[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OGG1 (8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1) is one of the main DNA glycosylases present in mammalian cells. The enzyme removes 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) lesions, believed to be the most important oxidized lesions due to their relatively high incidence and their miscoding properties. This study shows that in prenatal mice brains the repair capacity for 8-oxoG is 5-10-fold higher than in adult mice brains. Western blot analysis and repair activity in extracts from Ogg1(-/-) mice revealed that OGG1 was responsible for the efficient 8-oxoG removal from prenatal mice. To investigate how OGG1 protects against oxidative stress-induced mutagenesis, pregnant Big Blue/wild-type and Big Blue/Ogg1(-/-) mice were exposed to nontoxic doses of gamma radiation. A 2.5-fold increase in the mutation frequency in Ogg1(-/-) mouse brains was obtained by exposure to 3.5 Gy at day 19 postfertilization. This was largely due to GC to TA transversions, believed to originate from 8-oxoG mispairing with A during replication. Furthermore, rapid cell divisions seemed to be required for fixation of mutations, as a similar dose of radiation did not increase the mutation frequency, or the frequency of GC to TA transversion, in the adult brain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mammalian cells, repair of the most abundant endogenous premutagenic lesion in DNA, 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), is initiated by the bifunctional DNA glycosylase OGG1. By using purified human proteins, we have reconstituted repair of 8-oxoG lesions in DNA in vitro on a plasmid DNA substrate containing a single 8-oxoG residue. It is shown that efficient and complete repair requires only hOGG1, the AP endonuclease HAP1, DNA polymerase (Pol) beta and DNA ligase I. After glycosylase base removal, repair occurred through the AP lyase step of hOGG1 followed by removal of the 3'-terminal sugar phosphate by the 3'-diesterase activity of HAP1. Addition of PCNA had a slight stimulatory effect on repair. Fen1 or high concentrations of Pol beta were required to induce strand displacement DNA synthesis at incised 8-oxoG in the absence of DNA ligase. Fen1 induced Pol beta strand displacement DNA synthesis at HAP1-cleaved AP sites differently from that at gaps introduced by hOGG1/HAP1 at 8-oxoG sites. In the presence of DNA ligase I, the repair reaction at 8-oxoG was confined to 1 nt replacement, even in the presence of high levels of Pol beta and Fen1. Thus, the assembly of all the core proteins for 8-oxoG repair catalyses one major pathway that involves single nucleotide repair patches.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/2002; 30(10):2124-30. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Formyluracil is a major oxidation product of thymine, formed in DNA in yields comparable to that of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine by exposure to gamma-irradiation. Whereas the repair pathways for removal and the biological effects of persisting 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine are much elucidated, much less attention has been paid to the cellular implications of 5-formyluracil in DNA. Here we review the present state of knowledge in this important area within research on oxidative DNA damage.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2001; 486(2):147-54. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are not only the major site for generation of reactive oxygen species, but also one of the main targets of oxidative damage. One of the major products of DNA oxidation, 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), accumulates in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) at levels three times higher than in nuclear DNA. The main pathway for the repair of 8-oxodG is the base excision repair pathway initiated by oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1). We previously demonstrated that mammalian mitochondria from mice efficiently remove 8-oxodG from their genomes and isolated a protein from rat liver mitochondria with 8-oxoguanine (8-oxodG) DNA glycosylase/apurinic DNA lyase activity. In the present study, we demonstrated that the mitochondrial 8-oxodG DNA glycosylase/apurinic DNA lyase activity is the mitochondrial isoform of OGG1. Using mouse liver mitochondria isolated from ogg1(-/-) mice, we showed that the OGG1 gene encodes for the mitochondrial 8-oxodG glycosylase because these extracts have no incision activity toward an oligonucleotide containing a single 8-oxodG DNA base lesion. Consistent with an important role for the OGG1 protein in the removal of 8-oxodG from the mitochondrial genome, we found that mtDNA isolated from liver from OGG1-null mutant animals contained 20-fold more 8-oxodG than mtDNA from wild-type animals.
