Sergi Castellví-Bel

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (117)743.91 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Capecitabine is an oral 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) pro-drug commonly used to treat colorectal carcinoma and other tumours. About 35% of patients experience dose-limiting toxicity. The few proven genetic biomarkers of 5-FU toxicity are rare variants and polymorphisms, respectively, at candidate loci dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) and thymidylate synthase (TYMS). We investigated 1456 polymorphisms and rare coding variants near 25 candidate 5-FU pathway genes in 968 UK patients from the QUASAR2 clinical trial. We identified the first common DPYD polymorphisms to be consistently associated with capecitabine toxicity, rs12132152 (toxicity allele frequency (TAF)=0.031, OR=3.83, p=4.31×10(-6)) and rs12022243 (TAF=0.196, OR=1.69, p=2.55×10(-5)). rs12132152 was particularly strongly associated with hand-foot syndrome (OR=6.1, p=3.6×10(-8)). The rs12132152 and rs12022243 associations were independent of each other and of previously reported DPYD toxicity variants. Next-generation sequencing additionally identified rare DPYD variant p.Ala551Thr in one patient with severe toxicity. Using functional predictions and published data, we assigned p.Ala551Thr as causal for toxicity. We found that polymorphism rs2612091, which lies within an intron of ENOSF1, was also associated with capecitabine toxicity (TAF=0.532, OR=1.59, p=5.28×10(-6)). ENSOF1 is adjacent to TYMS and there is a poorly characterised regulatory interaction between the two genes/proteins. Unexpectedly, rs2612091 fully explained the previously reported associations between capecitabine toxicity and the supposedly functional TYMS variants, 5'VNTR 2R/3R and 3'UTR 6 bp ins-del. rs2612091 genotypes were, moreover, consistently associated with ENOSF1 mRNA levels, but not with TYMS expression. DPYD harbours rare and common capecitabine toxicity variants. The toxicity polymorphism in the TYMS region may actually act through ENOSF1.
    Gut 03/2014; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent neoplasms and an important cause of mortality in the developed world. This cancer is caused by both genetic and environmental factors although 35% of the variation in CRC susceptibility involves inherited genetic differences. Mendelian syndromes account for about 5% of the total burden of CRC, with Lynch syndrome and familial adenomatous polyposis the most common forms. Excluding hereditary forms, there is an important fraction of CRC cases that present familial aggregation for the disease with an unknown germline genetic cause. CRC can be also considered as a complex disease taking into account the common disease-commom variant hypothesis with a polygenic model of inheritance where the genetic components of common complex diseases correspond mostly to variants of low/moderate effect. So far, 30 common, low-penetrance susceptibility variants have been identified for CRC. Recently, new sequencing technologies including exome- and whole-genome sequencing have permitted to add a new approach to facilitate the identification of new genes responsible for human disease predisposition. By using whole-genome sequencing, germline mutations in the POLE and POLD1 genes have been found to be responsible for a new form of CRC genetic predisposition called polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 02/2014; 20(8):1961-1971. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Epigenetics are thought to play a major role in the carcinogenesis of multiple sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). Previous studies have suggested concordant DNA hypermethylation between tumor pairs. However, only a few methylation markers have been analyzed. This study was aimed at describing the epigenetic signature of multiple CRC using a genome-scale DNA methylation profiling. We analyzed 12 patients with synchronous CRC and 29 age-, sex-, and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors from the EPICOLON II cohort. DNA methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina Infinium HM27 DNA methylation assay. The most significant results were validated by Methylight. Tumors samples were also analyzed for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP); KRAS and BRAF mutations and mismatch repair deficiency status. Functional annotation clustering was performed. We identified 102 CpG sites that showed significant DNA hypermethylation in multiple tumors with respect to the solitary counterparts (difference in β value ≥0.1). Methylight assays validated the results for 4 selected genes (p = 0.0002). Eight out of 12(66.6%) multiple tumors were classified as CIMP-high, as compared to 5 out of 29(17.2%) solitary tumors (p = 0.004). Interestingly, 76 out of the 102 (74.5%) hypermethylated CpG sites found in multiple tumors were also seen in CIMP-high tumors. Functional analysis of hypermethylated genes found in multiple tumors showed enrichment of genes involved in different tumorigenic functions. In conclusion, multiple CRC are associated with a distinct methylation phenotype, with a close association between tumor multiplicity and CIMP-high. Our results may be important to unravel the underlying mechanism of tumor multiplicity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(3):e91033. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lynch syndrome (LS) is caused by germline mutations in one of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Defects in this pathway lead to microsatellite instability (MSI) in DNA tumors, which constitutes the molecular hallmark of this disease. Selection of patients for genetic testing in LS is usually based on fulfillment of diagnostic clinical criteria (i.e. Amsterdam criteria or the revised Bethesda guidelines). However, following these criteria PMS2 mutations have probably been underestimated since their penetrances appear to be lower than those of the other MMR genes. The use of universal MMR study-based strategies, using MSI testing and IHC staining, is being one proposed alternative. Besides, germline mutation detection in PMS2 is complicated by the presence of highly homologous pseudogenes. Nevertheless, specific amplification of PMS2 by long-range PCR and the improvement of the analysis of large deletions/duplications by MLPA overcome this difficulty. By using both approaches, we analyzed 19 PMS2-suspected carriers who have been selected by clinical or universal strategies and found 5 large deletions and 1 frameshift mutation in PMS2 in 6 patients (31%). Due to the high incidence of large deletions found in our cohort we recommend MLPA analysis as the first-line method for searching germline mutations in PMS2.
    Clinical Genetics 07/2013; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: The presence of the A118G single nucleotide polymorphism in the OPRM1 gene as well as noxious stimulation might affect the requirements of remifentanil for patients undergoing ultrasonographic endoscopy under sedation-analgesia with propofol and remifentanil. Bispectral index (BIS) was used as a surrogate measure of effect. METHODS:: A total of 207 patients were screened for A118G and randomly received different combinations of propofol and remifentanil, changed depending on the nausea response to endoscopy tube introduction. Nonlinear mixed effects modelling was used to establish the relation between propofol and remifentanil with respect to BIS and to investigate the influence of A118G or noxious stimulation. The value of ke0 for propofol and remifentanil was estimated to avoid the hysteresis between predicted effect site concentration (Ce) and BIS. RESULTS:: Data from 176 patients were analysed. Eleven were recessive homozygous for A118G (OPRM = 1). A total of 165 patients were either dominant homozygous or heterozygous and considered normal (OPRM = 0). The estimated values of ke0 for propofol and remifentanil were 0.122 and 0.148 min. Propofol and remifentanil were synergistic with respect to the BIS (α = 1.85). EC50 estimate for propofol was 3.86 µg/ml and for remifentanil 19.6 ng/ml in normal patients and 326 ng/ml in OPRM = 1 patients. BIS increases around 4% for the same effect site concentrations with noxious stimulation. CONCLUSIONS:: Predicted effect site concentration of remifentanil ranging 1-5 ng/ml synergistically potentiates the effects of propofol on the BIS but has no effect in A118G patients. Noxious stimulation increases BIS values by 4% at the same concentrations of propofol and remifentanil.
    Anesthesiology 03/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease of complex aetiology, with much of the expected inherited risk being due to several common low risk variants. Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified 20 CRC risk variants. Nevertheless, these have only been able to explain part of the missing heritability. Moreover, these signals have only been inspected in populations of Northern European origin. RESULTS: Thus, we followed the same approach in a Spanish cohort of 881 cases and 667 controls. Sixty-four variants at 24 loci were found to be associated with CRC at p-values <10-5. We therefore evaluated the 24 loci in another Spanish replication cohort (1481 cases and 1850 controls). Two of these SNPs, rs12080929 at 1p33 (Preplication=0.042; Ppooled=5.523x10-03; OR (CI95%)=0.866(0.782-0.959)) and rs11987193 at 8p12 (Preplication=0.039; Ppooled=6.985x10-5; OR (CI95%)=0.786(0.705-0.878)) were replicated in the second Phase, although they did not reach genome-wide statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: We have performed the first CRC GWAS in a Southern European population and by these means we were able to identify two new susceptibility variants at 1p33 and 8p12 loci. These two SNPs are located near the SLC5A9 and DUSP4 loci, respectively, which could be good functional candidates for the association signals. We therefore believe that these two markers constitute good candidates for CRC susceptibility loci and should be further evaluated in other larger datasets. Moreover, we highlight that were these two SNPs true susceptibility variants, they would constitute a decrease in the CRC missing heritability fraction.
