Stephen L Seliger

University of Maryland, Baltimore, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (96)711.81 Total impact

  • Shan Shan Chen, Stephen L Seliger, Linda F Fried
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    ABSTRACT: This review presents the role of combination therapy of rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade on cardiovascular and kidney disease.
    Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Renal hemodynamic measurements are complicated to perform in patients with cirrhosis, yet they provide the best measure of risk to predict hepatorenal syndrome (HRS). Currently, there are no established biomarkers of altered renal hemodynamics in cirrhosis validated by measured renal hemodynamics. Methods: In this pilot study, simultaneous measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal plasma flow (RPF), renal resistive indices and biomarkers were performed to evaluate renal hemodynamic alterations in 10 patients with cirrhosis (3 patients without ascites, 5 with diuretic-sensitive and 2 diuretic-refractory ascites). Results: Patients with diuretic-refractory ascites had the lowest mean GFR (36.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and RPF (133.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) when compared to those without ascites (GFR 82.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RPF 229.9 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and with diuretic-sensitive ascites (GFR 82.3 ml/min/1.73 m(2), RPF 344.1 ml/min/1.73 m(2)). A higher mean filtration fraction (FF) (GFR/RPF 0.36) was noted among those without ascites compared to those with ascites. Higher FF in patients without ascites is most likely secondary to the vasoconstriction in the efferent glomerular arterioles (normal FF ∼0.20). In general, renal resistive indices were inversely related to FF. While patients with ascites had lower FF and higher right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices, those without ascites had higher FF and lower right kidney main and arcuate artery resistive indices. While cystatin C and β2-microglobulin performed better compared to Cr in estimating RPF, β-trace protein, β2-microglobulin, and SDMA, and (SDMA+ADMA) performed better in estimating right kidney arcuate artery resistive index. Conclusion: The results of this pilot study showed that identification of non-invasive biomarkers of reduced RPF and increased renal resistive indices can identify cirrhotics at risk for HRS at a stage more amenable to therapeutic intervention and reduce mortality from kidney failure in cirrhosis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American journal of nephrology. 06/2014; 39(6):543-552.
  • Daniel E Weiner, Stephen L Seliger
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    ABSTRACT: Both cognitive and physical function are commonly impaired in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in important impacts on their quality of life and overall health. This review summarizes the burden of cognitive and physical impairment in CKD, focusing on recent research that highlights a possible unifying microvascular cause among these shared comorbid conditions. Multiple small studies have been published recently evaluating cognitive and physical functioning in people with CKD. These studies overall demonstrate a high burden of comorbid conditions in people with CKD, including microvascular disease, that may result in cognitive impairment. Additionally, studies demonstrate that physical function is substantially worse than expected in individuals with CKD, that decreased physical activity is associated with worse outcomes, that frailty is very common and associated with an increased risk of death, and that structured exercise programs have small but tangible short-term effects on markers of physical performance. Impaired cognitive function and physical performance are important factors impacting the lives of people with CKD. Further research is necessary to better treat these important comorbid conditions in people with CKD.
    Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 03/2014; · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Stephen L Seliger, Linda F Fried
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 01/2014; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To determine the 99th percentile upper reference limit for the highly sensitive cardiac troponin T assay (hs-cTnT) in three large independent cohorts. Background The presently recommended 14 ng/L cutpoint for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction using the hs-cTnT assay was derived from small studies of presumably healthy individuals, with relatively little phenotypic characterization. Methods Data were included from three well characterized population-based studies: the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study, and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Within each cohort, reference subcohorts were defined excluding individuals with recent hospitalization, overt cardiovascular disease and kidney disease (subcohort 1) and further excluding those with subclinical structural heart disease (subcohort 2). Data were analyzed stratified by age, sex and race. Results The 99th percentile values for the hs-cTnT assay in DHS, ARIC and CHS were 18, 22 and 36 ng/L respectively (subcohort 1) and 14, 21 and 28 ng/L respectively (subcohort 2). These differences in 99th percentile values paralleled age differences across cohorts. Analyses within sex/age strata yielded similar results between cohorts. Within each cohort, 99th percentile values increased with age and were higher in men. More than 10% of men aged 65-74 with no cardiovascular disease in our study had cTnT values above the current myocardial infarction threshold. Conclusions Use of a uniform 14 ng/L cutoff for the hs-cTnT assay may lead to over-diagnosis of myocardial infarction, particularly in men and the elderly. Clinical validation is needed of new age- and sex-specific cutoff values for this assay.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 01/2014; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Combination therapy with angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs) decreases proteinuria; however, its safety and effect on the progression of kidney disease are uncertain. Methods We provided losartan (at a dose of 100 mg per day) to patients with type 2 diabetes, a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of at least 300, and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 30.0 to 89.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area and then randomly assigned them to receive lisinopril (at a dose of 10 to 40 mg per day) or placebo. The primary end point was the first occurrence of a change in the estimated GFR (a decline of ≥30 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) if the initial estimated GFR was ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) or a decline of ≥50% if the initial estimated GFR was <60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2)), end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or death. The secondary renal end point was the first occurrence of a decline in the estimated GFR or ESRD. Safety outcomes included mortality, hyperkalemia, and acute kidney injury. Results The study was stopped early owing to safety concerns. Among 1448 randomly assigned patients with a median follow-up of 2.2 years, there were 152 primary end-point events in the monotherapy group and 132 in the combination-therapy group (hazard ratio with combination therapy, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.70 to 1.12; P=0.30). A trend toward a benefit from combination therapy with respect to the secondary end point (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.05; P=0.10) decreased with time (P=0.02 for nonproportionality). There was no benefit with respect to mortality (hazard ratio for death, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.49; P=0.75) or cardiovascular events. Combination therapy increased the risk of hyperkalemia (6.3 events per 100 person-years, vs. 2.6 events per 100 person-years with monotherapy; P<0.001) and acute kidney injury (12.2 vs. 6.7 events per 100 person-years, P<0.001). Conclusions Combination therapy with an ACE inhibitor and an ARB was associated with an increased risk of adverse events among patients with diabetic nephropathy. (Funded by the Cooperative Studies Program of the Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development; VA NEPHRON-D ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00555217 .).
    New England Journal of Medicine 11/2013; · 51.66 Impact Factor
  • Stephen L Seliger, Christopher R Defilippi
    Coronary artery disease 10/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiac troponin assays have become an indispensable tool in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, asymptomatic patients with chronic kidney disease often exhibit elevated levels of cardiac troponins with near ubiquitous detection using the new high-sensitive assays. This poses a challenge to physicians faced with differentiating between acute MI and a noncardiac etiology of chest pain or equivalent. Rather than rely on absolute cutoffs it is necessary to follow trends in levels at least over several hours. Even in the absence of an acute MI there is an association between chronic elevations of these biomarkers, underlying structural heart disease and poor prognosis. Although in the chronic setting the underlying cause of cardiac troponin elevation is likely a combination of factors, it should prompt further investigation for modifiable risk factors.
    Coronary artery disease 10/2013; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Conventional creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations are insufficiently accurate for estimating GFR in cirrhosis. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) recently proposed an equation to estimate GFR in subjects without cirrhosis using both serum creatinine and cystatin C levels. Performance of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) was superior to previous creatinine- or cystatin C-based GFR equations. To evaluate the performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation in subjects with cirrhosis, we compared it to GFR measured by non-radiolabeled iothalamate plasma clearance (mGFR) in 72 subjects with cirrhosis. We compared the "bias", "precision" and "accuracy" of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation to that of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl), Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and previously reported creatinine- and/or cystatin C-based GFR-estimating equations. Accuracy of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation as quantified by root mean squared error of difference scores [differences between mGFR and estimated GFR (eGFR) or between mGFR and CrCl, or between mGFR and CG equation for each subject] (RMSE=23.56) was significantly better than that of CrCl (37.69, P=0.001), CG (RMSE=36.12, P=0.002) and GFR-estimating equations based on cystatin C only. Its accuracy as quantified by percentage of eGFRs that differed by greater than 30% with respect to mGFR was significantly better compared to CrCl (P=0.024), CG (P=0.0001), 4-variable MDRD (P=0.027) and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009 (P=0.012) equations. However, for 23.61% of the subjects, GFR estimated by CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation differed from the mGFR by more than 30%. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) in patients with cirrhosis was superior to conventional equations in clinical practice for estimating GFR. However, its diagnostic performance was substantially worse than reported in non-cirrhotic subjects. (HEPATOLOGY 2013.).