Cancer Research 08/2001; 61(14):5378-81. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human endonuclease III homologue (hNTH1) removes premutagenic cytosine damage from DNA. This includes 5-hydroxycytosine, which has increased potential for pairing with adenine, resulting in C --> T transition mutations. Here we report that hNTH1 acts on both 5-hydroxycytosine and abasic sites preferentially when these are situated opposite guanines in DNA. Discrimination against other opposite bases is strongly dependent on the presence of magnesium. To further elucidate this effect, we have introduced mutations in the helix-hairpin-helix domain of hNTH1 (K212S, P211R, +G212, and DeltaP211), and measured the kinetics of 5-hydroxycytosine removal of the mutants relative to wild type. The K212S and DeltaP211 (truncated hairpin) mutant proteins were both inactive, whereas the extended hairpin in the +G212 mutant diminished recognition and binding to 5-hydroxycytosine-containing DNA. The P211R mutant resembled native hNTH1, except for decreased specificity of binding. Despite the altered kinetic parameters, the active mutants retained the ability to discriminate against the pairing base, indicating that enzyme interactions with the opposite strand relies on other domains than the active site helix-hairpin-helix motif.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 5-Formyluracil (5-foU) is a major oxidation product of thymine formed in yields comparable to that of 8-oxoguanine in DNA by ionizing radiation. Whereas the mutagenic effects of 8-oxoguanine are well understood, the investigation of the biological implications of 5-foU has so far been limited. Here we demonstrate that 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-fodUrd) supplied to the growth medium of Escherichia coli induces several base substitutions at different frequencies at position 461 in the lacZ gene in the following order: A.T-->G.C>G.C-->A.T>G.C-->T.A>A.T-->T.A>A.T-->C.G. No induction of G.C-->C.G transversions was observed. It is inferred that 5-fodUrd will be incorporated into the DNA during cell growth, forming mispairs with guanine, cytosine and thymine during replication. It, thus, appears that cell growth in the presence of 5-fodUrd may represent a good model for elucidating the cellular effects of 5-foU residues in DNA.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 06/2001; 476(1-2):99-107. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quality of germ cell DNA is critical for the fate of the offspring, yet there is limited knowledge of the DNA repair capabilities of such cells. One of the main DNA repair pathways is base excision repair (BER) which is initiated by DNA glycosylases that excise damaged bases, followed by incision of the generated abasic (AP) sites. We have studied human and rat methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (MPG), uracil-DNA glycosylase (UNG), and the major AP endonuclease (HAP1/APEX) in male germ cells. Enzymatic activities and western analyses indicate that these enzymes are present in human and rat male germ cells in amounts that are at least as high as in somatic cells. Minor differences were observed between different cellular stages of rat spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis. Repair of methylated DNA was also studied at the cellular level using the Comet assay. The repair was highly efficient in both human and rat male germ cells, in primary spermatocytes as well as round spermatids, compared to rat mononuclear blood cells or hepatocytes. This efficient BER removes frequently occurring DNA lesions that arise spontaneously or via environmental agents, thereby minimising the number of potential mutations transferred to the next generation.
Nucleic Acids Research 05/2001; 29(8):1781-90. · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation of the methyl group of thymine yields 5-(hydroxymethyl)uracil (5-hmU) and 5-formyluracil (5-foU) as major products. Whereas 5-hmU appears to have normal base pairing properties, the biological effects of 5-foU are rather poorly characterised. Here, we show that the colony forming ability of Chinese hamster fibroblast (CHF) cells is greatly reduced by addition of 5-foU, 5-formyluridine (5-foUrd) and 5-formyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5-fodUrd) to the growth medium. There are no toxic effects of 5-fodUrd on cells defective in thymidine kinase or thymidylate synthetase, suggesting that the toxicity may be caused by 5-fodUrd phosphorylation and subsequent inhibition of thymidylate synthetase. Whereas 5-fodUrd was the most effective 5-foU derivative causing cell growth inhibition, the corresponding ribonucleoside 5-foUrd was more effective in inhibiting [3H]uridine incorporation in non-dividing rat nerve cells in culture, suggesting that 5-foUrd exerts its toxicity through interference with RNA rather than DNA synthesis. Addition of 5-foU and 5-fodUrd was also found to promote mutagenicity at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus of CHF cells; 5-fodUrd being three orders of magnitude more potent than 5-foU. In contrast, neither 5-hmU nor 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2'-deoxyuridine induced HPRT mutations. The mutation induction indicates that 5-foU will be incorporated into DNA and has base pairing properties different from that of thymine. These results suggest that 5-foU residues, originating from incorporation of oxidised bases, nucleosides or nucleotides or by oxidation of DNA, may contribute significantly to the damaging effects of oxygen radical species in mammalian cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endonuclease III of Escherichia coli is normally involved in the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Here, we have investigated a possible role of EndoIII in the repair of alkylation damage because of its structural similarity to the alkylation repair enzyme 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II. It was found that overproduction of EndoIII partially relieved the alkylation sensitivity of alkA mutant cells. Site-directed mutagenesis to make the active site of EndoIII more similar to AlkA (K120W) had an adverse effect on the complementation and the mutant protein apparently inhibited repair by competing for the substrate without base release. These results suggest that EndoIII might replace AlkA in some aspect of alkylation repair, although high expression levels are needed to produce this effect.