[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion-like propagation of tau aggregation might underlie the stereotyped progression of neurodegenerative tauopathies. True prions stably maintain unique conformations ("strains") in vivo that link structure to patterns of pathology. We now find that tau meets this criterion. Stably expressed tau repeat domain indefinitely propagates distinct amyloid conformations in a clonal fashion in culture. Reintroduction of tau from these lines into naive cells reestablishes identical clones. We produced two strains in vitro that induce distinct pathologies in vivo as determined by successive inoculations into three generations of transgenic mice. Immunopurified tau from these mice recreates the original strains in culture. We used the cell system to isolate tau strains from 29 patients with 5 different tauopathies, finding that different diseases are associated with different sets of strains. Tau thus demonstrates essential characteristics of a prion. This might explain the phenotypic diversity of tauopathies and could enable more effective diagnosis and therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid structures has been the subject of intense and focused research due to their association with neurodegenerative, age-related human diseases and transmissible prion diseases in humans and mammals. Of the disease associated amyloid assemblies, a diverse array of species, ranging from small oligomeric assembly intermediates to fibrillar structures, have been shown to have toxic potential. Equally, a range of species formed by the same disease associated amyloid sequences have been found to be relatively benign under comparable monomer equivalent concentrations and conditions. In recent years, an increasing number of functional amyloids have also been found. These developments show that not all amyloid structures are generically toxic to cells. Given these observations, it is important to understand why amyloid structures may encode such varied toxic potential despite sharing a common core molecular architecture. Here, we discuss possible links between different aspects of amyloidogenic structures and assembly mechanisms with their varied functional effects. We propose testable hypotheses for the relationship between amyloid structure and its toxic potential in the context of recent reports on amyloid sequence, structure, and toxicity relationships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ser52Pro variant of transthyretin (TTR) produces aggressive, highly penetrant, autosomal-dominant systemic amyloidosis in persons heterozygous for the causative mutation. Together with a minor quantity of full-length wild-type and variant TTR, the main component of the ex vivo fibrils was the residue 49-127 fragment of the TTR variant, the portion of the TTR sequence that previously has been reported to be the principal constituent of type A, cardiac amyloid fibrils formed from wild-type TTR and other TTR variants [Bergstrom J, et al. (2005) J Pathol 206(2):224-232]. This specific truncation of Ser52Pro TTR was generated readily in vitro by limited proteolysis. In physiological conditions and under agitation the residue 49-127 proteolytic fragment rapidly and completely self-aggregates into typical amyloid fibrils. The remarkable susceptibility to such cleavage is likely caused by localized destabilization of the β-turn linking strands C and D caused by loss of the wild-type hydrogen-bonding network between the side chains of residues Ser52, Glu54, Ser50, and a water molecule, as revealed by the high-resolution crystallographic structure of Ser52Pro TTR. We thus provide a structural basis for the recently hypothesized, crucial pathogenic role of proteolytic cleavage in TTR amyloid fibrillogenesis. Binding of the natural ligands thyroxine or retinol-binding protein (RBP) by Ser52Pro variant TTR stabilizes the native tetrameric assembly, but neither protected the variant from proteolysis. However, binding of RBP, but not thyroxine, inhibited subsequent fibrillogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 01/2014; 111(4):1539-44. · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of insoluble amyloid plaques in the neuropil composed of highly stable, self-assembled Amyloid-beta (Abeta) fibrils. Copper has been implicated to play a role in Alzheimer's disease. Dimers of Abeta have been isolated from AD brain and have been shown to be neurotoxic.
We have investigated the formation of dityrosine cross-links in Abeta42 formed by covalent ortho-ortho coupling of two tyrosine residues under conditions of oxidative stress with elevated copper and shown that dityrosine can be formed in vitro in Abetaoligomers and fibrils and that these links further stabilize the fibrils. Dityrosine crosslinking was present in internalized Abeta in cell cultures treated with oligomeric Abeta42 using a specific antibody for dityrosine by immunogold labeling transmission electron microscopy. Results also revealed the prevalence of dityrosine crosslinks in amyloid plaques in brain tissue and in cerebrospinal fluid from AD patients.
