 54(4):706-11. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transcription factor octamer-binding transforming factor 4 (Oct-4) is central to the gene regulatory network responsible for self-renewal, pluripotency, and lineage commitment in embryonic stem (ES) cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (PSCs). This study was undertaken to evaluate differential localization and expression of two major transcripts of Oct-4, viz. Oct-4A and Oct-4B, in adult human testis. A novel population of 5- to 10-μm PSCs with nuclear Oct-4A was identified by ISH and immunolocalization studies. Besides Oct-4, other pluripotent markers like Nanog and TERT were also detected by RT-PCR. A(dark) spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) were visualized in pairs and chains undergoing clonal expansion and stained positive for cytoplasmic Oct-4B. Quantitative PCR and Western blotting revealed both the transcripts, with higher expression of Oct-4B. It is proposed that PSCs undergo asymmetric cell division and give rise to A(dark) SSCs, which proliferate and initiate lineage-specific differentiation. The darkly stained nuclei in A(dark) SSCs may represent extensive nuclear reprogramming by epigenetic changes when a PSC becomes committed. Oct-4B eventually disappeared in mature germ cells, viz. spermatocytes, spermatids, and sperm. Besides maintaining normal testicular homeostasis, PSCs may also be implicated in germ cell tumors and ES-like colonies that have recently been derived from adult human testicular tissue.
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry 12/2010; 58(12):1093-106. · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple paper smear (PS) method for dry collection and storage of cervical specimens was employed to develop an easy multiplex (MPX) PCR for simultaneous detection of generic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) as well as typing of the high-risk HPV-16 and -18, the two clinically most important HPV genotypes, which are responsible for more than 80 % of cervical cancers. Multiplexing was performed with a small amount of DNA eluted by boiling from a single PS punch in a single tube and using a mixture of four pairs of primers specific for the HPV L1 consensus sequence, HPV-16, HPV-18 and the β-globin gene. Sixty HPV-positive biopsies and corresponding PS specimens from cervical cancer patients as well as cervical smears from 100 healthy women with or without abnormal cytology were collected both as PSs and in PBS. Detection of HPV DNA from cervical biopsies collected in PBS and corresponding cervical scrapes on a PS or in PBS by conventional and MPX-PCR showed a concordance of 100 % and adequacy of 93 %. A similar comparative study in cervical scrapes from normal women also revealed 100 % concordance. The technique was validated in a multicentric study at four different national laboratories. PSs collected by different centres showed variable adequacy (73-82 %) but the use of multiple PS discs for DNA extraction significantly increased the adequacy. Integration of PSs with MPX-PCR for the detection and typing of HPVs is a highly convenient, efficient, simple and cost-effective method for large-scale clinico-epidemiological studies and is also suitable for HPV vaccine monitoring programmes in resource-poor settings.
Journal of Medical Microbiology 11/2010; 59(Pt 11):1303-10. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Distant metastases in penile cancers are rare, especially metachronous symptomatic intracranial metastasis. A middle-aged patient presented to us with an intracranial mass 2 years after being treated for penile cancer. Given the rarity of metastasis and the diagnostic dilemma along with the need for relief of neurological symptoms, it was excised and found to be a metastatic deposit. We discuss the case and review the relevant literature.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Assessment of the prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the cervix across India was undertaken to estimate the impact of available prophylactic HPV-L1 vaccines in the country and to find out additional types that might be needed to be incorporated in second-generation vaccines.
High-risk (HR) HPVs were genotyped from 667 histopathologically confirmed cases of SCC from 6 different centers representing 4 regions across India: Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer, Mumbai; All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; Cancer Foundation of India, Kolkata; Christian Medical College, Vellore; Kidwai Memorial Institute of Oncology, Bangalore; and Regional Cancer Center, Thiruvananthapuram. Human papillomaviruses in tumor biopsies were analyzed by Xcytonscreen HPV based on PGMY09/11 multiplex polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot blot assay.
Overall viral prevalence across India was not different; 92.1% of 667 cases harbored HPV; 8% were negative. Infection with single HR type was seen in 86.8%: predominant types being HPV-16 followed by HPV-18, -45, -73, -31, -56, -52, -58, -59, -33, -68, -51, -35, -26, and -39. Human papillomavirus types 16/18-positive fraction formed 79.6%; other types comprised 12.4%.
Prophylactic HPV-16/18-L1 vaccines would provide greater than 75% protection against SCC in India. Ranking and frequencies of non-16/18 types were different from earlier reports. Hence, considering the possibility of promotion of persistence of nonvaccine types in the vaccinees due to original antigenic sin and the lack of organized screening programs in India, a broad-based vaccine approach would be appropriate.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 08/2010; 20(6):1046-51. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenocarcinoma of prostate metastasizing to testis is a rare occurrence and is incidentally detected in orchiectomy specimens. The pattern of metastasis may mimic a primary neoplasm of testis like a seminoma or lymphoma and pose a diagnostic difficulty for the pathologist. A rare case of bilateral testicular metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma is presented wherein the metastatic cells expressed CD168, a receptor for hyaluronan mediated motility (Rhamm), implicated in the development of androgen independence in prostate cancer.
Journal of cancer research and therapeutics 01/2010; 6(1):97-9. · 0.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenosarcoma like tumor of the seminal vesicle is reported herein. A 35-year-old male presented with mass in the pelvis between bladder and rectum, involving the seminal vesicle and prostate. Mass recurred after enucleation in four years. Histologically, the tumor was multicystic with bland ciliated lining epithelium and sarcomatous stroma. A wide excision was performed followed with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Adenosarcomas have a low grade recurrent malignant potential and should be recognized.
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology 01/2010; 53(2):342-4. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Congenital anomalies are easily diagnosed on radiology and rarely have an unusual presentation requiring an invasive diagnostic procedure. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), though a well-established diagnostic technique for abdominal and retroperitoneal lesions, is fraught with several challenges and pitfalls.
We report a case of a 39-year-old woman with an ectopic kidney presenting as an abdominal mass. On FNAC the cellular aspirate was misinterpreted as a paraganglioma or metastatic carcinoma.
This case highlights the fact that on FNAC, normal cellular components, especially from the kidney, provide a significant pitfall for overdiagnosis, potentially resulting in unnecessary surgical explorations.