    Hepatology 06/2013; · 12.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In older adults, measurements of physical performance assess physical function and associate with mortality and disability. Muscle wasting and diminished physical performance often accompany CKD, resembling physiologic aging, but whether physical performance associates with clinical outcome in CKD is unknown. We evaluated 385 ambulatory, stroke-free participants with stage 2-4 CKD enrolled in clinic-based cohorts at the University of Washington and University of Maryland and Veterans Affairs Maryland Healthcare systems. We compared handgrip strength, usual gait speed, timed up and go (TUAG), and 6-minute walking distance with normative values and constructed Cox proportional hazards models and receiver operating characteristic curves to test associations with all-cause mortality. Mean age was 61 years and the mean estimated GFR was 41 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). Measures of lower extremity performance were at least 30% lower than predicted, but handgrip strength was relatively preserved. Fifty deaths occurred during the median 3-year follow-up period. After adjustment, each 0.1-m/s decrement in gait speed associated with a 26% higher risk for death, and each 1-second longer TUAG associated with an 8% higher risk for death. On the basis of the receiver operating characteristic analysis, gait speed and TUAG more strongly predicted 3-year mortality than kidney function or commonly measured serum biomarkers. Adding gait speed to a model that included estimated GFR significantly improved the prediction of 3-year mortality. In summary, impaired physical performance of the lower extremities is common in CKD and strongly associates with all-cause mortality.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 04/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
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  • Stephen L Seliger, Daniel E Weiner
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 02/2013; 61(2):187-90. · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Judgment of Line Orientation (JLO) test is a commonly used measure of visuospatial perception. Because of its length, several short forms have appeared in the literature. We examined the internal consistency of the JLO and eight of its published short forms among 128 undergraduates, 203 healthy older adults, and 55 chronic kidney disease patients. The full test demonstrated good reliability for traditional neuropsychological assessment, but the majority of short forms were adequate only for screening purposes, where greater measurement error is typically permitted in exchange for brevity. In contrast, a recently developed short form based upon item response theory demonstrated promise as a stand-alone measure.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 01/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Because of its association with atrial fibrillation and heart failure, we hypothesized that amino terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) would identify a subgroup of patients from the Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study, diagnosed with inferred noncardioembolic ischemic strokes, where anticoagulation would be more effective than antiplatelet agents in reducing risk of subsequent events. METHODS: NT-proBNP was measured in stored serum collected at baseline from participants enrolled in Warfarin-Aspirin Recurrent Stroke Study, a previously reported randomized trial. Relative effectiveness of warfarin and aspirin in preventing recurrent ischemic stroke or death over 2 years was compared based on NT-proBNP concentrations. RESULTS: About 95% of 1028 patients with assays had NT-proBNP below 750 pg/mL, and among them, no evidence for treatment effect modification was evident. For 49 patients with NT-proBNP >750 pg/mL, the 2-year rate of events per 100 person-years was 45.9 for the aspirin group and 16.6 for the warfarin group, whereas for 979 patients with NT-proBNP ≤750 pg/mL, rates were similar for both treatments. For those with NT-proBNP >750 pg/mL, the hazard ratio was 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.84; P=0.021) significantly favoring warfarin over aspirin. A formal test for interaction of NT-proBNP with treatment was significant (P=0.01). CONCLUSIONS: For secondary stroke prevention, elevated NT-proBNP concentrations may identify a subgroup of ischemic stroke patients without known atrial fibrillation, about 5% based on the current study, who may benefit more from anticoagulants than antiplatelet agents.Clinical Trial Registration-This trial was not registered because enrollment began before 2005.
