[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Early detection and risk assessment are crucial for treating urothelial cancer (UC), which is characterized by a high recurrence rate, and necessitates frequent and invasive monitoring. We aimed to establish diagnostic markers for UC based on DNA methylation. METHODS: In this multi-center study, three independent sample sets were prepared. First, DNA methylation levels at CpG loci were measured in the training sets (tumor samples from 91 UC patients, corresponding normal-appearing tissue from these patients, and 12 normal tissues from age-matched bladder cancer-free patients) using the Illumina Golden Gate methylation assay to identify differentially methylated loci. Next, these methylated loci were validated by quantitative DNA methylation by pyrosequencing, using another cohort of tissue samples (Tissue validation set). Lastly, methylation of these markers was analyzed in the independent urine samples (Urine validation set). ROC analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these 12 selected markers. RESULTS: Of the 1303 CpG sites, 158 were hyper ethylated and 356 were hypo ethylated in tumor tissues compared to normal tissues. In the panel analysis, 12 loci showed remarkable alterations between tumor and normal samples, with 94.3% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity. Similarly, corresponding normal tissue could be distinguished from normal tissues with 76.0% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Furthermore, the diagnostic accuracy for UC of these markers determined in urine samples was high, with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. CONCLUSION: Based on these preliminary findings, diagnostic markers based on differential DNA methylation at specific loci can be useful for non-invasive and reliable detection of UC and epigenetic field defect.
BMC Cancer 06/2013; 13(1):275. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Urothelial cancer (UC) develops along two different genetic pathways, resulting in noninvasive or invasive tumors. However, it is unknown whether there are also different epigenetic pathways in UC. UC is also characterized by a high rate of recurrence, and the presence of a field defect has been postulated. In this study, we compared the DNA methylation patterns between noninvasive and invasive UC and the DNA methylation patterns between normal-appearing urothelium from bladders with cancer and urothelium from cancer-free bladders. We used the Illumina GoldenGate methylation assay at 1,370 loci in 49 noninvasive urothelial tumors, 38 invasive tumors with matched normal-appearing urothelium, and urothelium from 12 age-matched UC-free patients. We found distinct patterns of hypomethylation in the noninvasive tumors and widespread hypermethylation in the invasive tumors, confirming that the two pathways differ epigenetically in addition to genetically. We also found that 12% of the loci were hypermethylated in apparently normal urothelium from bladders with cancer, indicating an epigenetic field defect. X-chromosome inactivation analysis indicated that this field defect did not result in clonal expansion but occurred independently across the urothelium of bladders with cancer. The hypomethylation present in noninvasive tumors may counterintuitively provide a biological explanation for the failure of these tumors to become invasive. In addition, an epithelium-wide epigenetic defect in bladders with cancer might contribute to a loss of epithelial integrity and create a permissible environment for tumors to arise.
Cancer Research 10/2010; 70(20):8169-78. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activating mutation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) gene is known as a key molecular event in both oncogenesis and cell proliferation of low-grade noninvasive human bladder urothelial carcinoma (UC), which is characterized by frequent intravesical recurrence. In this study, we investigated the antitumor potentiality of 1-tert-butyl-3-[6-(3,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-2-(4-diethylamino-butylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-yl]-urea (PD173074), a small-molecule FGFR3-selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), as a therapeutic modality using eight UC cell lines. In our in vitro cell proliferation assay, PD173074 suppressed cell proliferation remarkably in two cell lines, namely, UM-UC-14 and MGHU3, which expressed mutated FGFR3 protein. In contrast, the other six cell lines expressing wild-type FGFR3 or without FGFR3 expression were resistant to PD173074 treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed the growth inhibitory effect of PD173074 was associated with arrest at G(1)-S transition in a dose-depending manner. Furthermore, we observed an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and p27/Kip1 expression after PD173074 treatment, suggesting that up-regulation of p27 recruited UC cells harboring activating FGFR3 mutations in G(1) that was analogous with the other receptor TKIs acting on the epidermal growth factor receptors. In the mouse xenograft models using subcutaneously transplanted UM-UC-14 and MGHU3, orally administered PD173074 suppressed tumor growth and induced apoptotic changes comparable with the results of our in vitro assay. These findings elucidated the effectiveness of molecular targeted approach for bladder UC harboring FGFR3 mutations and the potential utility to decrease the intravesical recurrence of nonmuscle invasive bladder UC after transurethral surgical resection.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 12/2009; 332(3):795-802. · 3.89 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-3 gene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase that is frequently mutated in non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A sensitive and quantitative assay using peptide nucleic acid-mediated real-time PCR was developed for detecting FGFR3 mutations in the urine samples and evaluated as a molecular marker for detecting intravesical recurrence of NMIBC in patients undergoing transurethral resection of bladder tumor. FGFR3 mutation was examined in tumor tissues and serially taken pre- and postoperative urine sediments in 45 NMIBC patients with a median follow up of 32 months. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 53.3% (24/45) of primary tumor tissues, among which intravesical recurrence developed in 37.5% (9/24) of cases. FGFR3 mutation in the primary tumor was not a significant prognostic indicator for recurrence, while the proportion of FGFR3 mutation (i.e. tumor cellularity was >or=11%) in the preoperative urine sediments was a significant indicator for recurrence in patients with FGFR3 mutations in the primary tumors. FGFR3 mutations were detected in 78% (7/9) of postoperative urine samples from recurrent cases with FGFR3 mutations in the tumor, while no mutations were detected in the urine of 15 non-recurrent cases. Urine cytology was negative in all cases with FGFR3 mutations in the primary tumors, while the sensitivity of cytological examination was as high as 56% (5/9) in cases showing wild-type FGFR3 in the primary tumors. Urine FGFR3 mutation assay and cytological examination may be available in the future as complementary diagnostic modalities in postoperative management of NMIBC.
Cancer Science 09/2009; 101(1):250-8. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy mediated by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) has been developed as a therapeutic modality for refractory superficial bladder cancers. Here, in experiments using urothelial cancer cell lines, we investigated the effects of siRNA modulating heme-synthetic and degradation pathways for ALA-PDT. Targeted knockdown of ferrochelatase (FECH) suppressed heme synthesis and significantly increased intracellular protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation, leading to enhanced phototoxicity in four of five cell lines. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is recognized as important for cytoprotection against oxidative stress such as PDT. Targeted knockdown of HO-1 leads to decreased intracellular PpIX accumulation, resulting in a failure to enhance ALA-PDT effect in four cell lines. Knockdown of HO-1 caused marked growth inhibition in UM-UC-2 overexpressing HO-1, whereas no inhibitory effect was observed in UM-UC-3 lacking HO-1 expression. Moreover, HO-1 protein levels and (GT)n repeat polymorphism of the HO-1 gene promoter region were examined with the implication that the constitutive expressions of HO-1 protein were associated with a shorter (GT)n repeat. Our results suggested that (1) FECH siRNA improved the phototoxicity of ALA-PDT, (2) overexpression of HO-1 was associated with shorter (GT)n repeat of the promoter region, and (3) siRNA-mediated knockdown of HO-1 could suppress the growth of bladder cancer cells overexpressing HO-1.
Photochemistry and Photobiology 04/2009; 85(4):1020-7. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Somatic mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) gene were detected by peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-mediated real-time PCR clamping. Mutation was detected in negative control containing only wild-type DNA due to a misincorporation of dNTPs to PNA binding sites when the amount of template DNA was decreased to 1 ng. Thus, the amount of template DNA was critical determinant of the assay sensitivity in PNA-mediated PCR clamping. Assay conditions were optimized to detect FGFR3 mutations in exons 7, 10, and 15, at a concentration of more than 1% mutated DNA using 50 ng of genomic DNA as the template. Mutations were detected in 12 of 13 (92.3%) tumor tissues and 11 of 13 (84.6%) urine samples from patients with superficial bladder cancer, while no mutations were detected in tissues and/or urine samples from patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer or chronic cystitis.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 12/2007; 362(4):865-71. · 2.41 Impact Factor