Abeta dimers may be stabilized by dityrosine crosslinking. These results indicate that dityrosine cross-links may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and can be generated by reactive oxygen species catalyzed by Cu2+ ions. The observation of increased Abeta and dityrosine in CSF from AD patients suggests that this could be used as a potential biomarker of oxidative stress in AD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The design of a structurally defined helical assembly is described that involves recoding of the amino acid sequence of peptide GCN4-pAA. In solution and the crystalline state, GCN4-pAA adopts a 7-helix bundle structure that resembles a supramolecular lock-washer. Structurally informed mutagenesis of the sequence of GCN4-pAA afforded peptide 7HSAP1, which undergoes self-association into a nanotube via non-covalent interactions between complementary interfaces of the coiled-coil lock washer structures. Biophysical measurements conducted in solution and the solid-state over multiple length-scales of structural hierarchy are consistent with the self-assembly of nanotube structures derived from the 7-helix bundle sub-units, in which the dimensions of the supramolecular assemblies are similar to those observed in the crystal structure of GCN4-pAA. Fluorescence studies of the interaction of 7HSAP1 with the solvatochromic fluorophore PRODAN indicated that the nanotubes could encapsulate shape-appropriate small-molecules with high binding affinity.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 09/2013; · 10.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Controlling the order and spatial distribution of self-assembly in multicomponent supramolecular systems could underpin exciting new functional materials, but it is extremely challenging. When a solution of different components self-assembles, the molecules can either coassemble, or self-sort, where a preference for like-like intermolecular interactions results in coexisting, homomolecular assemblies. A challenge is to produce generic and controlled 'one-pot' fabrication methods to form separate ordered assemblies from 'cocktails' of two or more self-assembling species, which might have relatively similar molecular structures and chemistry. Self-sorting in supramolecular gel phases is hence rare. Here we report the first example of the pH-controlled self-sorting of gelators to form self-assembled networks in water. Uniquely, the order of assembly can be predefined. The assembly of each component is preprogrammed by the pK(a) of the gelator. This pH-programming method will enable higher level, complex structures to be formed that cannot be accessed by simple thermal gelation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Elaborate morphology: The αSβ1 peptide, a fragment of α-synuclein, assembles into flat tapes consisting of a peptide bilayer, which can be modeled based on the cross-β structure found in amyloid proteins. The tapes are stabilized by hydrogen bonding, whilst the amphiphilic nature of the peptide results in the thin bilayer structure. To further stabilize the structure, these tapes may twist to form helical tapes, which subsequently close into nanotubes.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition 01/2013; · 11.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid fibril formation is associated with misfolding diseases, as well as fulfilling a functional role. The cross-ß molecular architecture has been reported in increasing numbers of amyloid-like fibrillar systems. The Waltz algorithm is able to predict ordered self-assembly of amyloidogenic peptides by taking into account residue type and position. This algorithm has expanded the amyloid sequence space and here we characterise the structures of amyloid-like fibrils formed by three peptides identified by Waltz that form fibrils but not crystals. The structural challenge is met by combining electron microscopy, linear and circular dichroism and X-ray fibre diffraction. We propose structures that reveal a cross-ß conformation with 'steric-zipper' features, giving insights into the role for side chains in peptide packing and stability within fibrils. The amenity of these peptides to structural characterisation makes them compelling model systems to use for understanding the relationship between sequence, self-assembly, stability and structure for amyloid fibrils.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naphthalene dipeptides have been shown to be useful low-molecular-weight gelators. Here we have used a library to explore the relationship between the dipeptide sequence and the hydrogelation efficiency. A number of the naphthalene dipeptides are crystallizable from water, enabling us to investigate the comparison between the gel/fiber phase and the crystal phase. We succeeded in crystallizing one example directly from the gel phase. Using X-ray crystallography, molecular modeling, and X-ray fiber diffraction, we show that the molecular packing of this crystal structure differs from the structure of the gel/fiber phase. Although the crystal structures may provide important insights into stabilizing interactions, our analysis indicates a rearrangement of structural packing within the fibers. These observations are consistent with the fibrillar interactions and interatomic separations promoting 1D assembly whereas in the crystals the peptides are aligned along multiple axes, allowing 3D growth. This observation has an impact on the use of crystal structures to determine supramolecular synthons for gelators.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is applied for the first time for the evaluation of the protein secondary structure of polyglutamine (polyQ) aggregates in vivo. Our approach demonstrates the potential for translating information about protein structure that has been obtained in vitro by X-ray diffraction into a microscopy technique that allows the same protein structure to be detected in vivo. For these studies, fibres of polyQ containing peptides (D(2)Q(15)K(2)) were assembled in vitro and examined by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction methods; the fibril structure was shown to be cross β-sheet. The same polyQ fibres were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy and this further confirmed the β-sheet structure, but indicated that the structure is highly rigid, as indicated by the strong Amide I signal at 1659 cm(-1). CARS spectra were simulated using the Raman spectrum taking into account potential non-resonant contributions, providing evidence that the Amide I signal remains strong, but slightly shifted to lower wavenumbers. Combined CARS (1657 cm(-1)) and multi-photon fluorescence microscopy of chimeric fusions of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) with polyQ (Q40) expressed in the body wall muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes (1 day old adult hermaphrodites) revealed diffuse and foci patterns of Q40-YFP that were both fluorescent and exhibited stronger CARS (1657 cm(-1)) signals than in surrounding tissues at the resonance for the cross β-sheet polyQ in vitro.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(7):e40536. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Amyloid fibrils are polymeric assemblies of normally soluble proteins or peptides. To investigate their structure, it is generally not possible to use conventional methods of crystallography and solution nuclear magnetic resonance. To examine the repeating crystalline structure along the fibre axis, X-ray fibre diffraction has been a useful tool. Here we discuss the methods by which amyloid-like fibrils may be prepared to form a sample suitable for structural analysis and describe how data may be collected and then analysed to arrive at a potential model structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is directly related to neurotoxicity in Alzheimer disease (AD). The two most abundant alloforms of the peptide co-exist under normal physiological conditions in the brain in an Aβ(42):Aβ(40) ratio of ∼1:9. This ratio is often shifted to a higher percentage of Aβ(42) in brains of patients with familial AD and this has recently been shown to lead to increased synaptotoxicity. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is unclear. Although the aggregation characteristics of Aβ(40) and Aβ(42) individually are well established, little is known about the properties of mixtures. We have explored the biophysical and structural properties of physiologically relevant Aβ(42):Aβ(40) ratios by several techniques. We show that Aβ(40) and Aβ(42) directly interact as well as modify the behavior of the other. The structures of monomeric and fibrillar assemblies formed from Aβ(40) and Aβ(42) mixtures do not differ from those formed from either of these peptides alone. Instead, the co-assembly of Aβ(40) and Aβ(42) influences the aggregation kinetics by altering the pattern of oligomer formation as evidenced by a unique combination of solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, high molecular weight mass spectrometry, and cross-seeding experiments. We relate these observations to the observed enhanced toxicity of relevant ratios of Aβ(42):Aβ(40) in synaptotoxicity assays and in AD patients.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 287(8):5650-60. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Addition of divalent cations to a solution of a naphthalene-diphenylalanine that forms worm-like micelles at high pH results in the formation of a rigid, self-supporting hydrogel.
Chemical Communications 11/2011; 47(44):12071-3. · 6.38 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aβ42 [amyloid-β peptide-(1-42)] plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease and is known to have a detrimental effect on neuronal cell function and survival when assembled into an oligomeric form. In the present study we show that administration of freshly prepared Aβ42 oligomers to a neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cell line results in a reduction in survival, and that Aβ42 enters the cells prior to cell death. Immunoconfocal and immunogold electron microscopy reveal the path of the Aβ42 with time through the endosomal system and shows that it accumulates in lysosomes. A 24 h incubation with Aβ results in cells that have damaged lysosomes showing signs of enzyme leakage, accumulate autophagic vacuoles and exhibit severely disrupted nuclei. Endogenous Aβ is evident in the cells and the results of the present study suggest that the addition of Aβ oligomers disrupts a crucial balance in Aβ conformation and concentration inside neuronal cells, resulting in catastrophic effects on cellular function and, ultimately, in cell death.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For nearly four decades, the formation of amyloid fibrils by the inflammation-related protein serum amyloid A (SAA) has been pathologically linked to the disease amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis. However, here we show that the nonpathogenic murine SAA2.2 spontaneously forms marginally stable amyloid fibrils at 37 °C that exhibit cross-beta structure, binding to thioflavin T, and fibrillation by a nucleation-dependent seeding mechanism. In contrast to the high stability of most known amyloid fibrils to thermal and chemical denaturation, experiments monitored by glutaraldehyde cross-linking/SDS-PAGE, thioflavin T fluorescence, and light scattering (OD(600)) showed that the mature amyloid fibrils of SAA2.2 dissociate upon incubation in >1.0 M urea or >45 °C. When considering the nonpathogenic nature of SAA2.2 and its ~1000-fold increased concentration in plasma during an inflammatory response, its extreme in vitro amyloidogenicity under physiological-like conditions suggest that SAA amyloid might play a functional role during inflammation. Of general significance, the combination of methods used here is convenient for exploring the stability of amyloid fibrils that are sensitive to urea and temperature. Furthermore, our studies imply that analogous to globular proteins, which can possess structures ranging from intrinsically disordered to extremely stable, amyloid fibrils formed in vivo might have a broader range of stabilities than previously appreciated with profound functional and pathological implications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia and its pathological hallmarks include the loss of neurones through cell death, as well as the accumulation of amyloid fibres in the form of extracellular neuritic plaques. Amyloid fibrils are composed of the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which is known to assemble to form 'toxic' oligomers that may be central to disease pathology. Aβ is produced by cleavage from the amyloid precursor protein within the transmembrane region, and the cleaved peptide may retain some membrane affinity. It has been shown that Aβ is capable of specifically binding to phospholipid membranes with a relatively high affinity, and that modulation of the composition of the membrane can alter both membrane-amyloid interactions and toxicity. Various biomimetic membrane models have been used (e.g. lipid vesicles in solution and tethered lipid bilayers) to examine the binding and interactions between Aβ and the membrane surfaces, as well as the resulting permeation. Oligomeric Aβ has been observed to bind more avidly to membranes and cause greater permeation than fibrillar Aβ. We review some of the recent advances in studying Aβ-membrane interactions and discuss their implications with respect to understanding the causes of Alzheimer's disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aβ (amyloid-β peptide) assembles to form amyloid fibres that accumulate in senile plaques associated with AD (Alzheimer's disease). The major constituent, a 42-residue Aβ, has the propensity to assemble and form soluble and potentially cytotoxic oligomers, as well as ordered stable amyloid fibres. It is widely believed that the cytotoxicity is a result of the formation of transient soluble oligomers. This observed toxicity may be associated with the ability of oligomers to associate with and cause permeation of lipid membranes. In the present study, we have investigated the ability of oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ42 to simultaneously associate with and affect the integrity of biomimetic membranes in vitro. Surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy reveals that the binding of the freshly dissolved oligomeric 42-residue peptide binds with a two-step association with the lipid bilayer, and causes disruption of the membrane resulting in leakage from vesicles. In contrast, fibrils bind with a 2-fold reduced avidity, and their addition results in approximately 2-fold less fluorophore leakage compared with oligomeric Aβ. Binding of the oligomers may be, in part, mediated by the GM1 ganglioside receptors as there is a 1.8-fold increase in oligomeric Aβ binding and a 2-fold increase in permeation compared with when GM1 is not present. Atomic force microscopy reveals the formation of defects and holes in response to oligomeric Aβ, but not preformed fibrillar Aβ. The results of the present study indicate that significant membrane disruption arises from association of low-molecular-mass Aβ and this may be mediated by mechanical damage to the membranes by Aβ aggregation. This membrane disruption may play a key role in the mechanism of Aβ-related cell toxicity in AD.