    BMC Genomics 01/2013; 14(1):55. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Colorectal cancers (CRC) with microsatellite instability (MSI) and a mismatch repair (MMR) deficit without hypermethylation of the MLH1 promoter are likely to be caused by Lynch syndrome. Some patients with these cancers have not been found to have pathogenic germline mutations, and are considered to have Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of cancer in families of patients with LLS. METHODS: We studied a population-based cohort of 1705 consecutive patients, performing MSI tests and immunohistochemical analyses of MMR proteins. Patients were diagnosed with Lynch syndrome when they were found to have pathogenic germline mutations. Patients with MSI and loss of MSH2 and/or MSH6 expression, isolated loss of PMS2 or loss of MLH1 without MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and no pathogenic mutation were considered to have LLS. The clinical characteristics of patients and the age- and sex-adjusted standardized incidence ratios (SIR) of cancer in families were compared between groups. RESULTS: The incidence of CRC was significantly lower in families of LLS patients than families with confirmed Lynch syndrome cases (SIR for Lynch syndrome=6.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.58-9.54 and SIR for LLS=2.12; 95% CI, 1.16-3.56; P<.001). However, the incidence of CRC was higher in families of patients with LLS than in families with sporadic CRC (SIR for sporadic CRC=0.48; 95% CI, 0.27-0.79; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The risk of cancer in families with LLS is lower that of families with Lynch syndrome, but higher than that of families with sporadic CRC. These results confirm the need for special screening and surveillance strategies for these patients and their relatives.
    Gastroenterology 01/2013; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease, and therefore its development is determined by the combination of both environmental factors and genetic variants. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of SNP variation have conveniently identified 20 genetic variants so far, a significant proportion of the observed heritability is yet to be explained. Common copy-number variants (CNVs) are one of the most important genomic sources of variability, and hence a potential source to explain part of this missing genetic fraction. Therefore, we have performed a GWAS on CNVs to explore the relationship between common structural variation and CRC development. Phase 1 of the GWAS consisted of 881 cases and 667 controls from a Spanish cohort. Copy-number status was validated by quantitative PCR for each of those common CNVs potentially associated with CRC in phase I. Subsequently, SNPs were chosen as proxies for the validated CNVs for phase II replication (1,342 Spanish cases and 1,874 Spanish controls). Four common CNVs were found to be associated with CRC and were further replicated in Phase II. Finally, we found that SNP rs1944682, tagging a 11q11 CNV, was nominally associated with CRC susceptibility (p value = 0.039; OR = 1.122). This locus has been previously related to extreme obesity phenotypes, which could suggest a relationship between body weight and CRC susceptibility.
    Human Genetics 01/2013; · 4.63 Impact Factor
  • Pharmacogenomics 01/2013; 13(3):209-217. · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified 20 colorectal cancer (CRC) susceptibility loci. Amongst these, four of the signals are defined by tagging SNPs on regions 14q22.2 (rs4444235 and rs1957636) and 20p12.3 (rs961253 and rs4813802). These markers are located close to two of the genes involved in BMP signalling (BMP4 and BMP2, respectively). By investigating these four SNPs in an initial cohort of Spanish origin, we found substantial evidence that minor allele frequencies (MAFs) may be different in Northern and Southern European populations. Therefore, we genotyped 3 additional Southern European cohorts comprising a total of 2,028 cases and 4,273 controls. The meta-analysis results show that only one of the association signals (rs961253) is effectively replicated in the Southern European populations, despite adequate power to detect all four. The other three SNPs (rs4444235, rs1957636 and rs4813802) present discordant results in MAFs and LD patterns between Northern and Southern European cohorts. We hypothesize that this lack of replication could be the result of differential tagging of the functional variant in both sets of populations. Were this true, it would have complex consequences in both our ability to understand the nature of the real causative variants, as well as for further study designs.