    Stroke 01/2013; · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives This study sought to determine whether the combined trajectories of cardiac biomarkers identify those older adults with initial low levels who have an increased risk for structural heart disease, incident heart failure (HF), and cardiovascular (CV) death. Background Initial low levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) identify older adults at lower risk for CV events. Methods We performed an observational study among older adults without prevalent HF in the CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study). NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT were measured at baseline and after 2 to 3 years. In those with low baseline levels, a significant increase was defined as cardiac troponin T (cTnT) >50% and NT-proBNP >25% increase to >190 pg/ml. Left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography at baseline and 5 years. Cox regression was used to estimate the association of change in biomarkers with HF and CV mortality. Results Among 2,008 participants with initially low biomarker concentrations, significant increases occurred in 14.8% for cTnT only, 13.2% for NT-proBNP only, and 6.1% for both. After 10 years, cumulative HF incidence was 50.4% versus 12.2% among those with both biomarkers versus neither biomarker increased. The adjusted relative risk comparing those with increases in both biomarkers versus neither biomarker was 3.56 for incident HF (95% confidence interval: 2.56 to 4.97) and 2.98 for CV mortality (95% confidence interval: 2.98 to 4.26). Among 1,340 participants with serial echocardiography, the frequency of new abnormal left ventricular ejection fraction was 11.8% versus 4% for those with increases in both biomarkers versus neither biomarker (p = 0.007). Conclusions Among older adults without HF with initially low cTnT and NT-proBNP, the long-term trajectory of both biomarkers predicts systolic dysfunction, incident HF, and CV death.
    JACC: Heart Failure. 01/2013; 1(4):353–360.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Retinal microvascular abnormalities have been associated with cognitive impairment, possibly serving as a marker of cerebral small-vessel disease. This relationship has not been evaluated in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD), a condition associated with increased risk of both retinal pathology and cognitive impairment. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 588 participants 52 years or older with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. PREDICTOR: Retinopathy graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study severity scale and diameters of retinal vessels. OUTCOMES: Neuropsychological battery of 6 cognitive tests. MEASUREMENTS: Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of retinopathy, individual retinopathy features, and retinal vessel diameters with cognitive impairment (≤1 SD from the mean), and linear regression models were used to compare cognitive test scores across levels of retinopathy, adjusting for age, race, sex, education, and medical comorbid conditions. RESULTS: The mean age of the cohort was 65.3±5.6 (SD) years, 51.9% were nonwhite, and 52.6% were men. The prevalence of retinopathy was 30.1%, and the prevalence of cognitive impairment was 14.3%. Compared with those without retinopathy, participants with retinopathy had an increased likelihood of cognitive impairment on executive function (35.1% vs 11.5%; OR, 3.4 [95% CI, 2.0-6.0]), attention (26.7% vs 7.3%; OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.8-4.9]), and naming (26.0% vs 10.0%; OR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]) after multivariable adjustment. Increased level of retinopathy also was associated with lower cognitive performance on executive function and attention. Microaneurysms were associated with cognitive impairment on some domains, but there were no significant associations with other retinal measures after multivariable adjustment. LIMITATIONS: Unknown temporal relationship between retinopathy and impairment. CONCLUSIONS: In adults with CKD, retinopathy is associated with poor performance on several cognitive domains, including executive function and attention. Evaluation of retinal microvascular abnormalities may be a promising tool for identifying patients with CKD who are at increased risk of cognitive impairment.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 12/2012; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine if biomarkers of subclinical myocardial injury and hemodynamic stress identify asymptomatic individuals with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) at higher risk for heart failure (HF) and death. BACKGROUND: The interaction between LVH, low but detectable cardiac troponin T (cTnT), and elevated N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) on cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in the general population is unknown. METHODS: Participants in the Dallas Heart Study without clinical HF, LV dysfunction, or chronic kidney disease underwent measurement of LV mass by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cTnT by highly sensitive assay, and NT-proBNP analysis (n = 2,413). Subjects were stratified according to LVH and by detectable cTnT (≥3 pg/ml) and increased NT-proBNP (>75th age- and sex-specific percentile) levels. For each analysis, participants were categorized into groups based on the presence (+) or absence (-) of LVH and biomarker levels above (+) or below (-) the predefined threshold. RESULTS: Nine percent of participants were LVH+, 25% cTnT+, and 24% NT-proBNP+. Those LVH+ and cTnT+ and/or NT-proBNP+ (n = 144) were older and more likely to be male, with a greater risk factor burden and more severe LVH compared with those who were LVH+ biomarker- (p < 0.01 for each). The cumulative incidence of HF or CV death over 8 years among LVH+ cTnT+ was 21% versus 1% (LVH- cTnT-), 4% (LVH- cTnT+), and 6% (LVH+ cTnT-) (p < 0.0001). The interactions between LVH and cTnT (p(interaction) = 0.0005) and LVH and NT-proBNP (p(interaction) = 0.014) were highly significant. Individuals who were LVH+ and either cTnT+ or NT-proBNP+ remained at >4-fold higher risk for HF or CV death after multivariable adjustment for CV risk factors, renal function, and LV mass compared with those who were LVH- biomarker-. CONCLUSIONS: Minimal elevations in biomarkers of subclinical cardiac injury and hemodynamic stress modify the association of LVH with adverse outcomes, identifying a malignant subphenotype of LVH with high risk for progression to HF and CV death.