Tavis S Campbell

The University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada

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Publications (99)315.84 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Regular physical activity (PA) is essential for secondary and tertiary prevention of cardiometabolic risk factors and disease, but low adherence to PA recommendations is common. Motivational communication (MC) represents a collection of evidence-based behavior change strategies drawn from motivational interviewing, cognitive-behavioral techniques, and behavior change theories that show promise for promoting PA adherence. However, dissemination of MC strategies in cardiometabolic healthcare settings has been limited by inconsistent reporting of training fidelity in intervention research, making it unclear how to optimally train healthcare providers. We discuss preliminary considerations for training individuals in the use of MC, including: being relatively intensive with more than self-directed learning, covering an array of behavior change strategies, offering ongoing mentorship and support, and being delivered by a skilled trainer who addresses diverse trainee needs. Future work is needed to expand upon these considerations and establish what constitutes competent MC training to impact cardiometabolic health outcomes.
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 06/2015; 9(29). DOI:10.1007/s12170-015-0457-2
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    ABSTRACT: There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 03/2015; 56:168-178. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.03.013 · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate trajectories of sleep quality and associations with mood in the perinatal period. Although it is commonly accepted that subjective sleep quality declines during pregnancy and the transition to parenthood, some women may follow qualitatively distinct trajectories. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data were collected from 293 women at four time points: during early pregnancy, at Time 1 (T1;< 22 w gestational age [GA]; late pregnancy, at Time 2 (T2; 32 w GA); during the postnatal period at Time 3 (T3; 3 mo postpartum); and Time 4 (T4; 6 mo postpartum). A group-based semiparametric mixture model was used to estimate patterns of sleep quality throughout the perinatal period. Four trajectory groups were identified, including patterns defined by high sleep quality throughout (21.5%), mild decrease in sleep quality (59.5%), significant decrease in sleep quality (12.3%) and a group with poor sleep quality throughout (6.7%). Women who had the worst sleep quality at Time 1 and those who experienced significant increases in sleep problems throughout pregnancy were also the groups who reported the highest levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy and the lowest levels of social support. After controlling for covariates, the groups with worst subjective sleep quality during pregnancy were also the most likely to experience high symptoms of depression in the postpartum period. Most of the women in our sample reported mild sleep disturbances through the perinatal period. A subgroup of women reported a significant decline in sleep quality from early to late pregnancy and another reported poor subjective sleep quality throughout pregnancy; these groups had the greatest risk of experiencing high symptoms of depression in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC. All rights reserved.
    Sleep 02/2015; · 5.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal psychological distress and glucocorticoids result in neurobiological adaptations within the fetus that increase risk for developing exaggerated emotional, behavioral, and stress responses to novelty and challenges in childhood. The current study investigated the influence of maternal depressed mood and cortisol during pregnancy on infant cardiac vagal control (CVC) to standardized laboratory challenge tasks. Methods: The sample comprised 194 women and their infants. Maternal reports of depressed mood and salivary cortisol were assessed at 14 and 32 weeks gestational age. Linear regression was used to examine associations between maternal measures during early and late pregnancy, and infant CVC indexed via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at rest and in response to laboratory tasks designed to elicit frustration when infants were 6 months of age. It was hypothesized that maternal depressed mood and cortisol would be associated with lower basal RSA and smaller decreases in RSA from baseline to challenge. Results: A significant decrease in infant RSA from baseline to frustration tasks indicated that laboratory tasks elicited a reliable decrease in RSA from baseline to frustration among infants which is characterized by reduction in vagal efferent activity on the heart in response to challenge. Higher maternal cortisol, but not depressed mood, was associated with lower basal RSA and greater decrease in RSA from baseline to frustration. Associations between maternal cortisol and infant basal RSA were observed for both early and late pregnancy whereas the associations between prenatal cortisol and decrease in RSA from baseline to frustration were observed for early, but not late, pregnancy. Conclusions: Maternal cortisol during pregnancy was associated with infant CVC at 6-months of age. Such influences may have enduring impacts on the child and important implications for the development of physical and mental health outcomes.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 02/2015; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.01.024 · 5.59 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Psychophysiology 01/2015; 29(2):45-54. DOI:10.1027/0269-8803/a000133 · 1.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Insomnia is an important but often overlooked side effect of cancer. A greater endorsement of dysfunctional sleep beliefs has been identified as a risk factor for the development, increased severity, and maintenance of insomnia. Mindfulness Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) has been demonstrated to improve sleep quality but it is unknown whether these effects are related to changes in dysfunctional sleep beliefs. Objective: This study examined the impact of MBCR on insomnia severity and the association between levels of mindfulness and dysfunctional sleep beliefs in cancer patients with co-morbid insomnia. Methods: Patients (n = 32) were assessed at baseline, post-program (2 months), and follow-up (5 months) using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Associations were performed with residualized change scores to account for pre-treatment severity and potential regression to the mean. Results: Patients reported statistically significant reductions in insomnia severity (p < .001), sleep-related worry (p < .001), and overall dysfunctional sleep beliefs (p = .027) that were maintained at follow-up. A greater reduction in unrealistic sleep expectations was associated with greater improvements in the mindful attitudes of non-judging (r = - .470) and non-reacting (r = -395). Improvement in the tendency to act with awareness was associated with a greater reduction in sleep-related worry (r = -.398). Reduced dysfunctional sleep beliefs was associated with greater awareness (r = -.386) and an improvement in the tendency to judge experience (r = -.400). Conclusions: This study provides support for the use of MBCR to reduce dysfunctional sleep-related beliefs and overall severity of insomnia.