    Carcinogenesis 11/2012; · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • Sergi Castellví-Bel, Anna Abulí, Antoni Castells
    Gastroenterology 10/2012; · 12.82 Impact Factor
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    Clinical Genetics 10/2012; · 4.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a substantial heritable component. Common genetic variation has been shown to contribute to CRC risk. A study was conducted in a large multi-population study to assess the feasibility of CRC risk prediction using common genetic variant data combined with other risk factors. A risk prediction model was built and applied to the Scottish population using available data. DESIGN: Nine populations of European descent were studied to develop and validate CRC risk prediction models. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the combined effect of age, gender, family history (FH) and genotypes at 10 susceptibility loci that individually only modestly influence CRC risk. Risk models were generated from case-control data incorporating genotypes alone (n=39 266) and in combination with gender, age and FH (n=11 324). Model discriminatory performance was assessed using 10-fold internal cross-validation and externally using 4187 independent samples. The 10-year absolute risk was estimated by modelling genotype and FH with age- and gender-specific population risks. RESULTS: The median number of risk alleles was greater in cases than controls (10 vs 9, p<2.2×10(-16)), confirmed in external validation sets (Sweden p=1.2×10(-6), Finland p=2×10(-5)). The mean per-allele increase in risk was 9% (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13). Discriminative performance was poor across the risk spectrum (area under curve for genotypes alone 0.57; area under curve for genotype/age/gender/FH 0.59). However, modelling genotype data, FH, age and gender with Scottish population data shows the practicalities of identifying a subgroup with >5% predicted 10-year absolute risk. CONCLUSION: Genotype data provide additional information that complements age, gender and FH as risk factors, but individualised genetic risk prediction is not currently feasible. Nonetheless, the modelling exercise suggests public health potential since it is possible to stratify the population into CRC risk categories, thereby informing targeted prevention and surveillance.
    Gut 04/2012; · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The EPICOLON consortium was initiated in 1999 by the Gastrointestinal Oncology Group of the Spanish Gastroenterology Association. It recruited consecutive, unselected, population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and control subjects matched by age and gender without personal or familial history of cancer all over Spain with the main goal of gaining knowledge in Lynch syndrome and familial CRC. This epidemiological, prospective and multicentre study collected extensive clinical data and biological samples from ∼2000 CRC cases and 2000 controls in Phases 1 and 2 involving 25 and 14 participating hospitals, respectively. Genetic susceptibility projects in EPICOLON have included candidate-gene approaches evaluating single-nucleotide polymorphisms/genes from the historical category (linked to CRC risk by previous studies), from human syntenic CRC susceptibility regions identified in mouse, from the CRC carcinogenesis-related pathways Wnt and BMP, from regions 9q22 and 3q22 with positive linkage in CRC families, and from the mucin gene family. This consortium has also participated actively in the identification 5 of the 16 common, low-penetrance CRC genetic variants identified so far by genome-wide association studies. Finishing their own pangenomic study and performing whole-exome sequencing in selected CRC samples are among EPICOLON future research prospects.
    Mutagenesis 03/2012; 27(2):153-9. · 3.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Western countries. Hereditary forms only correspond to 5% of CRC burden. Recently, genome-wide association studies have identified common low-penetrant CRC genetic susceptibility loci. Early-onset CRC (CRC<50 years old) is especially suggestive of hereditary predisposition although 85-90% of heritability still remains unidentified. CRC<50 patients (n = 191) were compared with a late-onset CRC group (CRC>65 years old) (n = 1264). CRC susceptibility variants at 8q23.3 (rs16892766), 8q24.21 (rs6983267), 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842), 15q13.3 (rs4779584), 18q21 (rs4939827), 14q22.2 (rs4444235), 16q22.1 (rs9929218), 19q13.1 (rs10411210) and 20p12.3 (rs961253) were genotyped in all DNA samples. A genotype-phenotype correlation with clinical and pathological characteristics in both groups was performed. Risk allele carriers for rs3802842 [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-2.05, P = 0.0096, dominant model) and rs4779584 (OR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.9, P = 0.0396, dominant model) were more frequent in the CRC<50 group, whereas homozygotes for rs10795668 risk allele were also more frequent in the early-onset CRC (P = 0.02, codominant model). Regarding early-onset cases, 14q22 (rs4444235), 11q23 (rs3802842) and 20p12 (rs961253) variants were more associated with family history of CRC or tumors of the Lynch syndrome spectrum excluding CRC. In our entire cohort, sum of risk alleles was significantly higher in patients with a CRC family history (OR = 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.85, P = 0.01). In conclusion, variants at 10p14 (rs10795668), 11q23.1 (rs3802842) and 15q13.3 (rs4779584) may have a predominant role in predisposition to early-onset CRC. Association of CRC susceptibility variants with some patient's familiar and personal features could be relevant for screening and surveillance strategies in this high-risk group and it should be explored in further studies.
    Carcinogenesis 03/2012; 33(3):613-9. · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of genotyping technologies has allowed for wider screening for inherited causes of variable outcomes following drug administration. We have performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on 221 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients that had been treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), either alone or in combination with oxaliplatin (FOLFOX). A validation set of 791 patients was also studied. Seven SNPs (rs16857540, rs2465403, rs10876844, rs10784749, rs17626122, rs7325568 and rs4243761) showed evidence of association (pooled P-values 0.020, 9.426E-03, 0.010, 0.017, 0.042, 2.302E-04, 2.803E-03) with adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This is the first study to explore the genetic basis of inter-individual variation in toxicity responses to the administration of 5-FU or FOLFOX in CRC patients on a genome-wide scale.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 February 2012; doi:10.1038/tpj.2012.2.
    The Pharmacogenomics Journal 02/2012; · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) represents a clinically distinct form of CRC that is often associated with a poor prognosis. Methylation levels of genomic repeats such as LINE-1 elements have been recognized as independent factors for increased cancer-related mortality. The methylation status of LINE-1 elements in early-onset CRC has not been analyzed previously. We analyzed 343 CRC tissues and 32 normal colonic mucosa samples, including 2 independent cohorts of CRC diagnosed ≤50 years old (n = 188), a group of sporadic CRC >50 years (MSS n = 89; MSI n = 46), and a group of Lynch syndrome CRCs (n = 20). Tumor mismatch repair protein expression, microsatellite instability status, LINE-1 and MLH1 methylation, somatic BRAF V600E mutation, and germline MUTYH mutations were evaluated. Mean LINE-1 methylation levels (±SD) in the five study groups were early-onset CRC, 56.6% (8.6); sporadic MSI, 67.1% (5.5); sporadic MSS, 65.1% (6.3); Lynch syndrome, 66.3% (4.5) and normal mucosa, 76.5% (1.5). Early-onset CRC had significantly lower LINE-1 methylation than any other group (p<0.0001). Compared to patients with <65% LINE-1 methylation in tumors, those with ≥65% LINE-1 methylation had significantly better overall survival (p = 0.026, log rank test). LINE-1 hypomethylation constitutes a potentially important feature of early-onset CRC, and suggests a distinct molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to assess the potential of LINE-1 methylation status as a prognostic biomarker for young people with CRC.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(9):e45357. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of colorectal cancer, we have identified two genomic regions in which pairs of tagging-single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) are associated with disease; these comprise chromosomes 1q41 (rs6691170, rs6687758) and 12q13.13 (rs7163702, rs11169552). We investigated these regions further, aiming to determine whether they contain more than one independent association signal and/or to identify the SNPs most strongly associated with disease. Genotyping of additional sample sets at the original tagSNPs showed that, for both regions, the two tagSNPs were unlikely to identify a single haplotype on which the functional variation lay. Conversely, one of the pair of SNPs did not fully capture the association signal in each region. We therefore undertook more detailed analyses, using imputation, logistic regression, genealogical analysis using the GENECLUSTER program and haplotype analysis. In the 1q41 region, the SNP rs11118883 emerged as a strong candidate based on all these analyses, sufficient to account for the signals at both rs6691170 and rs6687758. rs11118883 lies within a region with strong evidence of transcriptional regulatory activity and has been associated with expression of PDGFRB mRNA. For 12q13.13, a complex situation was found: SNP rs7972465 showed stronger association than either rs11169552 or rs7136702, and GENECLUSTER found no good evidence for a two-SNP model. However, logistic regression and haplotype analyses supported a two-SNP model, in which a signal at the SNP rs706793 was added to that at rs11169552. Post-GWAS fine-mapping studies are challenging, but the use of multiple tools can assist in identifying candidate functional variants in at least some cases.
    Human Molecular Genetics 11/2011; 21(4):934-46. · 7.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The selection of patients for genetic testing to rule out Lynch syndrome is currently based on fulfilment of at least one of the revised Bethesda criteria followed by mismatch repair (MMR) status analysis. A study was undertaken to compare the present approach with universal MMR study-based strategies to detect Lynch syndrome in a large series of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). 2093 patients with CRC from the EPICOLON I and II cohorts were included. Immunohistochemistry for MMR proteins and/or microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis was performed in tumour tissue. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutation analysis was performed in patients whose tumours showed loss of MLH1 or MSH2 staining, respectively. MSH6 genetic testing was done in patients whose tumours showed lack of MSH6 expression or a combined lack of MSH2 and MSH6 expression but did not have MSH2 mutations. PMS2 genetic testing was performed in patients showing isolated loss of PMS2 expression. In patients with MSI tumours and normal or not available MMR protein expression, all four MMR genes were studied. A total of 180 patients (8.6%) showed loss of expression of some of the MMR proteins and/or MSI. Four hundred and eighty-six patients (23.2%) met some of the revised Bethesda criteria. Of the 14 (0.7%) patients who had a MMR gene mutation, 12 fulfilled at least one of the revised Bethesda criteria and two (14.3%) did not. Routine molecular screening of patients with CRC for Lynch syndrome using immunohistochemistry or MSI has better sensitivity for detecting mutation carriers than the Bethesda guidelines.
    Gut 08/2011; 61(6):865-72. · 10.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.00-1.25, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles) and borderline significant for rs698 and rs2102302. The rs3803185 variant was not significantly associated with CRC risk in an external cohort (MCC-Spain), but it still showed some borderline significance in the pooled analysis of both cohorts (OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.98-1.18, P-value = 0.09, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles). ARL11, ADH1C, GALNTL2 and IL6 genetic variants may have an effect on CRC risk. Further validation and meta-analyses should be undertaken in larger CRC studies.
    BMC Cancer 08/2011; 11:339. · 3.33 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
743.91 Total Impact Points


  • 2013
    • Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Raras
      Valenza, Valencia, Spain
  • 2011–2012
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • MRC Human Genetics Unit
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
    • Consorci MAR Parc de Salut de Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Barcelona
      • Department of Medicine
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 1994–2012
    • Hospital Clínic de Barcelona
      • • Servicio de Gastroenterología
      • • Servicio de Bioquímica y Genética Molecular
      Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2007–2011
    • IDIBAPS August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
    • Parc de Salut Mar
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2010
    • University Pompeu Fabra
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2009–2010
    • University of Santiago de Compostela
      Santiago, Galicia, Spain
  • 2008
    • London Research Institute
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
    • Institute of Cancer Research
      • Division of Genetics and Epidemiology
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2005
    • Institut Marqués, Spain, Barcelona
      Barcino, Catalonia, Spain
  • 2004–2005
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Division of Gastroenterology
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 1998–2003
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • • Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States
  • 2000
    • University of Zaragoza
      Caesaraugusta, Aragon, Spain