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2012; · 14.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and higher serum creatinine (sCR) levels have been associated with longitudinal decline in global mental status measures. Longitudinal data describing change in multiple domains of cognitive functioning are needed in order to determine which specific abilities are most affected in individuals with impaired renal function.Methods We conducted a 5-year longitudinal study with 590 community-living individuals (mean age 62.1 years, 60.2% female, 93.2% white, 11.4% with diabetes mellitus, mean eGFR 78.4 mL/min/1.73 m&sup2;) free from dementia, acute stroke and end-stage renal disease. To measure longitudinal change-over-time, cognitive performance measures were regressed on eGFR adjusting for baseline eGFR and cognitive performance, comorbidity and vascular risk factors. Outcome measures were scores from 17 separate tests of cognitive abilities that were used to index 5 theoretically relevant domains: verbal episodic memory, visual-spatial organization and memory, scanning and tracking, working memory and similarities (abstract reasoning).ResultsDeclines in eGFR values were associated with cognitive declines, when adjusted for eGFR and cognitive function scores at baseline. Change in renal functioning over time was related to change observed in global cognitive ability [b = 0.21SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04-0.38, P = .018], verbal episodic memory [b = 0.28 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.02-0.54, P = 0.038] and abstract reasoning [b = 0.36 SD decline per unit ln(eGFR), 95% CI: 0.04-0.67, P = 0.025]. Decline in cognitive functioning in association with declining renal functioning was observed despite statistical adjustment for demographic variables and CVD risk factors and the exclusion of persons with dementia or a history of acute stroke.Conclusions Early detection of mild to moderate kidney disease is an important public health concern with regard to cognitive decline.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 11/2012; · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Stephen L Seliger
    Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11/2012; · 5.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between physical activity and changes in levels of highly sensitive troponin T (cTnT) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and the subsequent risk of the development of heart failure (HF) in community-dwelling older adults. BACKGROUND: Higher baseline levels of cTnT and NT-proBNP and increases over time correlate with the risk of HF in older adults. Factors modifying these levels have not been identified. METHODS: NT-proBNP and cTnT were measured at baseline and 2 to 3 years later in adults 65 years of age and older free of HF participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Self-reported physical activity and walking pace were combined into a composite score. An increase was prespecified for NT-proBNP as a >25% increment from baseline to ≥190 pg/ml and for cTnT as a >50% increment from baseline in participants with detectable levels (≥3 pg/ml). RESULTS: A total of 2,933 participants free of HF had NT-proBNP and cTnT measured at both time points. The probability of an increase in biomarker concentrations between baseline and follow-up visits was inversely related to the physical activity score. Compared with participants with the lowest score, those with the highest score had an odds ratio of 0.50 (95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 0.77) for an increase in NT-proBNP and an odds ratio of 0.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.16 to 0.55) for an increase in cTnT, after adjusting for comorbidities and baseline levels. A higher activity score associated with a lower long-term incidence of HF. Moreover, at each level of activity, an increase in either biomarker still identified those at higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that moderate physical activity has protective effects on early heart failure phenotypes, preventing cardiac injury and neurohormonal activation.
    Journal of the American College of Cardiology 11/2012; · 14.09 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
711.81 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University System of Maryland
      Adelphi, Maryland, United States
    • San Francisco VA Medical Center
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2003–2012
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Department of Pathology
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2008
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore County
      • Department of Psychology
      Baltimore, MD, United States
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • University of California, San Francisco
      • • Division of Hospital Medicine
      • • Veterans Affairs Medical Center
      San Francisco, CA, United States