    IN-CAM Symposium / Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine; 01/2015
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated blood pressure (BP) accounts for the largest global proportion of disease burden and is largely treatable through the use of antihypertensive medications. Adherence to antihypertensive medication may be defined as the extent to which patient behavior coincides with recommendations agreed upon by the health-care provider and the patient and encompasses initiation, implementation, and discontinuation. Despite the proven clinical efficacy of antihypertensive medications to control BP, approximately half of treated patients are nonadherent. Nonadherence to antihypertensive medications is a multifactorial concern. Barriers to antihypertensive medication adherence are numerous and include patient-related (e.g., beliefs about medication, motivation, mental health), provider-related (e.g., patient-provider communication, failure to appropriately escalate treatment), therapy-related (e.g., an asymptomatic disease, side effects, complexity of regimens), and system-related (e.g., medication cost, health literacy, uncoordinated delivery of services) influences. Several techniques to improve adherence to antihypertensive medications have been identified, with sufficient supporting evidence from randomized trials to inform clinical practice recommendations. This review summarizes the current understanding of the prevalence and impact of the failure to adhere to the medical management of hypertension. Factors linked to improved adherence and studies that assessed strategies to improve adherence are also summarized.
    Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 10/2014; 8(415). DOI:10.1007/s12170-014-0415-4
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    Joshua A Rash, Kenneth M Prkachin, Tavis S Campbell
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Top-down characteristics of an observer influence the detection and estimation of a sufferer’s pain. A comprehensive understanding of these characteristics is important because they influence observer helping behaviours and the sufferer’s experience of pain. OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that individuals who score high in trait anxiety would perceive more intense pain in others, as indicated by a larger negative response bias, and that this association would persist after adjusting for pain catastrophizing. METHODS: Healthy young adult participants (n=99; 50 male) watched videos containing excerpts of facial expressions taken from patients with shoulder pain and were asked to rate how much pain the patient was experiencing using an 11-point numerical rating scale. Sensitivity and response bias were calculated using signal detection methods. RESULTS: Trait anxiety was a predictor of response bias after statistically adjusting for pain catastrophizing and observer sex. More anxious individuals had a proclivity toward imputing greater pain to a sufferer. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals scoring higher on trait anxiety were more likely to impute pain to a sufferer. Anxious caregivers may be better able to respond with appropriate intervention once pain behaviour is detected, or they may exacerbate symptoms by engaging in excessive palliative care and solicitous behaviour.
