Anna-Liisa Ruskeepää

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Esbo, Southern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (7)53.25 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) was applied in the quantification and identification of organic compounds in patient-matched human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples. Concentrations of 21 amino and hydroxyl acids varied from 0.04 to 77ng/μl in CSF and from 0.1 to 84ng/μl in serum. In total, 91 metabolites out of over 1200 detected were identified based on mass spectra and retention indices. The other metabolites were identified at the functional group level. The main metabolites detected in CSF were sugar and amino acid derivatives. The CSF and serum had clearly distinct metabolic profiles, with larger biological variation in the serum than in CSF. The GC×GC-TOFMS allowed detection and identification of several metabolites that have not been previously detected in CSF.
    Journal of Chromatography A 04/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The insulin/IGF signaling pathway is a highly conserved regulator of metabolism in flies and mammals, regulating multiple physiological functions including lipid metabolism. Although insulin signaling is known to regulate the activity of a number of enzymes in metabolic pathways, a comprehensive understanding of how the insulin signaling pathway regulates metabolic pathways is still lacking. Accepted knowledge suggests the key regulated step in triglyceride (TAG) catabolism is the release of fatty acids from TAG via the action of lipases. We show here that an additional, important regulated step is the activation of fatty acids for beta-oxidation via Acyl Co-A synthetases (ACS). We identify pudgy as an ACS that is transcriptionally regulated by direct FOXO action in Drosophila. Increasing or reducing pudgy expression in vivo causes a decrease or increase in organismal TAG levels respectively, indicating that pudgy expression levels are important for proper lipid homeostasis. We show that multiple ACSs are also transcriptionally regulated by insulin signaling in mammalian cells. In sum, we identify fatty acid activation onto CoA as an important, regulated step in triglyceride catabolism, and we identify a mechanistic link through which insulin regulates lipid homeostasis.
    PLoS Genetics 01/2012; 8(1):e1002478. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Identification of early mechanisms that may lead from obesity towards complications such as metabolic syndrome is of great interest. Here we performed lipidomic analyses of adipose tissue in twin pairs discordant for obesity but still metabolically compensated. In parallel we studied more evolved states of obesity by investigating a separated set of individuals considered to be morbidly obese. Despite lower dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, the obese twin individuals had increased proportions of palmitoleic and arachidonic acids in their adipose tissue, including increased levels of ethanolamine plasmalogens containing arachidonic acid. Information gathered from these experimental groups was used for molecular dynamics simulations of lipid bilayers combined with dependency network analysis of combined clinical, lipidomics, and gene expression data. The simulations suggested that the observed lipid remodeling maintains the biophysical properties of lipid membranes, at the price, however, of increasing their vulnerability to inflammation. Conversely, in morbidly obese subjects, the proportion of plasmalogens containing arachidonic acid in the adipose tissue was markedly decreased. We also show by in vitro Elovl6 knockdown that the lipid network regulating the observed remodeling may be amenable to genetic modulation. Together, our novel approach suggests a physiological mechanism by which adaptation of adipocyte membranes to adipose tissue expansion associates with positive energy balance, potentially leading to higher vulnerability to inflammation in acquired obesity. Further studies will be needed to determine the cause of this effect.
    PLoS Biology 06/2011; 9(6):e1000623. · 12.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ceramides may mediate saturated fat-induced insulin resistance, but there are no data comparing ceramide concentrations between human tissues. We therefore performed lipidomic analysis of human subcutaneous (SCfat) and intra-abdominal (IAfat) adipose tissue, the liver, and serum in eight subjects. The liver contained (nmol/mg tissue) significantly more ceramides (1.5-3-fold), sphingomyelins (7-8-fold), phosphatidylethanolamines (10-11-fold), lysophosphatidylcholines (7-12-fold), less ether-linked phosphatidylcholines (2-2.5-fold) but similar amounts of diacylglycerols as compared to SCfat and IAfat. The amounts of ceramides and their synthetic precursors, such as palmitic (16:0) free fatty acids and sphingomyelins, differed considerably between the tissues. The liver contained proportionally more palmitic, stearic (18:0), and long polyunsaturated fatty acids than adipose tissues. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity reflected by serum, estimated from the 16:1/16:0-ratio, was closely related to that in the liver (r = 0.86, P = 0.024) but not adipose tissues. This was also true for estimated elongase (18:1/16:1, r = 0.89, P = 0.01), and Delta5 (20:4/20:3, r = 0.89, P = 0.012) and Delta6 (18:3[n-6]/18:2, r = 1.0, P < 0.001) desaturase activities. We conclude that the human liver contains higher concentrations of ceramides and saturated free fatty acids than either SCfat or IAfat.
