Franco Lepore

Université de Montréal, Montréal, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (270)882.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Visual deprivation leads to massive reorganization in both the structure and function of the occipital cortex, raising crucial challenges for sight-restoration. We tracked the behavioral, structural and neurofunctional changes occurring in an early and severely visually impaired patient before, 1.5 and 7 months after sight restoration using magnetic resonance imaging. Robust pre-surgical auditory responses were found in occipital cortex despite residual preoperative vision. In primary visual cortex, crossmodal auditory responses overlapped with visual responses and remained elevated even 7 months post-surgery. However, these crossmodal responses decreased in extrastriate occipital regions after surgery, together with improved behavioral vision and with increases in both grey matter density and neural activation in low-level visual regions. Selective responses in high-level visual regions involved in motion and face processing were observable even pre-surgery and did not evolve after surgery. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that structural and functional reorganization of occipital regions are present in an individual with a longstanding history of severe visual impairment, and that such reorganizations can be partially reversed by visual restoration in adulthood. Copyright © 2014, Journal of Neurophysiology.
    Journal of neurophysiology. 12/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:
    Chemical Senses 12/2014; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    Yann Harel, Franco Lepore, Fabien D'Hondt
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    ABSTRACT: Le décodage rapide de l'émotion exprimée par un visage est une habileté capitale dans l'établissement d’interactions sociales appropriées. Plusieurs études suggèrent que ce décodage rapide des expressions faciales émotionnelles reposerait sur une analyse visuelle grossière dépendant des voies magnocellulaires qui prennent en charge majoritairement les informations de basse fréquence spatiale. Néanmoins, la contribution relative des voies magnocellulaires et parvocellulaires (qui prennent en charge majoritairement les informations de haute fréquence spatiale) au traitement émotionnel demeure peu connue à ce jour. Cette étude vise donc à clarifier le rôle des basses et des hautes fréquences spatiales dans le décodage des expressions faciales émotionnelles. Nous avons utilisé une tâche de type oddball émotionnel avec 3 conditions de filtrage spatial appliqué aux stimuli : passe-haut (>6cpd), passe-bas (<2cpd), ou non-filtrés. Lors de cette tâche, les potentiels évoqués cognitifs des participants ainsi que leurs temps de réponses furent enregistrés. Une expérimentation préliminaire a été conduite auprès de 5 participants. Au niveau comportemental, nous avons observé des temps de réponse significativement plus courts pour la détection de l’expression faciale de joie en hautes fréquences spatiales. Néanmoins, l’analyse des potentiels évoqués (P100, N170 et P3b) a révélé une tendance à un effet spécifique des expressions faciales émotionnelles sur la latence de la P100 et de la N170 lorsque les basses fréquences spatiales sont présentes. Ces résultats préliminaires suggèrent donc que les informations de basse fréquence spatiale ont un rôle crucial dans les étapes précoces de traitement des expressions faciales émotionnelles mais également que le rôle des basses et hautes fréquences spatiales pourraient différer selon la valence émotionnelle. L'impact potentiel des différentes sous-catégories d'anxiété (anxiété sociale, anxiété-trait ou anxiété-état) sur la contribution des basses et des hautes fréquences spatiales dans le décodage des émotions sera abordé.
    20ième rencontre annuelle du Réseau de Recherche en Santé et Vision, Montréal, QC, Canada; 11/2014
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this semilongitudinal study was to investigate the development of central visual pathways in children born preterm but without major neurologic impairments and to establish their cognitive and behavioral profile at school age. Ten children born preterm were assessed at 6 months and at school age, using visual evoked potentials at both time points and cognitive and behavioral tests at school age. We also tested 10 age-matched children born full-term. At 6 months' corrected age, we found no significant differences between preterm and full-term groups for either amplitude or latency of N1 and P1 components. At school age, the preterm group manifested significantly higher N1 amplitudes and tended to show higher P1 amplitudes than the full-term group. We found no significant differences in cognitive and behavioral measures at school age. These results suggest that preterm birth affects visual pathways development, yet the children born preterm did not manifest cognitive problems. © The Author(s) 2014.
