[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Whilst common genetic variation in many non-coding genomic regulatory regions are known to impart risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), much of the heritability of CRC remains unexplained. To examine the role of recurrent coding sequence variation in CRC aetiology, we genotyped 12,638 CRCs cases and 29,045 controls from six European populations. Single-variant analysis identified a coding variant (rs3184504) in SH2B3 (12q24) associated with CRC risk (OR = 1.08, P = 3.9 × 10-7), and novel damaging coding variants in 3 genes previously tagged by GWAS efforts; rs16888728 (8q24) in UTP23 (OR = 1.15, P = 1.4 × 10-7); rs6580742 and rs12303082 (12q13) in FAM186A (OR = 1.11, P = 1.2 × 10-7 and OR = 1.09, P = 7.4 × 10-8); rs1129406 (12q13) in ATF1 (OR = 1.11, P = 8.3 × 10-9), all reaching exome-wide significance levels. Gene based tests identified associations between CRC and PCDHGA genes (P < 2.90 × 10-6). We found an excess of rare, damaging variants in base-excision (P = 2.4 × 10-4) and DNA mismatch repair genes (P = 6.1 × 10-4) consistent with a recessive mode of inheritance. This study comprehensively explores the contribution of coding sequence variation to CRC risk, identifying associations with coding variation in 4 genes and PCDHG gene cluster and several candidate recessive alleles. However, these findings suggest that recurrent, low-frequency coding variants account for a minority of the unexplained heritability of CRC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk
may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls,
and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10−14, odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82–0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk
variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other
SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended
region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression.
Human Molecular Genetics 11/2014; 24(5). DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddu552 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
Colorectal cancer is an important cause of mortality in the developed world. Hereditary forms are due to germ-line mutations in APC, MUTYH, and the mismatch repair genes, but many cases present familial aggregation but an unknown inherited cause. The hypothesis of rare high-penetrance mutations in new genes is a likely explanation for the underlying predisposition in some of these familial cases.
Exome sequencing was performed in 43 patients with colorectal cancer from 29 families with strong disease aggregation without mutations in known hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Data analysis selected only very rare variants (0–0.1%), producing a putative loss of function and located in genes with a role compatible with cancer. Variants in genes previously involved in hereditary colorectal cancer or nearby previous colorectal cancer genome-wide association study hits were also chosen.
Twenty-eight final candidate variants were selected and validated by Sanger sequencing. Correct family segregation and somatic studies were used to categorize the most interesting variants in CDKN1B, XRCC4, EPHX1, NFKBIZ, SMARCA4, and BARD1.
We identified new potential colorectal cancer predisposition variants in genes that have a role in cancer predisposition and are involved in DNA repair and the cell cycle, which supports their putative involvement in germ-line predisposition to this neoplasm.
Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics 07/2014; 17(2). DOI:10.1038/gim.2014.89 · 7.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Non-hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disorder resulting from the combination of genetic and non-genetic factors. Genome–wide association studies (GWAS) are useful for identifying such genetic susceptibility factors. However, the single loci so far associated with CRC only represent a fraction of the genetic risk for CRC development in the general population. Therefore, many other genetic risk variants alone and in combination must still remain to be discovered. The aim of this work was to search for genetic risk factors for CRC, by performing single-locus and two-locus GWAS in the Spanish population.
A total of 801 controls and 500 CRC cases were included in the discovery GWAS dataset. 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s from single-locus and 243 SNPs from two-locus association analyses were selected for replication in 423 additional CRC cases and 1382 controls. In the meta-analysis, one SNP, rs3987 at 4q26, reached GWAS significant p-value (p = 4.02×10−8), and one SNP pair, rs1100508 CG and rs8111948 AA, showed a trend for two-locus association (p = 4.35×10−11). Additionally, our GWAS confirmed the previously reported association with CRC of five SNPs located at 3q36.2 (rs10936599), 8q24 (rs10505477), 8q24.21(rs6983267), 11q13.4 (rs3824999) and 14q22.2 (rs4444235).
Our GWAS for CRC patients from Spain confirmed some previously reported associations for CRC and yielded a novel candidate risk SNP, located at 4q26. Epistasis analyses also yielded several novel candidate susceptibility pairs that need to be validated in independent analyses.
PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e101178. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101178 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aberrant activation of WNT signalling and loss of BMP signals represent the two main alterations leading to the initiation of colorectal cancer (CRC). Here we screen for genes required for maintaining the tumour stem cell phenotype and identify the zinc-finger transcription factor GATA6 as a key regulator of the WNT and BMP pathways in CRC. GATA6 directly drives the expression of LGR5 in adenoma stem cells whereas it restricts BMP signalling to differentiated tumour cells. Genetic deletion of Gata6 from mouse colon adenomas increases the levels of BMP factors, which signal to block self-renewal of tumour stem cells. In human tumours, GATA6 competes with β-catenin/TCF4 for binding to a distal regulatory region of the BMP4 locus that has been linked to increased susceptibility to development of CRC. Hence, GATA6 creates an environment permissive for CRC initiation by lowering the threshold of BMP signalling required for tumour stem cell expansion.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent neoplasms and an important cause of mortality in the developed world. Mendelian syndromes account for about 5% of the total burden of CRC, being Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis the most common forms. Lynch syndrome tumors develop mainly as a consequence of defective DNA mismatch repair associated with germline mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. A significant proportion of variants identified by screening these genes correspond to missense or noncoding changes without a clear pathogenic consequence, and they are designated as "variants of uncertain significance", being the c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) variant in the MLH1 gene a clear example. The implication of this variant as a low-penetrance risk variant for CRC was assessed in the present study by performing a case-control study within a large cohort from the COGENT consortium-COST Action BM1206 including 18,723 individuals (8,055 colorectal cancer cases and 10,668 controls) and a case-only genotype-phenotype correlation with several clinical and pathological characteristics restricted to the Epicolon cohort. Our results showed no involvement of this variant as a low-penetrance variant for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility and no association with any clinical and pathological characteristics including family history for this neoplasm or Lynch syndrome.
PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95022. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095022 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capecitabine is an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pro-drug commonly used to treat colorectal carcinoma and other tumours. About 35% of patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. The few proven genetic biomarkers of 5-FU toxicity are rare variants and polymorphisms, respectively, at candidate loci dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS).
We investigated 1456 polymorphisms and rare coding variants near 25 candidate 5-FU pathway genes in 968 UK patients from the QUASAR2 clinical trial.
We identified the first common DPYD polymorphisms to be consistently associated with capecitabine toxicity, rs12132152 (toxicity allele frequency (TAF)=0.031, OR=3.83, p=4.31×10(-6)) and rs12022243 (TAF=0.196, OR=1.69, p=2.55×10(-5)). rs12132152 was particularly strongly associated with hand-foot syndrome (OR=6.1, p=3.6×10(-8)). The rs12132152 and rs12022243 associations were independent of each other and of previously reported DPYD toxicity variants. Next-generation sequencing additionally identified rare DPYD variant p.Ala551Thr in one patient with severe toxicity. Using functional predictions and published data, we assigned p.Ala551Thr as causal for toxicity. We found that polymorphism rs2612091, which lies within an intron of ENOSF1, was also associated with capecitabine toxicity (TAF=0.532, OR=1.59, p=5.28×10(-6)). ENSOF1 is adjacent to TYMS and there is a poorly characterised regulatory interaction between the two genes/proteins. Unexpectedly, rs2612091 fully explained the previously reported associations between capecitabine toxicity and the supposedly functional TYMS variants, 5'VNTR 2R/3R and 3'UTR 6 bp ins-del. rs2612091 genotypes were, moreover, consistently associated with ENOSF1 mRNA levels, but not with TYMS expression.
DPYD harbours rare and common capecitabine toxicity variants. The toxicity polymorphism in the TYMS region may actually act through ENOSF1.
Gut 03/2014; 64(1). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306571 · 14.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Epigenetics are thought to play a major role in the carcinogenesis of multiple sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). Previous studies have suggested concordant DNA hypermethylation between tumor pairs. However, only a few methylation markers have been analyzed. This study was aimed at describing the epigenetic signature of multiple CRC using a genome-scale DNA methylation profiling. We analyzed 12 patients with synchronous CRC and 29 age-, sex-, and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors from the EPICOLON II cohort. DNA methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina Infinium HM27 DNA methylation assay. The most significant results were validated by Methylight. Tumors samples were also analyzed for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP); KRAS and BRAF mutations and mismatch repair deficiency status. Functional annotation clustering was performed. We identified 102 CpG sites that showed significant DNA hypermethylation in multiple tumors with respect to the solitary counterparts (difference in β value ≥0.1). Methylight assays validated the results for 4 selected genes (p = 0.0002). Eight out of 12(66.6%) multiple tumors were classified as CIMP-high, as compared to 5 out of 29(17.2%) solitary tumors (p = 0.004). Interestingly, 76 out of the 102 (74.5%) hypermethylated CpG sites found in multiple tumors were also seen in CIMP-high tumors. Functional analysis of hypermethylated genes found in multiple tumors showed enrichment of genes involved in different tumorigenic functions. In conclusion, multiple CRC are associated with a distinct methylation phenotype, with a close association between tumor multiplicity and CIMP-high. Our results may be important to unravel the underlying mechanism of tumor multiplicity.
PLoS ONE 03/2014; 9(3):e91033. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0091033 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent neoplasms and an important cause of mortality in the developed world. This cancer is caused by both genetic and environmental factors although 35% of the variation in CRC susceptibility involves inherited genetic differences. Mendelian syndromes account for about 5% of the total burden of CRC, with Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis the most common forms. Excluding hereditary forms, there is an important fraction of CRC cases that present familial aggregation for the disease with an unknown germline genetic cause. CRC can be also considered as a complex disease taking into account the common disease-commom variant hypothesis with a polygenic model of inheritance where the genetic components of common complex diseases correspond mostly to variants of low/moderate effect. So far, 30 common, low-penetrance susceptibility variants have been identified for CRC. Recently, new sequencing technologies including exome- and whole-genome sequencing have permitted to add a new approach to facilitate the identification of new genes responsible for human disease predisposition. By using whole-genome sequencing, germline mutations in the POLE and POLD1 genes have been found to be responsible for a new form of CRC genetic predisposition called polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(8):1961-1971. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i8.1961 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The common -652 6N del variant in the CASP8 promoter (rs3834129) has been described as a putative low-penetrance risk factor for different cancer types. In particular, some studies suggested that the deleted allele (del) was inversely associated with CRC risk while other analyses failed to confirm this. Hence, to better understand the role of this variant in the risk of developing CRC, we performed a multi-centric case-control study. In the study, the variant -652 6N del was genotyped in a total of 6,733 CRC cases and 7,576 controls recruited by six different centers located in Spain, Italy, USA, England, Czech Republic and the Netherlands collaborating to the international consortium COGENT (COlorectal cancer GENeTics). Our analysis indicated that rs3834129 was not associated with CRC risk in the full data set. However, the del allele was under-represented in one set of cases with a family history of CRC (per allele model OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90) suggesting this allele might be a protective factor versus familial CRC. Since this multi-centric case-control study was performed on a very large sample size, it provided robust clarification of the effect of rs3834129 on the risk of developing CRC in Caucasians.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85538. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0085538 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the last four years, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified sixteen low-penetrance polymorphisms on fourteen different loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the low risks conferred by known common variants, most of the 35% broad-sense heritability estimated by twin studies remains unexplained. Recently our group performed a case-control study for eight Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 CRC genes. The present investigation is a follow-up of that study. We have genotyped six SNPs that showed a positive association and carried out a meta-analysis based on eight additional studies comprising in total more than 8000 cases and 6000 controls. The estimated recessive odds ratio for one of the SNPs, rs3219489 (MUTYH Q338H), decreased from 1.52 in the original Swedish study, to 1.18 in the Swedish replication, and to 1.08 in the initial meta-analysis. Since the corresponding summary probability value was 0.06, we decided to retrieve additional information for this polymorphism. The incorporation of six further studies resulted in around 13000 cases and 13000 controls. The newly updated OR was 1.03. The results from the present large, multicenter study illustrate the possibility of decreasing effect sizes with increasing samples sizes. Phenotypic heterogeneity, differential environmental exposures, and population specific linkage disequilibrium patterns may explain the observed difference of genetic effects between Sweden and the other investigated cohorts.
PLoS ONE 09/2013; 8(9):e72091. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072091 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Defects in this pathway lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) in DNA tumors, which constitutes the molecular hallmark of this disease. Selection of patients for genetic testing in LS is usually based on fulfillment of diagnostic clinical criteria (i.e. Amsterdam criteria or the revised Bethesda guidelines). However, following these criteria PMS2 mutations have probably been underestimated since their penetrances appear to be lower than those of the other MMR genes. The use of universal MMR study-based strategies, using MSI testing and IHC staining, is being one proposed alternative. Besides, germline mutation detection in PMS2 is complicated by the presence of highly homologous pseudogenes. Nevertheless, specific amplification of PMS2 by long-range PCR and the improvement of the analysis of large deletions/duplications by MLPA overcome this difficulty. By using both approaches, we analyzed 19 PMS2-suspected carriers who have been selected by clinical or universal strategies and found 5 large deletions and 1 frameshift mutation in PMS2 in 6 patients (31%). Due to the high incidence of large deletions found in our cohort we recommend MLPA analysis as the first-line method for searching germline mutations in PMS2.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer related death among men and women in Western countries. Once a tumour develops a differentiated prognosis could be determined by lifestyle habits or inherited and somatic genetic factors. Finding such prognostic factors will be helpful in order to identify cases with a shorter survival or at a higher risk of recurrence that may benefit from more intensive treatment and follow-up surveillance. Sixteen CRC genetic susceptibility variants were directly genotyped in a cohort of 1,235 CRC patients recruited by the EPICOLON Spanish consortium. Univariate Cox and multivariate regression analyses were performed taking as primary outcomes overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and recurrence-free interval (RFI). Genetic variants rs9929218 at 16q22.1 and rs10795668 at 10p14 may have an effect on OS. The G allele of rs9929218 was linked with a better OS (GG genotype, genotypic model: HR=0.65 95%CI 0.45-0.93 P=0.0179; GG/GA genotypes, dominant model: HR=0.66 95%CI 0.47-0.94 P=0.0202). Likewise, the G allele of rs10795668 was associated with better clinical outcome (GG genotype, genotypic model: HR=0.73 95%CI 0.53-1.01 P=0.0570; GA genotype, genotypic model: HR=0.66 95%CI 0.47-0.92 P=0.0137; GG/GA genotypes, dominant model: HR=0.68 95%CI 0.50-0.94 P=0.0194). In conclusion, CRC susceptibility variants rs9929218 and rs10795668 may exert some influence in modulating patient's survival and they deserve to be further tested in additional CRC cohorts in order to confirm their potential as prognosis or predictive biomarkers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease, and therefore its development is determined by the combination of both environmental factors and genetic variants. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of SNP variation have conveniently identified 20 genetic variants so far, a significant proportion of the observed heritability is yet to be explained. Common copy-number variants (CNVs) are one of the most important genomic sources of variability, and hence a potential source to explain part of this missing genetic fraction. Therefore, we have performed a GWAS on CNVs to explore the relationship between common structural variation and CRC development. Phase 1 of the GWAS consisted of 881 cases and 667 controls from a Spanish cohort. Copy-number status was validated by quantitative PCR for each of those common CNVs potentially associated with CRC in phase I. Subsequently, SNPs were chosen as proxies for the validated CNVs for phase II replication (1,342 Spanish cases and 1,874 Spanish controls). Four common CNVs were found to be associated with CRC and were further replicated in Phase II. Finally, we found that SNP rs1944682, tagging a 11q11 CNV, was nominally associated with CRC susceptibility (p value = 0.039; OR = 1.122). This locus has been previously related to extreme obesity phenotypes, which could suggest a relationship between body weight and CRC susceptibility.
Human Genetics 05/2013; 133(5). DOI:10.1007/s00439-013-1390-4 · 4.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The presence of the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene as well as noxious stimulation might affect the requirements of remifentanil for patients undergoing ultrasonographic endoscopy under sedation-analgesia with propofol and remifentanil. Bispectral index (BIS) was used as a surrogate measure of effect.
A total of 207 patients were screened for A118G and randomly received different combinations of propofol and remifentanil, changed depending on the nausea response to endoscopy tube introduction. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to establish the relation between propofol and remifentanil with respect to BIS and to investigate the influence of A118G or noxious stimulation. The value of k e0 for propofol and remifentanil was estimated to avoid the hysteresis between predicted effect site concentration (Ce) and BIS.
Data from 176 patients were analysed. Eleven were recessive homozygous for A118G (OPRM = 1). A total of 165 patients were either dominant homozygous or heterozygous and considered normal (OPRM = 0). The estimated values of k e0 for propofol and remifentanil were 0.122 and 0.148 min(-1). Propofol and remifentanil were synergistic with respect to the BIS (α = 1.85). EC50 estimate for propofol was 3.86 µg/ml and for remifentanil 19.6 ng/ml in normal patients and 326 ng/ml in OPRM = 1 patients. BIS increases around 4% for the same effect site concentrations with noxious stimulation.
Predicted effect site concentration of remifentanil ranging 1-5 ng/ml synergistically potentiates the effects of propofol on the BIS but has no effect in A118G patients. Noxious stimulation increases BIS values by 4% at the same concentrations of propofol and remifentanil.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of complex aetiology, with much of the expected inherited risk being due to several common low risk variants. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified 20 CRC risk variants. Nevertheless, these have only been able to explain part of the missing heritability. Moreover, these signals have only been inspected in populations of Northern European origin.
Thus, we followed the same approach in a Spanish cohort of 881 cases and 667 controls. Sixty-four variants at 24 loci were found to be associated with CRC at p-values <10-5. We therefore evaluated the 24 loci in another Spanish replication cohort (1481 cases and 1850 controls). Two of these SNPs, rs12080929 at 1p33 (Preplication=0.042; Ppooled=5.523x10-03; OR (CI95%)=0.866(0.782-0.959)) and rs11987193 at 8p12 (Preplication=0.039; Ppooled=6.985x10-5; OR (CI95%)=0.786(0.705-0.878)) were replicated in the second Phase, although they did not reach genome-wide statistical significance.
We have performed the first CRC GWAS in a Southern European population and by these means we were able to identify two new susceptibility variants at 1p33 and 8p12 loci. These two SNPs are located near the SLC5A9 and DUSP4 loci, respectively, which could be good functional candidates for the association signals. We therefore believe that these two markers constitute good candidates for CRC susceptibility loci and should be further evaluated in other larger datasets. Moreover, we highlight that were these two SNPs true susceptibility variants, they would constitute a decrease in the CRC missing heritability fraction.