    Obesity 10/2009; 18(5):937-44. · 3.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In liver, most metabolic pathways are under circadian control, and hundreds of protein-encoding genes are thus transcribed in a cyclic fashion. Here we show that rhythmic transcription extends to the locus specifying miR-122, a highly abundant, hepatocyte-specific microRNA. Genetic loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments have identified the orphan nuclear receptor REV-ERBalpha as the major circadian regulator of mir-122 transcription. Although due to its long half-life mature miR-122 accumulates at nearly constant rates throughout the day, this miRNA is tightly associated with control mechanisms governing circadian gene expression. Thus, the knockdown of miR-122 expression via an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) strategy resulted in the up- and down-regulation of hundreds of mRNAs, of which a disproportionately high fraction accumulates in a circadian fashion. miR-122 has previously been linked to the regulation of cholesterol and lipid metabolism. The transcripts associated with these pathways indeed show the strongest time point-specific changes upon miR-122 depletion. The identification of Pparbeta/delta and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) coactivator Smarcd1/Baf60a as novel miR-122 targets suggests an involvement of the circadian metabolic regulators of the PPAR family in miR-122-mediated metabolic control.
    Genes & development 07/2009; 23(11):1313-26. · 12.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether 1) hepatic ceramide and diacylglycerol concentrations, 2) SCD1 activity, and 3) hepatic lipogenic index are increased in the human nonalcoholic fatty liver. We studied 16 subjects with (n = 8) and without (n = 8) histologically determined nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL(+) and NAFL(-)) matched for age, sex, and BMI. Hepatic concentrations of lipids and fatty acids were quantitated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. The absolute (nmol/mg) hepatic concentrations of diacylglycerols but not ceramides were increased in the NAFL(+) group compared with the NAFL(-) group. The livers of the NAFL(+) group contained proportionally less long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids as compared with the NAFL(-) group. Liver fat percent was positively related to hepatic stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) activity index (r = 0.70, P = 0.003) and the hepatic lipogenic index (r = 0.54, P = 0.030). Hepatic SCD1 activity index was positively related to the concentrations of diacylglycerols (r = 0.71, P = 0.002) but not ceramides (r = 0.07, NS). We conclude that diacylglycerols but not ceramides are increased in NAFL. The human fatty liver is also characterized by depletion of long polyunsaturated fatty acids in the liver and increases in hepatic SCD1 and lipogenic activities.
    Diabetes 11/2008; 58(1):203-8. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of weight loss on different plasma lipid subclasses at the molecular level is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether a diet-induced weight reduction result in changes in the extended plasma lipid profiles (lipidome) in subjects with features of metabolic syndrome in a 33-week intervention. Plasma samples of 9 subjects in the weight reduction group and 10 subjects in the control group were analyzed using mass spectrometry based lipidomic and fatty acid analyses. Body weight decreased in the weight reduction group by 7.8+/-2.9% (p<0.01). Most of the serum triacylglycerols and phosphatidylcholines were reduced. The decrease in triacylglycerols affected predominantly the saturated short chain fatty acids. This decrease of saturated short chain fatty acid containing triacylglycerols correlated with the increase of insulin sensitivity. However, levels of several longer chain fatty acids, including arachidonic and docosahexanoic acid, were not affected by weight loss. Levels of other lipids known to be associated with obesity such as sphingolipids and lysophosphatidylcholines were not altered by weight reduction. Diet-induced weight loss caused significant changes in global lipid profiles in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism. The observed changes may affect insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in these subjects. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00621205.
    PLoS ONE 01/2008; 3(7):e2630. · 3.53 Impact Factor