    Journal of child neurology. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Though a clear interaction between finger and number representations has been demonstrated, what drives the development of this intertwining remains unclear. Here we tested early blind, late blind and sighted control participants in two counting tasks, each performed under three different conditions: a resting condition, a condition requiring hands movements and a condition requiring feet movements. In the resting condition, every sighted and late blind spontaneously used their fingers, while the majority of early blind did not. Sighted controls and late blind were moreover selectively disrupted by the interfering hand condition, while the early blind who did not use the finger-counting strategy remained unaffected by the interference conditions. These results therefore demonstrate that visual experience plays an important role in implementing the sensori-motor habits that drive the development of finger–number interactions.
    Cognition 10/2014; 133(1):91–96. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Speech recognition varies considerably following cochlear implantation for reasons that are still poorly understood. Considering the role of frequency discrimination in normal speech recognition, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between deficits in auditory frequency discrimination and speech recognition in cochlear implant users. Methods Frequency discrimination thresholds and speech recognition were assessed in a group of 20 cochlear implant users and 16 normally hearing controls. Results Based on their results on the speech recognition task, the cochlear implant users were categorized either as proficient (n = 10) or non-proficient users (n = 10). The non-proficient cochlear implant users had poorer auditory frequency discrimination compared to the normal hearing participants and proficient cochlear implant users (both P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the proficient cochlear implant users and the normally hearing group (P > 0.05). Furthermore, a bivariate correlation analysis revealed a relationship between speech recognition and frequency discrimination. Conclusions The present findings suggest an association between auditory frequency discrimination and speech recognition proficiency in cochlear implant users. Although no causal link can be drawn from these data, possible reasons for this association are discussed.
    Cochlear implants international. 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Our comprehension of the neural mechanisms underlying emotional information processing has largely benefited from noninvasive electrophysiological and functional neuroimaging techniques in recent years. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of the neural events occurring during emotional processing remain imprecise due to the limited combination of spatial and temporal resolution provided by these techniques. This study examines the modulations of high-frequency activity of intracranial electroencephalography recordings associated with affective picture valence, in epileptic patients awaiting neurosurgery. Recordings were obtained from subdural grids and depth electrodes in eight patients while they viewed a series of unpleasant, pleasant and neutral pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Broadband high-gamma (70–150 Hz) power was computed for separate 100-ms time windows and compared according to ratings of emotional valence. Compared to emotionally neutral or pleasant pictures, unpleasant stimuli were associated with an early and long-lasting (≈200–1,000 ms) bilateral increase in high-gamma activity in visual areas of the occipital and temporal lobes, together with a late and transient (≈500–800 ms) decrease found bilaterally in the lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Pleasant pictures were associated with increased gamma activity in the occipital cortex, compared to the emotionally neutral stimuli. Consistent with previous studies, our results provide direct evidence of emotion-related modulations in the visual ventral pathway during picture processing. Results in the lateral PFC also shed light on the neural mechanisms underlying its role in negative emotions processing. This study demonstrates the utility of intracranial high-gamma modulations to study emotional process with a high spatiotemporal precision. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 08/2014; · 6.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though a clear interaction between finger and number representations has been demonstrated, what drives the development of this intertwining remains unclear. Here we tested early blind, late blind and sighted control participants in two counting tasks, each performed under three different conditions: a resting condition, a condition requiring hands movements and a condition requiring feet movements. In the resting condition, every sighted and late blind spontaneously used their fingers, while the majority of early blind did not. Sighted controls and late blind were moreover selectively disrupted by the interfering hand condition, while the early blind who did not use the finger-counting strategy remained unaffected by the interference conditions. These results therefore demonstrate that visual experience plays an important role in implementing the sensori-motor habits that drive the development of finger-number interactions.
