[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OGG1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1) is one of the main DNA glycosylases present in mammalian cells. The enzyme removes 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesions, believed to be the most important oxidized lesions due to their relatively high incidence and their miscoding properties. This study shows that in prenatal mice brains the repair capacity for 8-oxoG is 5-10-fold higher than in adult mice brains. Western blot analysis and repair activity in extracts from Ogg1(-/-) mice revealed that OGG1 was responsible for the efficient 8-oxoG removal from prenatal mice. To investigate how OGG1 protects against oxidative stress-induced mutagenesis, pregnant Big Blue/wild-type and Big Blue/Ogg1(-/-) mice were exposed to nontoxic doses of gamma radiation. A 2.5-fold increase in the mutation frequency in Ogg1(-/-) mouse brains was obtained by exposure to 3.5 Gy at day 19 postfertilization. This was largely due to GC to TA transversions, believed to originate from 8-oxoG mispairing with A during replication. Furthermore, rapid cell divisions seemed to be required for fixation of mutations, as a similar dose of radiation did not increase the mutation frequency, or the frequency of GC to TA transversion, in the adult brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammalian cells, repair of the most abundant endogenous premutagenic lesion in DNA, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), is initiated by the bifunctional DNA glycosylase OGG1. By using purified human proteins, we have reconstituted repair of 8-oxoG lesions in DNA in vitro on a plasmid DNA substrate containing a single 8-oxoG residue. It is shown that efficient and complete repair requires only hOGG1, the AP endonuclease HAP1, DNA polymerase (Pol) beta and DNA ligase I. After glycosylase base removal, repair occurred through the AP lyase step of hOGG1 followed by removal of the 3'-terminal sugar phosphate by the 3'-diesterase activity of HAP1. Addition of PCNA had a slight stimulatory effect on repair. Fen1 or high concentrations of Pol beta were required to induce strand displacement DNA synthesis at incised 8-oxoG in the absence of DNA ligase. Fen1 induced Pol beta strand displacement DNA synthesis at HAP1-cleaved AP sites differently from that at gaps introduced by hOGG1/HAP1 at 8-oxoG sites. In the presence of DNA ligase I, the repair reaction at 8-oxoG was confined to 1 nt replacement, even in the presence of high levels of Pol beta and Fen1. Thus, the assembly of all the core proteins for 8-oxoG repair catalyses one major pathway that involves single nucleotide repair patches.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/2002; 30(10):2124-30. DOI:10.5167/uzh-782 · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quality of germ cell DNA is critical for the fate of the offspring, yet there is limited knowledge of the DNA repair capabilities of such cells. One of the main DNA repair pathways is base excision repair (BER) which is initiated by DNA glycosylases that excise damaged bases, followed by incision of the generated abasic (AP) sites. We have studied human and rat methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), and the major AP endonuclease (HAP1/APEX) in male germ cells. Enzymatic activities and western analyses indicate that these enzymes are present in human and rat male germ cells in amounts that are at least as high as in somatic cells. Minor differences were observed between different cellular stages of rat spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Repair of methylated DNA was also studied at the cellular level using the Comet assay. The repair was highly efficient in both human and rat male germ cells, in primary spermatocytes as well as round spermatids, compared to rat mononuclear blood cells or hepatocytes. This efficient BER removes frequently occurring DNA lesions that arise spontaneously or via environmental agents, thereby minimising the number of potential mutations transferred to the next generation.
Nucleic Acids Research 05/2001; 29(8):1781-90. · 9.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of the methyl group of thymine yields 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-hmU) and 5-formyluracil (5-foU) as major products. Whereas 5-hmU appears to have normal base pairing properties, the biological effects of 5-foU are rather poorly characterised. Here, we show that the colony forming ability of Chinese hamster fibroblast (CHF) cells is greatly reduced by addition of 5-foU, 5-formyluridine (5-foUrd) and 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-fodUrd) to the growth medium. There are no toxic effects of 5-fodUrd on cells defective in thymidine kinase or thymidylate synthetase, suggesting that the toxicity may be caused by 5-fodUrd phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of thymidylate synthetase. Whereas 5-fodUrd was the most effective 5-foU derivative causing cell growth inhibition, the corresponding ribonucleoside 5-foUrd was more effective in inhibiting [3H]uridine incorporation in non-dividing rat nerve cells in culture, suggesting that 5-foUrd exerts its toxicity through interference with RNA rather than DNA synthesis. Addition of 5-foU and 5-fodUrd was also found to promote mutagenicity at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus of CHF cells; 5-fodUrd being three orders of magnitude more potent than 5-foU. In contrast, neither 5-hmU nor 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine induced HPRT mutations. The mutation induction indicates that 5-foU will be incorporated into DNA and has base pairing properties different from that of thymine. These results suggest that 5-foU residues, originating from incorporation of oxidised bases, nucleosides or nucleotides or by oxidation of DNA, may contribute significantly to the damaging effects of oxygen radical species in mammalian cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment of pregnant guinea pigs with trichlorfon causes cerebellar hypoplasia in offspring. The most sensitive period for treatment is days 42-47 of gestation, which coincides with the rapid brain growth spurt and with the development of cerebellar granule cells. When rat granule cells were exposed in vitro to trichlorfon and dichlorvos for 24 hours they died, whereas trichloroethanol had no effect. When the cells were exposed to trichlorfon and dichlorvos for 3 hours, only dichlorvos was lethal indicating that the metabolite dichlorvos was more potent than trichlorfon itself. Cultured cerebellar granule cells were also found to be quite sensitive to other DNA-alkylating agents such as methylazoxymethanol and methylmethane sulphonate and to O6-benzylguanine; a potent and specific inhibitor of the DNA alkyltransferase involved in the repair of DNA alkylation damage. The organophosphorous compounds were also found to cause inhibition of the alkyltransferase and the lethal effects of the tested compounds on granule cell culture correlated well with the potency of inhibition. In a bacterial test system for monitoring alkylation effects on the DNA, dichlorvos was demonstrated to have a strong DNA alkylation effect. These results suggest that alkylation of DNA and inhibition of its repair can contribute to the brain hypoplasia observed after exposure to trichlorfon and dichlorvos during brain development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage generated by oxidant byproducts of cellular metabolism has been proposed as a key factor in cancer and aging. Oxygen free radicals cause predominantly base damage in DNA, and the most frequent mutagenic base lesion is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). This altered base can pair with A as well as C residues, leading to a greatly increased frequency of spontaneous G.C-->T.A transversion mutations in repair-deficient bacterial and yeast cells. Eukaryotic cells use a specific DNA glycosylase, the product of the OGG1 gene, to excise 8-oxoG from DNA. To assess the role of the mammalian enzyme in repair of DNA damage and prevention of carcinogenesis, we have generated homozygous ogg1(-/-) null mice. These animals are viable but accumulate abnormal levels of 8-oxoG in their genomes. Despite this increase in potentially miscoding DNA lesions, OGG1-deficient mice exhibit only a moderately, but significantly, elevated spontaneous mutation rate in nonproliferative tissues, do not develop malignancies, and show no marked pathological changes. Extracts of ogg1 null mouse tissues cannot excise the damaged base, but there is significant slow removal in vivo from proliferating cells. These findings suggest that in the absence of the DNA glycosylase, and in apparent contrast to bacterial and yeast cells, an alternative repair pathway functions to minimize the effects of an increased load of 8-oxoG in the genome and maintain a low endogenous mutation frequency.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(23):13300-5. DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.23.13300 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal sequence alignment based on the Smith-Waterman algorithm is usually too computationally demanding to be practical for searching large sequence databases. Heuristic programs like FASTA and BLAST have been developed which run much faster, but at the expense of sensitivity.
In an effort to approximate the sensitivity of an optimal alignment algorithm, a new algorithm has been devised for the computation of a gapped alignment of two sequences. After scanning for high-scoring words and extensions of these to form fragments of similarity, the algorithm uses dynamic programming to build an accurate alignment based on the fragments initially identified. The algorithm has been implemented in a program called SALSA and the performance has been evaluated on a set of test sequences. The sensitivity was found to be close to the Smith-Waterman algorithm, while the speed was similar to FASTA (ktup = 2).
Searches can be performed from the SALSA homepage at http://dna.uio.no/salsa/ using a wide range of databases. Source code and precompiled executables are also available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base excision repair is initiated by DNA glycosylases removing inappropriate bases from DNA. One group of these enzymes, comprising 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) from Escherichia coli and related enzymes from other organisms, has been found to have an unusual broad specificity towards quite different base structures. We tested whether such enzymes might also be capable of removing normal base residues from DNA. The native enzymes from E.coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells promoted release of intact guanines with significant frequencies, and further analysis of AlkA showed that all the normal bases can be removed. Transformation of E. coli with plasmids expressing different levels of AlkA produced an increased spontaneous mutation frequency correlated with the expression levels, indicating that excision of normal bases occurs at biologically significant rates. We propose that the broad specificity 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases represent a general type of repair enzyme 'pulling' bases in DNA largely at random, without much preference for a specific structure. The specificity for release of damaged bases occurs because base structure alterations cause instability of the base-sugar bonds. Damaged bases are therefore released more readily than normal bases once the bond activation energy is reduced further by the enzyme. Qualitatively, the model correlates quite well with the relative rate of excision observed for most, if not all, of the substrates described for AlkA and analogues.
The EMBO Journal 02/1998; 17(2):363-7. DOI:10.1093/emboj/17.2.363 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The guanine modification 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a potent premutagenic lesion formed spontaneously at high frequencies in the genomes of aerobic organisms. We have characterized a human DNA repair glycosylase for 8-oxoG removal, hOGH1 (human yeast OGG1 homologue), by molecular cloning and functional analysis. Expression of the human cDNA in a repair deficient mutator strain of Escherichia coli (fpg mutY) suppressed the spontaneous mutation frequency to almost normal levels. The hOGH1 enzyme was localized to the nucleus in cells transfected by constructs of hOGH1 fused to green fluorescent protein. Enzyme purification yielded a protein of 38 kDa removing both formamidopyrimidines and 8-oxoG from DNA. The enzymatic activities of hOGH1 was analysed on DNA containing single residues of 8-oxoG or abasic sites opposite each of the four normal bases in DNA. Excision of 8-oxoG opposite C was the most efficient and was followed by strand cleavage via beta-elimination. However, significant removal of 8-oxoG from mispairs (8-oxoG: T >G >A) was also demonstrated, but essentially without an associated strand cleavage reaction. Assays with abasic site DNA showed that strand cleavage was indeed dependent on the presence of C in the opposite strand, irrespective of the prior removal of an 8-oxoG residue. It thus appears that strand incisions are made only if repair completion results in correct base insertion, whereas excision from mispairs preserves strand continuity and hence allows for error-free correction by a postreplicational repair mechanism.
The EMBO Journal 10/1997; 16(20):6314-22. DOI:10.1093/emboj/16.20.6314 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One gene locus on chromosome I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein (YAB5_YEAST; accession no. P31378) with local sequence similarity to the DNA repair glycosylase endonuclease III from Escherichia coli. We have analyzed the function of this gene, now assigned NTG1 (endonuclease three-like glycosylase 1), by cloning, mutant analysis, and gene expression in E. coli. Targeted gene disruption of NTG1 produces a mutant that is sensitive to H2O2 and menadione, indicating that NTG1 is required for repair of oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Northern blot analysis and expression studies of a NTG1-lacZ gene fusion showed that NTG1 is induced by cell exposure to different DNA damaging agents, particularly menadione, and hence belongs to the DNA damage-inducible regulon in S. cerevisiae. When expressed in E. coli, the NTG1 gene product cleaves plasmid DNA damaged by osmium tetroxide, thus, indicating specificity for thymine glycols in DNA similarly as is the case for EndoIII. However, NTG1 also releases formamidopyrimidines from DNA with high efficiency and, hence, represents a glycosylase with a novel range of substrate recognition. Sequences similar to NTG1 from other eukaryotes, including Caenorhabditis elegans, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and mammals, have recently been entered in the GenBank suggesting the universal presence of NTG1-like genes in higher organisms. S. cerevisiae NTG1 does not have the [4Fe-4S] cluster DNA binding domain characteristic of the other members of this family.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1996; 93(20):10735-40. DOI:10.1073/pnas.93.20.10735 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the major excitatory transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. Glutamate transporters, which keep the extracellular glutamate concentration low, are required both for normal brain function and for protecting neurons against harmful glutamatergic overstimulation. We have isolated the cDNA for a rat brain glutamate transporter (REAAC1) which has 90% amino acid and 86% nucleotide identity to the rabbit EAAC1. When REAAC1 was expressed in HeLa cells using a recombinant vaccinia-T7 virus expression system, a sodium dependent glutamate uptake was observed. The affinity of the carrier to various substrates was typical of brain "high affinity' glutamate uptake: threo-3-hydroxyaspartate, (R)-aspartate, (S)-glutamate and (S)-trans-pyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid were strong inhibitors, but not (R)-glutamate or gamma-aminobutyrate. High resolution, non-radioactive in situ hybridization histochemistry in rat brain revealed the mRNA in several types of glutamatergic as well as non-glutamatergic neurons, but not in glial cells.
Molecular Brain Research 03/1996; 36(1):163-8. DOI:10.1016/0169-328X(95)00279-2 · 2.00 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This work describes the isolation and characterization of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in normal and Escherichia coli tag gene expressing Chinese hamster fibroblast, RJKO, cells. It was previously shown that increased removal of 3-alkylated adenine, effected by 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I (Tag), reduces the frequencies of hprt mutations induced by alkylating agents which produce mostly N-alkylation (MMS and EMS) to half the normal rate. In order to identify which type of mutation is suppressed by increased 3-alkyladenine repair we have determined the DNA base sequence changes of the hprt cDNA in 61 independent MMS- and EMS-induced mutant clones. For both cell types and irrespective of the agent used, the majority of mutations were GC to AT transitions originating in the non-transcribed strand. Only 6/55 base substitutions occurred at AT base pairs: five AT to GC transitions and one AT to CG transversion. Six mutations were found to be deletions. These results indicate that 3-alkylated adenines in DNA are not directly premutagenic. The fact that the mutation frequency is reduced by increased 3-alkyladenine removal might be explained by postulating the existence in mammalian cells of an SOS-like response turned on by cytotoxic lesions like 3-alkyladenine, or, alternatively, that increased removal of 3-alkyladenine increases the number of single-strand breaks in DNA, which stalls DNA replication and allows a prolonged time for DNA repair by the alkyltransferase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The alkA gene of Escherichia coli encodes a DNA glycosylase involved in base excision repair of DNA alkylation damage. In an attempt to define the reactions of the AlkA enzyme with methylated DNA, we discovered that the enzyme released substantial amounts of radioactivity from [methyl-3H]thymidine-labeled DNA even without any exposure of the DNA to methylating agents. The excised material was identified by chromatography as two different oxidized derivatives of thymine, 5-hydroxymethyluracil and 5-formyluracil. These products are formed in such DNA by one and two consecutive decays, respectively, of the tritiums of the labeled methyl group. Kinetic analysis showed that both the apparent Km and Vmax values for 5-formyluracil removal are within the same range as found for 3-methyladenine removal, suggesting that this catalytic property of AlkA is also significant under in vivo conditions. Removal of 5-hydroxymethyluracil proceeds at a rate that is 1-3 orders of magnitude slower. Since both 5-formyluracil and 5-hydroxymethyluracil are major products formed in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation, these results implicate the alkA gene function also in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Neither of the two other enzymes involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage in E. coli, i.e. endonuclease III and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase, has any affinity for oxidized unsaturated pyrimidines in DNA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/1995; 269(48):30489-95. · 4.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distributions of the mRNAs encoding the L-glutamate transporters GLT1 and GLAST were examined in the rat brain by in situ hybridization using 35S-labelled oligonucleotide probes. Probes directed to GLT1 produced dense labelling in the hippocampus, neocortex and neostriatum, and weak labelling in the cerebellum. In contrast, GLAST mRNA appeared to be greatly enriched in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions. While the intensity of the labelling for GLAST and GLT1 varied among different regions, their cellular distributions appeared to coincide inasmuch as both mRNAs were mainly expressed by glial cells. Labelling occurred, inter alia, in glial cells throughout the hippocampus, and in Golgi epithelial cells in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum.
European Journal of Neuroscience 07/1994; 6(6):936-42. DOI:10.1111/j.1460-9568.1994.tb00587.x · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have previously reported the isolation of mammalian cell lines expressing the 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase I (tag) gene from E. coli. These cells are 2-5 fold more resistant to the toxic effects of methylating agents than normal cells (15). Kinetic measurements of 3-methyladenine removal from the genome in situ show a moderate (3-fold) increase in Tag expressing cells relative to normal as compared to a high (50-fold) increase in exogenous alkylated DNA in vitro by cell extracts. Excision of 7-methylguanine is as expected, unaffected by the tag+ gene expression. The frequency of mutations formed in the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was investigated after methylmethanesulfonate (MMS), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS), N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) and N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEU) exposure. Tag expression reduced the frequency of MMS and EMS induced mutations to about half the normal rate, whereas the mutation frequency in cells exposed to NMU or NEU is not affected by the tag+ gene expression. These results indicate that after exposure to compounds which produce predominantly N-alkylations in DNA, a substantial proportion of the mutations induced is formed at 3-alkyladenine residues in DNA.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/1994; 22(9):1670-4. DOI:10.1093/nar/22.9.1670 · 9.11 Impact Factor