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MOTIVATION: Sequence database searching is among the most important and challenging tasks in bioinformatics. The ultimate choice of sequence-search algorithm is that of Smith-Waterman. However, because of the computationally demanding nature of this method, heuristic programs or special-purpose hardware alternatives have been developed. Increased speed has been obtained at the cost of reduced sensitivity or very expensive hardware. RESULTS: A fast implementation of the Smith-Waterman sequence-alignment algorithm using Single-Instruction, Multiple-Data (SIMD) technology is presented. This implementation is based on the MultiMedia eXtensions (MMX) and Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) technology that is embedded in Intel's latest microprocessors. Similar technology exists also in other modern microprocessors. Six-fold speed-up relative to the fastest previously known Smith-Waterman implementation on the same hardware was achieved by an optimized 8-way parallel processing approach. A speed of more than 150 million cell updates per second was obtained on a single Intel Pentium III 500 MHz microprocessor. This is probably the fastest implementation of this algorithm on a single general-purpose microprocessor described to date.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endonuclease III (Nth) of Escherichia coli is a DNA glycosylase essential for the removal of oxidised pyrimidine base residues from DNA. Several eukaryotic homologues have recently been identified and shown to have biochemical properties similar to those of Nth. However, some of the eukaryotic counterparts also appear to remove imidazole ring-opened purine residues (faPy), a property not shared by the enzymes of bacterial origin. Here, we show that the human enzyme also possesses efficient faPy DNA glycosylase activity as indicated both from studies of the purified protein and induced overexpression of the human NTH1 cDNA in HeLa cells. We constructed green fluorescent protein-tagged hNTH1 fusion proteins to study the cellular localisation of hNTH1 and found strong and exclusive sorting to the nucleus. Studies with synchronised cells showed that the expression of hNTH1 is regulated during the cell cycle with increased transcription during early and mid S-phase.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2000; 460(2):95-104. · 3.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA damage generated by oxidant byproducts of cellular metabolism has been proposed as a key factor in cancer and aging. Oxygen free radicals cause predominantly base damage in DNA, and the most frequent mutagenic base lesion is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG). This altered base can pair with A as well as C residues, leading to a greatly increased frequency of spontaneous G.C-->T.A transversion mutations in repair-deficient bacterial and yeast cells. Eukaryotic cells use a specific DNA glycosylase, the product of the OGG1 gene, to excise 8-oxoG from DNA. To assess the role of the mammalian enzyme in repair of DNA damage and prevention of carcinogenesis, we have generated homozygous ogg1(-/-) null mice. These animals are viable but accumulate abnormal levels of 8-oxoG in their genomes. Despite this increase in potentially miscoding DNA lesions, OGG1-deficient mice exhibit only a moderately, but significantly, elevated spontaneous mutation rate in nonproliferative tissues, do not develop malignancies, and show no marked pathological changes. Extracts of ogg1 null mouse tissues cannot excise the damaged base, but there is significant slow removal in vivo from proliferating cells. These findings suggest that in the absence of the DNA glycosylase, and in apparent contrast to bacterial and yeast cells, an alternative repair pathway functions to minimize the effects of an increased load of 8-oxoG in the genome and maintain a low endogenous mutation frequency.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/1999; 96(23):13300-5. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endonuclease III from Escherichia coli is the prototype of a ubiquitous DNA repair enzyme essential for the removal of oxidized pyrimidine base damage. The yeast genome project has revealed the presence of two genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, NTG1 and NTG2, encoding proteins with similarity to endonuclease III. Both contain the highly conserved helix-hairpin-helix motif, whereas only one (Ntg2) harbors the characteristic iron-sulfur cluster of the endonuclease III family. We have characterized these gene functions by mutant and enzyme analysis as well as by gene expression and intracellular localization studies. Targeted gene disruption of NTG1 and NTG2 produced mutants with greatly increased spontaneous and hydrogen peroxide-induced mutation frequency relative to the wild type, and the mutation response was further increased in the double mutant. Both enzymes were found to remove thymine glycol and 2, 6-diamino-4-hydroxy-5-N-methylformamidopyrimidine (faPy) residues from DNA with high efficiency. However, on UV-irradiated DNA, saturating concentrations of Ntg2 removed only half of the cytosine photoproducts released by Ntg1. Conversely, 5-hydroxycytosine was removed efficiently only by Ntg2. The enzymes appear to have different reaction modes, as judged from much higher affinity of Ntg2 for damaged DNA and more efficient borhydride trapping of Ntg1 to abasic sites in DNA despite limited DNA binding. Northern blot and promoter fusion analysis showed that NTG1 is inducible by cell exposure to DNA-damaging agents, whereas NTG2 is constitutively expressed. Ntg2 appears to be a nuclear enzyme, whereas Ntg1 was sorted both to the nucleus and to the mitochondria. We conclude that functions of both NTG1 and NTG2 are important for removal of oxidative DNA damage in yeast.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 06/1999; 19(5):3779-87. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The systemic Neisseria meningitidis strain P241 and the healthy pharyngeal carrier strain BT878 produce bacteriocin-like substances during growth. A method has been devised for obtaining the active substances in solution. The activity was recovered by freeze-thaw extraction of dialyzed Todd-Hewitt agar medium into which the bacteriocins had diffused during growth of the producer strains. The bacteriocins were purified more than 50-fold by ammonium-sulphate precipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. They are quite stable to heat and remain active 100% after 30 min at 100 degrees C. However, the protein nature of the bacteriocins has been confirmed by their sensitivity to alpha-chymotrypsin. Gel filtration indicated an Mr of 100-110 kDa, whereas SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis produced a common band by Coomassie staining corresponding to an Mr of 47-48 kDa, suggesting a dimer form of the active protein component.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Optimal sequence alignment based on the Smith-Waterman algorithm is usually too computationally demanding to be practical for searching large sequence databases. Heuristic programs like FASTA and BLAST have been developed which run much faster, but at the expense of sensitivity.
In an effort to approximate the sensitivity of an optimal alignment algorithm, a new algorithm has been devised for the computation of a gapped alignment of two sequences. After scanning for high-scoring words and extensions of these to form fragments of similarity, the algorithm uses dynamic programming to build an accurate alignment based on the fragments initially identified. The algorithm has been implemented in a program called SALSA and the performance has been evaluated on a set of test sequences. The sensitivity was found to be close to the Smith-Waterman algorithm, while the speed was similar to FASTA (ktup = 2).
Searches can be performed from the SALSA homepage at http://dna.uio.no/salsa/ using a wide range of databases. Source code and precompiled executables are also available.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Base excision repair is initiated by DNA glycosylases removing inappropriate bases from DNA. One group of these enzymes, comprising 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) from Escherichia coli and related enzymes from other organisms, has been found to have an unusual broad specificity towards quite different base structures. We tested whether such enzymes might also be capable of removing normal base residues from DNA. The native enzymes from E.coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human cells promoted release of intact guanines with significant frequencies, and further analysis of AlkA showed that all the normal bases can be removed. Transformation of E. coli with plasmids expressing different levels of AlkA produced an increased spontaneous mutation frequency correlated with the expression levels, indicating that excision of normal bases occurs at biologically significant rates. We propose that the broad specificity 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylases represent a general type of repair enzyme 'pulling' bases in DNA largely at random, without much preference for a specific structure. The specificity for release of damaged bases occurs because base structure alterations cause instability of the base-sugar bonds. Damaged bases are therefore released more readily than normal bases once the bond activation energy is reduced further by the enzyme. Qualitatively, the model correlates quite well with the relative rate of excision observed for most, if not all, of the substrates described for AlkA and analogues.
The EMBO Journal 02/1998; 17(2):363-7. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The guanine modification 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is a potent premutagenic lesion formed spontaneously at high frequencies in the genomes of aerobic organisms. We have characterized a human DNA repair glycosylase for 8-oxoG removal, hOGH1 (human yeast OGG1 homologue), by molecular cloning and functional analysis. Expression of the human cDNA in a repair deficient mutator strain of Escherichia coli (fpg mutY) suppressed the spontaneous mutation frequency to almost normal levels. The hOGH1 enzyme was localized to the nucleus in cells transfected by constructs of hOGH1 fused to green fluorescent protein. Enzyme purification yielded a protein of 38 kDa removing both formamidopyrimidines and 8-oxoG from DNA. The enzymatic activities of hOGH1 was analysed on DNA containing single residues of 8-oxoG or abasic sites opposite each of the four normal bases in DNA. Excision of 8-oxoG opposite C was the most efficient and was followed by strand cleavage via beta-elimination. However, significant removal of 8-oxoG from mispairs (8-oxoG: T >G >A) was also demonstrated, but essentially without an associated strand cleavage reaction. Assays with abasic site DNA showed that strand cleavage was indeed dependent on the presence of C in the opposite strand, irrespective of the prior removal of an 8-oxoG residue. It thus appears that strand incisions are made only if repair completion results in correct base insertion, whereas excision from mispairs preserves strand continuity and hence allows for error-free correction by a postreplicational repair mechanism.
The EMBO Journal 10/1997; 16(20):6314-22. · 9.82 Impact Factor