    Cognition 07/2014; 133(1):91-96. · 3.63 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The brain’s ability to integrate information coming from single or multiple sensory modalities is critical for perceiving the world as a unified and coherent percept. These processes, referred to as within-modal and cross-modal integration, ultimately allows us to interact with our surrounding and others in an adaptive manner. We recently demonstrated that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not benefit from the presence of a facilitatory temporally relevant tone during a demanding visual search task (Collignon et al., 2012), and display a reduced ability to integrate visual and auditory representations of the emotional expressions (Charbonneau et al., 2013), suggestive of a decreased multisensory gain in this population. However, controversy remains about multisensory integration in ASD, as alterations in this process were mainly observed for more complex tasks and stimuli (e.g., top-down control; linguistic or social stimuli), with putatively intact ability to integrate simple low-level information (de Boer-Schellekens, Keetels, Eussen, & Vroomen, 2013). Regarding the comparison between multisensory and unisensory integration, we know that redundancy gain (RG), which correspond to the behavioral outcomes of sensory integration, is greater for cross-modal than for within-modal targets in typically developing individuals (TD) (Girard et al., 2013). However, a direct comparison between within- and cross-modal integration has not been investigated in individuals with ASD. Objectives: The current study was designed to explore if the alteration in multisensory integration in ASD, as obtained from our previous experiments, can be generalised to within-modal and cross-modal integration of low-level non-social stimuli. Methods: Twelve individuals diagnosed with ASD and 12 individuals in a typically developing comparison group, matched for full-scale IQ, were asked to respond as fast as possible to (1) lateralized visual or tactile targets presented alone, (2) double stimulation within the same modality (within-modal condition) or (3) double stimulation across modalities (cross-modal condition). Each combination was either delivered within the same hemi-space (spatially aligned) or in different hemi-spaces (spatially misaligned). Results: In contrast with previous reports, no difference was found between ASD and TD in their ability to integrate low level visual, tactile and visuo-tactile stimuli. In both groups, the multisensory gains obtained from the cross-modal conditions were greater than those obtained from combination of two visual or two tactile targets. Conclusions: These results clearly demonstrate that individuals with ASD integrate low-level visual and tactile information as efficiently as TD individuals. Moreover, redundancy gain in ASD was found to be greater for cross-modal targets than for within-modal stimuli, extending for the first time to ASD the notion that estimates of the same event that are more independent produce enhanced integrative gains. Overall, these findings suggest that multisensory integration alterations that were previously reported in ASD are probably contingent of the type of information being integrated and/or the paradigm used, and could be restricted to more complex tasks involving either socially-laden information, or top-down processes during sensory integration.
    2014 International Meeting for Autism Research; 05/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the relation of alpha rhythms and object recognition. Alpha has been generally proposed to be associated with attention and memory and to be particularly important for the mediation of long-distance communication between neuronal populations. However, how these apply to object recognition is still unclear. This study aimed at describing the spatio-temporal dynamics of alpha rhythms while recognizing fragmented images of objects presented for the first time and presented again 24 hr later. Intracranial electroencephalography was performed in six epileptic patients undergoing presurgical evaluation. Time-frequency analysis revealed a strong alpha activity, mainly of the evoked type, propagating from posterior cerebral areas to anterior regions, which was similar whether the objects were recognized or not. Phase coherence analysis, however, showed clear phase synchronization specific for the moment of recognition. Twenty-four hr later, frontal regions displayed stronger alpha activity and more distributed phase synchronization than when images were presented for the first time. In conclusion, alpha amplitude seems to be related to nonspecific mechanism. Phase coherence analysis suggests a communicational role of alpha activity in object recognition, which may be important for the comparison between bottom-up representations and memory templates.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 01/2014; · 4.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The global level of hierarchical stimuli (Navon's stimuli) is typically processed quicker and better than the local level; further differential hemispheric dominance is described for local (left hemisphere, LH) and global (right hemisphere, RH) processing. However, neuroimaging and behavioral data indicate that stimulus category (letter or object) could modulate the hemispheric asymmetry for the local level processing. Besides, when the targets are unpredictably displayed at the global or local level, the participant has to switch between levels, and the magnitude of the switch cost increases with the number of repeated-level trials preceding the switch. The hemispheric asymmetries associated with level switching is an unresolved issue. LH areas may be involved in carrying over the target level information in case of level repetition. These areas may also largely participate in the processing of level-changed trials. Here we hypothesized that RH areas underly the inhibitory mechanism performed on the irrelevant level, as one of the components of the level switching process. In an experiment using a within-subject design, hierarchical stimuli were briefly presented either to the right or to the left visual field. 32 adults were instructed to identify the target at the global or local level. We assessed a possible RH dominance for the non-target level inhibition by varying the attentional demands through the manipulation of level repetitions (two or gour repeated-level trials before the switch). The behavioral data confirmed a LH specialization only for the local level processing of letter-based stimuli, and detrimental effect of increased level repetitions before a switch. Further, data provides evidence for a RH advantage in inhibiting the non-target level. Taken together, the data supports the notion of the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying level-switch effects.
    Frontiers in Psychology 01/2014; 5:252. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the past decades, multiple studies have been interested in developmental patterns of the visual system in healthy infants. During the first year of life, differential maturational changes have been observed between the Magnocellular (P) and the Parvocellular (P) visual pathways. However, few studies investigated P and M system development in infants born prematurely. The aim of the present study was to characterize P and M system maturational differences between healthy preterm and fullterm infants through a critical period of visual maturation: the first year of life. Using a cross-sectional design, high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 31 healthy preterms and 41 fullterm infants of 3, 6, or 12 months (corrected age for premature babies). Three visual stimulations varying in contrast and spatial frequency were presented to stimulate preferentially the M pathway, the P pathway, or both systems simultaneously during EEG recordings. Results from early visual evoked potentials in response to the stimulation that activates simultaneously both systems revealed longer N1 latencies and smaller P1 amplitudes in preterm infants compared to fullterms. Moreover, preterms showed longer N1 and P1 latencies in response to stimuli assessing the M pathway at 3 months. No differences between preterms and fullterms were found when using the preferential P system stimulation. In order to identify the cerebral generator of each visual response, distributed source analyses were computed in 12-month-old infants using LORETA. Source analysis demonstrated an activation of the parietal dorsal region in fullterm infants, in response to the preferential M pathway, which was not seen in the preterms. Overall, these findings suggest that the Magnocellular pathway development is affected in premature infants. Although our VEP results suggest that premature children overcome, at least partially, the visual developmental delay with time, source analyses reveal abnormal brain activation of the Magnocellular pathway at 12 months of age.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(9):e107992. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Emotional visual perception deficits constitute a major problem in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, the ability to assess the affective content of external cues is a key adaptive function, as it allows on the one hand the processing of potentially threatening or advantageous stimuli, and on the other hand the establishment of appropriate social interactions (by enabling rapid decoding of the affective state of others from their facial expressions). While such deficits have been classically considered as reflecting a genuine emotion decoding impairment in alcohol-dependence, converging evidence suggests that underlying visual deficits might play a role in emotional alterations. This hypothesis appears to be relevant especially as data from healthy populations indicate that a coarse but fast analysis of visual inputs would allow emotional processing to arise from early stages of perception. After reviewing those findings and the associated models, the present paper underlines data showing that rapid interactions between emotion and vision could be impaired in alcohol-dependence and provides new research avenues that may ultimately offer a better understanding of the roots of emotional deficits in this pathological state.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    Latifa Lazzouni, Franco Lepore
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    ABSTRACT: Plasticity in the human and animal brain is the rule, the base for development, and the way to deal effectively with the environment for making the most efficient use of all the senses. When the brain is deprived of one sensory modality, plasticity becomes compensatory: the exception that invalidates the general loss hypothesis giving the opportunity of effective change. Sensory deprivation comes with massive alterations in brain structure and function, behavioral outcomes, and neural interactions. Blind individuals do as good as the sighted and even more, show superior abilities in auditory, tactile and olfactory processing. This behavioral enhancement is accompanied with changes in occipital cortex function, where visual areas at different levels become responsive to non-visual information. The intact senses are in general used more efficiently in the blind but are also used more exclusively. New findings are disentangling these two aspects of compensatory plasticity. What is due to visual deprivation and what is dependent on the extended use of spared modalities? The latter seems to contribute highly to compensatory changes in the congenitally blind. Short-term deprivation through the use of blindfolds shows that cortical excitability of the visual cortex is likely to show rapid modulatory changes after few minutes of light deprivation and therefore changes are possible in adulthood. However, reorganization remains more pronounced in the congenitally blind. Cortico-cortical pathways between visual areas and the areas of preserved sensory modalities are inhibited in the presence of vision, but are unmasked after loss of vision or blindfolding as a mechanism likely to drive cross-modal information to the deafferented visual cortex. The development of specialized higher order visual pathways independently from early sensory experience is likely to preserve their function and switch to the intact modalities. Plasticity in the blind is also accompanied with neurochemical and morphological changes; both intrinsic connectivity and functional coupling at rest are altered but are likewise dependent on different sensory experience and training.
    Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:340. · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Past research has shown that odor perception can be affected by how we label odors. The aim of this study was to expand on previous work by investigating the impact of labels on edibility, pleasantness, and intensity ratings as well as on reaction times when detecting labeled odors. We tested 50 subjects. Five odorants were administered, each with a positive and a negative label. Participants had to detect odors as fast as possible and then rate their edibility, pleasantness, and intensity. Because of a lack of fit, only 4 of the initial 5 odorants were analyzed. All odorants presented with positive labels were rated as being more edible than when they were presented with negative labels. Specifically, the effect was also seen for the 2 nonfood odorants suggesting an unbiased effect. All odorants presented with positive labels were rated as being more pleasant than when they were presented with negative labels. Labels also modulated intensity ratings and reaction times for some odors. In summary, odor labels affect pleasantness ratings and edibility perception. Although labels appear to also influence intensity ratings and reaction times, this seems to be a more complex relationship that could be modulated by additional factors such as odor valence, label fit, and possibly the edibility attributed to an odor or a label.
    Chemical Senses 12/2013; · 3.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To verify if a mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm based on speech syllables can differentiate between good and poorer cochlear implant (CI) users on a speech recognition task. Twenty adults with a CI and 11 normal hearing adults participated in the study. Based on a speech recognition test, ten CI users were classified as good performers and ten as poor performers. We measured the MMN with /da/ as the standard stimulus and /ba/ and /ga/ as the deviants. Separate analyses were conducted on the amplitude and latency of the MMN. A MMN was evoked by both deviant stimuli in all normal hearing participants and in well performing CI users, with similar amplitudes for both groups. However, the amplitude of the MMN was significantly reduced for the poorer CI users compared to the normal hearing group and the good CI users. The latency was longer for both groups of cochlear implant users. A bivariate correlation showed a significant positive correlation between the speech recognition score and the amplitude of the MMN. The MMN can distinguish between CI users who have good versus poor speech recognition as assessed with conventional tasks. Our findings suggest that the MMN can be use to assess speech recognition proficiency in CI users who cannot be tested with regular speech recognition tasks, like infants and other non-verbal populations.
    Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 10/2013; · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the absence of visual input, the question arises as to how complex spatial abilities develop and how the brain adapts to the absence of this modality. As such, the aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between visual status and an important brain structure with a well established role in spatial cognition and navigation, the caudate nucleus. We conducted a volumetric analysis of the caudate nucleus in congenitally and late blind individuals, as well as in matched sighted control subjects. No differences in the volume of the structure were found either between congenitally blind (CB) and matched sighted controls or between late blind (LB) and matched sighted controls. Moreover, contrary to what was expected, no significant correlation was found between caudate volume and performance in a spatial navigation task. Finally, consistent with previously published reports, the volume of the caudate nucleus was found to be negatively correlated with age in the sighted; however such correlations were not significant in the blind groups. Although there were no group differences, the latter finding suggests that visual deprivation may still have an effect on the developmental changes that occur in the caudate nucleus.
    BMC Neuroscience 10/2013; 14(1):113. · 3.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During child development, physiological changes occur in the auditory cortex, which are reflected by differences in the electrophysiological signals. This study aimed to examine the age-related changes of the Mismatch Negativity component (MMN) in response to speech and non-speech stimuli in a cross-sectional design. Results revealed distinct patterns of activation according to stimulus type and age. Age-related differences for tone discrimination occurred earlier in children's development than did the discriminative process for speech sounds. Therefore, networks involved in speech processing are still immature in late childhood and may be more vulnerable to physiological changes.
    Developmental Neuropsychology 08/2013; 38(6):386-401. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Light regulates multiple non-image-forming (or nonvisual) circadian, neuroendocrine, and neurobehavioral functions, via outputs from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). Exposure to light directly enhances alertness and performance, so light is an important regulator of wakefulness and cognition. The roles of rods, cones, and ipRGCs in the impact of light on cognitive brain functions remain unclear, however. A small percentage of blind individuals retain non-image-forming photoreception and offer a unique opportunity to investigate light impacts in the absence of conscious vision, presumably through ipRGCs. Here, we show that three such patients were able to choose nonrandomly about the presence of light despite their complete lack of sight. Furthermore, 2 sec of blue light modified EEG activity when administered simultaneously to auditory stimulations. fMRI further showed that, during an auditory working memory task, less than a minute of blue light triggered the recruitment of supplemental prefrontal and thalamic brain regions involved in alertness and cognition regulation as well as key areas of the default mode network. These results, which have to be considered as a proof of concept, show that non-image-forming photoreception triggers some awareness for light and can have a more rapid impact on human cognition than previously understood, if brain processing is actively engaged. Furthermore, light stimulates higher cognitive brain activity, independently of vision, and engages supplemental brain areas to perform an ongoing cognitive process. To our knowledge, our results constitute the first indication that ipRGC signaling may rapidly affect fundamental cerebral organization, so that it could potentially participate to the regulation of numerous aspects of human brain function.
    Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 07/2013; · 4.49 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
882.96 Total Impact Points


  • 1975–2014
    • Université de Montréal
      • • Centre de Recherche en Neuropsychologie et Cognition (CERNEC)
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • School of Speech Pathology and Audiology
      • • School of Optometry
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2013
    • Università degli Studi di Trento
      • CIMEC - Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences
      Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige, Italy
  • 2008–2013
    • CHU Sainte-Justine
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
    • Florida State University
      • Department of Mathematics
      Tallahassee, FL, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • University of Lille Nord de France
      Lille, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France
  • 2011
    • Université René Descartes - Paris 5
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009–2011
    • Catholic University of Louvain
      • Psychological Sciences Research Institute
      Louvain-la-Neuve, WAL, Belgium
  • 1975–2011
    • McGill University
      • Division of Ophthalmology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1990–2010
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • • Department of Psychology
      • • Department of Kinanthropology
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2007–2009
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Laboratory of Neuro Imaging
      • • Department of Neurology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2002
    • Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 1978–1995
    • Università di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1994
    • Dalhousie University
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 1987
    • Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
      • Département de Psychologie
      Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada