[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine whether an aerobic endurance training program (AET) in comparison to normal daily activities improves exercise capacity in lung transplant recipients.
Nine lung transplant recipients (12+/-6 months after transplant) were examined. All patients underwent incremental bicycle ergometry with the work rate increased in increments of 20 W every 3 min. Identical exercise tests were performed after 11+/-5 weeks of normal daily activities and then after a 6-week AET. The weekly aerobic training time increased from 60 min at the beginning to 120 min during the last week. Training intensity ranged from 30 to 60% of the maximum heart rate reserve.
Normal daily activities had no effect on exercise performance. The AET induced a significant decrease in resting minute ventilation from 14+/-5 to 11+/-3 L/min. At an identical, submaximal level of exercise, a significant decrease in minute ventilation from 47+/-14 L/min to 39+/-13 L/min and heart rate from 144+/-12 to 133+/-17 beats/min, before and after the AET, was noted. The increase in peak oxygen uptake after AET was statistically significant (1.13+/-0.32 to 1.26+/-0.27 L/min).
These data demonstrate that normal daily activities do not affect exercise performance in lung transplant recipients > or = 6 months after lung transplantation. An AET improves submaximal and peak exercise performance significantly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this pilot study hemodynamic parameters under base-line and performance conditions during a cycle without (N) and with low-dosed oral contraceptives (OC) were of interest. A group of 6 women (age 23.2 +/- 2.1 years) underwent 8 bicycle ergometry sessions each in both a normal cycle and in a cycle on OC. Testing was done in 3 phases of each cycle. Data were obtained on the maximum watt performance, the pulse work capacity at a heart rate of 170 beats per minute (PWC170), as well as on blood pressure and heart rate at rest and at various levels of exercise. No significant differences were found between the N and OC cycles during the follicular phase or in mid-cycle. During the luteal phase, however, faster heart rates and higher blood pressure levels were found for N cycles than in the corresponding phase under OC (p < 0.05).
Zentralblatt für Gynäkologie 01/1996; 118(1):37-41.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Of all the forms of osteoporosis, the postmenopausal type is the most important in social medicine due to the potentially high fracture risk in aging. The positive effects of physical activity on bone density have been emphasized in several studies. In this study on 31 female volunteers (minimum age 50 years), who had been postmenopausal for at least 2 years, 16 underwent systematic strength building (training group). They were compared with a control group consisting of 15 female volunteers. The parameters of success were physical strength and bone mineral density (BMD) before and after training. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The subjects in the control group showed significant decrease in bone density after 6 months: between 6.7 and 22.3% of the values measured at the beginning. The loss was more evident in the proximal femur than in the lumbar spine. In contrast, the subjects in the training group only showed a marginal decrease in bone density in the proximal femur: 0.8 to 3.8% of the earlier values. In the lumbar spine there was even a slight increase (+0.3%) in bone density.
Der Radiologe 09/1993; 33(8):452-6. · 0.47 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine whether a 3-month therapy with disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) is able to lower bronchial hyperreactivity in patients with perennial bronchial asthma and hyperreactive airways. Therefore, 24 patients with this condition (11 women, 13 men; age range from 16 to 41 years) were randomly allocated to either active treatment (20 mg DSCG four times daily) or to placebo in a prospectively designed, double-blind study. Bronchial hyperreactivity was assessed by acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction before and after 6 and 12 weeks of either DSCG or placebo treatment, respectively. As test values, the variations in FEV1 and oscillatory resistance (Ros) before and after inhaled acetylcholine was used. Despite the fact that DSCG significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced acute bronchoconstriction in all patients studied, it did not exhibit a significant reduction in bronchial hyperreactivity in this patient population.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uremic patients on hemodialysis suffer from marked reduction of physical exercise capacity. This reduction cannot solely be explained by the underlying disease and co-existing anemia. We wondered, whether reduced exercise capacity in these patients might be due to lack of physical exercise and whether anaerobic exercise training (AET) would lead to improved work capacity. 8 patients were enrolled in this study. At the beginning and at the end of the training period, which lasted 4 to 6 weeks, a symptom-limited incremental bicycle-spiroergometry was performed. AET led to a significant increase in exercise capacity without any changes in the renal status and hematocrit as well as hemoglobin values. From these data we conclude, that decreased exercise capacity in uremic patients on dialysis is due to inadequate exercise performance of these patients and that AET is able to improve exercise capacity.
Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift 08/1988; 138(14):350-2.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute effects of a single intravenous Prostigmin injection (0.5 mg) on lung function and gas exchange during rest and bicycle ergometry were measured in 26 patients with myasthenia gravis. The mean age of the patients was 44.6 +/- 17.6 years and the mean duration of myasthenia gravis 5.4 +/- 6.3 years. Lung function parameters obtained from 15 patients showed a normal total lung capacity with an increase in functional residual capacity and residual volume, while vital capacity was diminished. While the application of Prostigmin showed no acute effects on these lung volumes, there was a significant increase in airway resistance, even into the pathologic range. Data obtained during spiro-ergometry concerning gas exchange, circulation and muscle metabolism correspond to those expected from healthy individuals; application of Prostigmin did only influence the heart rate, which can be explained by parasympathomimetic activity. We conclude that dyspnoea in patients with myasthenia gravis need not necessarily be a symptom of the illness itself but can also be caused by therapy; in the latter case bronchodilatators are required.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The acute effects of a single intravenous Prostigmin injection (0.5 mg) on lung function and gas exchange during rest and bicycle ergometry were measured in 26 patients with myasthenia gravis. The mean age of the patients was 44.6 ± 17.6 years and the mean duration of myasthenia gravis 5.4 ± 6.3 years. Lung function parameters obtained from 15 patients showed a normal total lung capacity with an increase in functional residual capacity and residual volume, while vital capacity was diminished. While the application of Prostigmin showed no acute effects on these lung volumes, there was a significant increase in airway resistance, even into the pathologic range. Data obtained during spiro-ergometry concerning gas exchange, circulation and muscle metabolism correspond to those expected from healthy individuals; application of Prostigmin did only influence the heart rate, which can be explained by parasympathomimetic activity. We conclude that dyspnoea in patients with myasthenia gravis need not necessarily be a symptom of the illness itself but can also be caused by therapy; in the latter case bronchodilatators are required
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Platelet activating effect of cigarette smoking appears to be important in the development of atherosclerosis. We previously demonstrated a reduced sensitivity of platelets to exogenous prostacyclin (PGI2) in vitro from patients with proven atherosclerotic disease, indicating a possible role of altered platelet function in the development of atherosclerosis. We now hypothesize that cigarette smoking might be an important cause of altered platelet sensitivity to PGI2 observed in patients with atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, the response of platelets to exogenous PGI2 was tested in chronic smokers and non-smokers, prior to and after smoking two cigarettes (active smoking) and prior to and after exposure to a tobacco smoke-contaminated atmosphere (passive smoking). This study indicates that platelets of chronic smokers are less sensitive to exogenous PGI2 than platelets of non-smokers. In addition, active as well as passive smoking decreases platelet sensitivity to PGI2 in non-smokers, whereas chronic smokers exhibit no further decline. We conclude that decreased platelet sensitivity to PGI2 might be an important contributing factor to the altered platelet function observed in patients with atherosclerosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 11 patients clinically diagnosed as Pickwickian syndrome the results of daytime and night polysomnogramm were compared. The daytime recording was very efficient in identifying apnoea and correlating various types of apnoea to different sleep stages. In polysomnogramms of night sleep we found, as did Lugaresi, a reduction of sleep stages III and IV, and a slight increase of sleep stages I and II. Patients without apnea in daytime sleep also showed a normal apnea index in night sleep. The BAEP's especially the pontomesencephalic components were pathological in six patients (55%). This might be due to a primary lesion or to hypoxic damage of the brainstem.
Der Nervenarzt 06/1986; 57(5):263-8. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The calcium-dependent constriction of bronchial smooth muscle cells and release of mediators derived from mast cells is important in the pathophysiology of asthma. We hypothesized that nifedipine, a slow calcium channel blocker, would inhibit or attenuate acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Because one consequence of mast cell activation is the release of platelet-activating factor, we wondered whether thromboxane levels would be increased during acute bronchial constriction in asthmatics. Bronchoconstriction was induced in 8 asthmatics (6 men, 2 women) by acetylcholine; each subject was pretreated either with placebo or nifedipine (20 mg sublingually) on 2 separate days. Vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, peak expiratory flow rates and oscillatory resistance were measured prior to and after the intake of placebo or nifedipine as well as after an acetylcholine challenge. Pretreatment with nifedipine significantly attenuated acetylcholine-induced changes in all four lung function parameters studied, but did not significantly influence the increase in thromboxane B2 plasma concentrations observed after the acetylcholine challenge. From these data we conclude that nifedipine inhibits the acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. This effect may be either a direct action on bronchial smooth muscle or may be due to the inhibition of mediators other than thromboxane.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostacyclin (PGI2) was administered by inhalation (50 micrograms/min) and intravenous infusion (15 ng/kg/min) in 5 healthy male volunteers. Irrespective of the route of administration this substance was shown to have no effects on respiratory indices studied, whereas a significant inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation and a fall in vascular resistance could be demonstrated. Mainly because of the latter action it is suggested that PGI2, or a stable synthetic analogue, might become a potent drug in various pathological conditions, in which hypertension of various causes is a problem.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 48 patients (39 female, 9 male) were investigated. Preoperative age: 9–20 years (mean 14 years). The investigations were performed a few days preoperatively (A) and 13–74 months (mean 32 months) postoperatively (B). Lung Function. Vital capacity (VC) in liter: A: 2.17 ± 0.6, B: 2.44 ± 0.65, p < 0.001. VC in percent of normal value: A: 82 ± 14, B: 82 ± 15, NS. FEV, in liter: A: 1.68 + 0.51, B: 1.88 ± 0.43, p < 0.005. FEV1, in percent of VC: A: 78 ± 8, B: 79 ± 7, NS. Spiroergometry. VO2max.: A: 1,251 ± 310 ml/min, B: 1,626 ± 384 ml/min, p < 0.001. Relative VO2 maχ.: A: 27.3 ± 9.4 ml/min/kg, B: 31.4 ± 7.4 ml/min/kg, p < 0.005. Base deficit: A: 3.8 ± 1.5 mval/l, B: 4.7 ± 2.0 mval/l, p < 0.005. Anthropometric Data. Height: A: 158 ± 9 cm; B: 164 ± 9 cm. Degree Cobb: A: 81 ± 20, B: 55 ± 15. The improvement in lung function is in accordance with natural growth. An additional effect of the operation could not be evaluated. Spiroergometry shows, in addition to the effect of growth on VO2 max, an improvement in efficiency (as measured by relative VO2max.)- This could be due to an increase in the will to perform, which enables the patient to make better use of his physical reserves (increase in base deficit). On the other hand, a more active way of life postoperatively could cause a real improvement in VO2 max.- Indeed both factors could be responsible for the favorable development after spine correction. Both factors were only indirectly related to the operation. This means that a successful operation leads to an improvement in the psychosocial situation of the patients, who are thus motivated to lead a more active life. This causes finally the improvement in physical efficiency.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantitative histomorphometric and microradiographic analysis of iliac crest bone biopsy specimens of 10 unselected and untreated postmenopausal women with osteoporosis was performed and the results were correlated with the values measured by osteodensitometry on the right forearm. No positive correlation between histomorphometry or microradiography and osteodensitometry was observed. Moreover, the data of various histomorphometric parameters and those of the bone mineral content measured by microradiography revealed a significant negative correlation when compared to the values obtained by osteodensitometry. Our results suggest, that evaluation of one skeletal site is not necessarily representative of the entire skeleton in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Calcified Tissue International 10/1982; 34(5):456-8. · 2.50 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 50 female patients (age: 16.2 + 5.1 years) with idiopathic scoliosis (COBB: 67 ± 21°) 40 variables of lung function and spiroergometry as well as of scoliosis were investigated by means of factor analysis, Nine factors were found the variables of which correlated significantly with each other also after eliminating the influence of all other variables. The relations between the first three factors were not plausible and therefore they were not subjected to interpretation. Another three factors yielded relations well known in the field of clinical respiratory physiology and sport medicine, e. g. the positive correlation between arterial pO2 during physical work and pulmonary diffusion capacity, or the negative correlation between resting heart rate and maximal aerobic capacity. In the last three factors essential new results were found: (1) The maximal aerobic capacity does not correlate with the reduced actual values for vital capacity or total capacity but with the antropometric data. (2) There is no causal dependence between the degree of scoliosis and any of the lung function or spiroergometric parameters.Conclusions: (1) From the degree of scoliosis one cannot draw conclusions about the quality of lung function. The often described significance of the negative, direct, single linear correlation between degrees Cobb and vital capacity may be interpreted only as an expression of simultaneity, not of causality. (2) In spite of the often abnormal mechanics of thorax and lungs, the respiration in scoliotic patients, functions as in healthy subjects considering the oxygenization of the blood and the supply of O2 to the organism during rest and exercise. Therefore, a reduced aerobic capacity is not the consequence of scoliosis in most patients, but the consequence of keeping away the patients from school sports and other sport activities. This leads to a chronic lack of physical training and a bad physical state of respiration, circulation and aerobic muscle metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 8 healthy male volunteers performed jogging (as an example of an aerobic metabolic condition) and squash (as an example of an intermittently anaerobic metabolic condition). The platelets sensitivity to prostacyclin (PGI2) decreased after jogging. After squash, a statistically significant (p 0,001) decrease in the sensitivity of the platelets could be seen. Our findings suggest that an early alteration of platelet sensitivity might play a key role in maintaining the hemostatic balance and could be of greater importance than the vascular wall PGI2-synthesis, as the sensitivity changes immediately, whereas the PGI2-formation change is a long-term process.
Prostaglandines and Medicine 03/1981; 6(2):127-30.