    Pain research & management: the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la societe canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur 10/2014; 20(1). · 1.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Management of chronic diseases requires patients to adhere to recommended health behavior change and complete tests for monitoring. While studies have shown an association between low income and lack of adherence, the reasons why people with low income may be less likely to adhere are unclear. We sought to determine the association between household income and receipt of health behavior change advice, adherence to advice, receipt of recommended monitoring tests, and self-reported reasons for non-adherence/non-receipt. We conducted a population-weighted survey, with 1849 respondents with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases (heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke) from Western Canada (n = 1849). We used log-binomial regression to examine the association between household income and the outcome variables of interest: receipt of advice for and adherence to health behavior change (sodium reduction, dietary improvement, increased physical activity, smoking cessation, weight loss), reasons for non-adherence, receipt of recommended monitoring tests (cholesterol, blood glucose, blood pressure), and reasons for non-receipt of tests. Behavior change advice was received equally by both low and high income respondents. Low income respondents were more likely than those with high income to not adhere to recommendations regarding smoking cessation (adjusted prevalence rate ratio (PRR): 1.55, 95%CI: 1.09-2.20), and more likely to not receive measurements of blood cholesterol (PRR: 1.72, 95%CI 1.24-2.40) or glucose (PRR: 1.80, 95%CI: 1.26-2.58). Those with low income were less likely to state that non-adherence/non-receipt was due to personal choice, and more likely to state that it was due to an extrinsic factor, such as cost or lack of accessibility. There are important income-related differences in the patterns of health behavior change and disease monitoring, as well as reasons for non-adherence or non-receipt. Among those with low income, adherence to health behavior change and monitoring may be improved by addressing modifiable barriers such as cost and access.
    PLoS ONE 10/2014; 9(4):e94007. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094007 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The association between anxiety, depression, and endothelial function (EF) was assessed in a sample of 295 cardiac outpatients (n = 222 men; mean age = 59). Patients were administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, trait scale. EF was assessed through forearm hyperemic reactivity, a nuclear medicine variation of the flow-mediated dilatation technique, which calculates the rate of uptake ratio (RUR) between hyperaemic and non-hyperaemic arms. No effect of anxiety (F = 1.40, p=.24) nor depression (F = 2.66, p=.10) was found in a model predicting EF, however there was an interaction (F = 4.11, p=.04). Higher anxiety and lower depressive symptoms were associated with superior RUR compared to lower anxiety and lower depressive symptoms. Anxiety had no influence on RUR in those patients with higher depressive symptoms, who generally displayed the lowest levels of RUR, i.e., poor function. It is speculative whether this potential protective role of anxiety may be guided by behavioural or physiological mechanisms.
    Biological Psychology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2014.07.012 · 3.47 Impact Factor
  • Canadian Cardiovascular Congress / Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention, Vancouver BC; 10/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This waitlist-controlled study examined the timing of changes during Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR), and explored sequential mediated effects through enhanced mindfulness and emotion regulation (ER) in a cancer population.Method Patients were recruited from the MBCR program waitlist and were either registered for immediate participation (n = 135) or waiting for the next program to begin (n = 76). Participants completed self-report measures of stress symptoms, mood disturbance, mindfulness, and ER (rumination, worry, and experiential avoidance) pre-, mid- and post-MBCR or waiting period.ResultsThere was a relatively early effect of MBCR on observing, nonjudging, rumination, and worry. All other measures changed later. Early changes in present-focused nonjudgmental awareness, rumination, and worry mediated the effect of MBCR on mindfulness skills such as nonreactivity later on.Conclusion The constructs of mindfulness and ER may overlap and changes may be mutually facilitative during MBCR. The study informs our understanding of mindfulness and ER as mechanisms of mindfulness-based interventions.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 08/2014; DOI:10.1002/jclp.22117 · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Joshua A Rash, Tavis S Campbell
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study examined the effect of synthetic oxytocin delivered intranasally on acute pain sensitivity using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, within-participant crossover design. Methods: Thirty-seven (18 were male) pain-free young adults underwent two laboratory sessions separated by 1 week. Each session consisted of baseline, administration, second baseline, pain, and recovery phases, completed in a fixed order. Participants were given an intransal administration of 40 IU oxytocin or placebo. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were measured at 1-minute intervals throughout each phase. Pain was induced by submersing the nondominant hand in cold (2[degrees]C) water. Pain threshold, intensity, unpleasantness, and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 pain descriptors were rated immediately after pain testing. Mood was assessed using visual analog scales after baseline, second baseline, and pain phases. The second laboratory session was identical to the first, with the exception that a different nasal spray was administered. Results: Participants reported lower pain intensity (50.57 [20.94] versus 56.73 [20.12], p = .047), pain unpleasantness (47.00 [27.24] versus 55.78 [22.46], p = .033), and Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire-2 pain descriptors (53.38 [31.18] versus 60.92 [31.17], p = .031) and higher pain threshold (45.70 [59.55] versus 38.35 [59.12], p = .040) after oxytocin administration relative to placebo. There was a nasal spray by phase interaction on HR (p = .006). Pain-related increase in HR was attenuated by oxytocin nasal spray. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased during pain testing but were unaffected by nasal spray. Conclusions: These results suggest that oxytocin can lead to decreased acute pain sensitivity.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 06/2014; DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000068 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Positive Psychology 06/2014; 10(2):153-166. DOI:10.1080/17439760.2014.927902 · 1.67 Impact Factor
  • Joshua A Rash, Tavis S Campbell
  • Source
    Sheila Garland, Linda Carlson, Tavis Campbell
    Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 05/2014; 20(5):A56. DOI:10.1089/acm.2014.5146.abstract · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Blunted blood pressure (BP) dipping during nighttime sleep has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Psychological traits have been associated with prolonged cardiovascular activation and a lack of cardiovascular recovery. This activation may extend into nighttime sleep and reduce BP dipping. Purpose: This study aims to evaluate the association between trait rumination and nighttime BP dipping. Methods: Sixty women scoring either high or low on trait rumination underwent one 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring session. Self-reported wake and sleep times were used to calculate nighttime BP. Results: High trait rumination was associated with less diastolic blood pressure (DBP) dipping relative to low trait rumination. Awake ambulatory BP, asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP) and DBP, and asleep SBP dipping were not associated with trait rumination. Conclusions: In a sample of young women, high trait rumination was associated with less DBP dipping, suggesting that it may be associated with prolonged cardiovascular activation that extends into nighttime sleep, blunting BP dipping.
    Annals of Behavioral Medicine 04/2014; in press. DOI:10.1007/s12160-014-9617-8 · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A treatment-as-usual randomized wait-list controlled trial was conducted to investigate the feasibility and impact of an online synchronous Mindfulness-Based Cancer Recovery (MBCR) group program for underserved distressed cancer survivors. Sixty-two men and women exhibiting moderate to high distress within 3 years of completing primary cancer treatment without access to in-person MBCR were randomized to either immediate online MBCR (n = 30) or to wait for the next available program (n = 32). Participants completed questionnaires preintervention and postintervention or wait period online. Program evaluations were completed after MBCR. Feasibility was tracked through monitoring eligibility and participation through the protocol. Intent-to-treat mixed-model analyses for repeated measures were conducted. Feasibility targets for recruitment and retention were achieved, and participants were satisfied and would recommend online MBCR. There were significant improvements and moderate Cohen d effect sizes in the online MBCR group relative to controls after MBCR for total scores of mood disturbance (d = 0.44, p = .049), stress symptoms (d = 0.49, p = .021), spirituality (d = 0.37, p = .040), and mindfully acting with awareness (d = 0.50, p = .026). Main effects of time were observed for posttraumatic growth and remaining mindfulness facets. Results provide evidence for the feasibility and efficacy of an online adaptation of MBCR for the reduction of mood disturbance and stress symptoms, as well as an increase in spirituality and mindfully acting with awareness compared with a treatment-as-usual wait-list. Future study using larger active control RCT designs is warranted.Trial Registration: Clinical Trials.gov: NCT01476891.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 04/2014; DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000053 · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • American Psychosomatic Society, San Francisco, CA; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Studies assessing the association between psychological factors and hypertension have been equivocal, which may reflect limitations in the assessment of psychological factors. Purpose. To assess the relationship between mood and anxiety disorders, measured using a psychiatric interview, and 1-year incident hypertension. Methods. 197 nonhypertensive individuals undergoing exercise stress testing at baseline provided follow-up data at 1 year. Baseline assessments included a structure psychiatric interview (PRIME-MD), physician diagnosis of hypertension, and measured blood pressure. At follow-up, hypertension status was assessed via self-reported physician diagnosis. Results. Having an anxiety disorder was associated with a 4-fold increase in the risk of developing hypertension (adjusted OR = 4.14, 95% CIs = 1.18-14.56). In contrast, having a mood disorder was not associated with incident hypertension (adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CIs = 0.24-5.86). Conclusions. There are potential mechanisms which could explain our differential mood and anxiety findings. The impact of screening and treatment of anxiety disorders on hypertension needs to be explored.
    02/2014; 2014:953094. DOI:10.1155/2014/953094

Publication Stats

1k Citations
315.84 Total Impact Points


  • 2005–2015
    • The University of Calgary
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Community Health Sciences
      Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 2009
    • Montreal Heart Institute
      • Research Centre
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2008
    • Universitätsspital Basel
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2004
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Science
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2002–2003
    • McGill University
      • Department of Psychology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada