[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr). After binding ligand, Ahr dimerizes with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) protein, and the dimer upregulates the transcription of Cyp1a1, Cyp1b1 and other enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of B[a]P. Arnt null mice die in utero. Mice in which Arnt deletion occurs constitutively in the epidermis die perinatally. In the current study, mice were developed in which the Arnt gene could be deleted specifically in adult skin epidermis. This deletion had no overt pathological effect. Homozygosity for a null reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate): quinone oxidoreductase allele was introduced into the above mouse strain to render it more susceptible to tumor initiation by B[a]P. Deletion of Arnt in the epidermis of this strain completely prevented the induction of skin tumors in a tumor initiation-promotion protocol in which a single topical application of B[a]P acted as the tumor-initiating event, and tumor promotion was provided by repeated topical applications of 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA). In contrast, deletion of Arnt did not prevent the induction of skin tumors in a protocol also using TPA as the promoter but using as the initiator N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, whose activity is unlikely to be affected by the activity of Ahr, Arnt or their target genes. These observations demonstrate that Arnt is required for tumor initiation by B[a]P in this system.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant and cofactor for glutathione S-transferase conjugation. GSH synthesis is catalyzed by glutamate cysteine ligase (GCL), composed of catalytic (GCLC) and modifier (GCLM) subunits. Transgenic mice that conditionally over express GCL subunits are protected from acetaminophen induced liver injury. Gclm null mice exhibit low GSH levels and enhanced sensitivity to acetaminophen. When Gclm expression and GCL activity are restored in Gclm conditional transgenic X Gclm null mice, they become resistant to APAP-induced liver damage. These animal models are a valuable resource for investigating the role of GSH synthesis in modulating oxidative damage and drug-induced hepatotoxicity.
Drug Metabolism Reviews 01/2008; 40(3):465-77. · 5.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can cause single strand DNA breaks (ssDNA) in cells when the mechanisms normally in place to reduce it are overwhelmed. Such mechanisms include catalase, glutathione peroxidases (GPx), and peroxiredoxins. The relative importance of these enzymes in H2O2 reduction varies with cell and tissue type. The role of the GPx cofactor glutathione (GSH) in oxidative defense can be further understood by modulating its synthesis. The first and rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis is glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which has a catalytic subunit (Gclc) and a modifier subunit (Gclm). Using mouse hepatoma cells we evaluated the effects of GCL over expression on H2O2-induced changes in GSH and ssDNA break formation with the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (SCG or comet assay), and the acridine orange DNA unwinding flow cytometry assay (AO unwinding assay). Cells over expressing GCL had higher GSH content than control cells, and both SCG and AO unwinding assays revealed that cells over expressing GCL were significantly more resistant to H2O2-induced ssDNA break formation. Furthermore, using the AO unwinding assay, the prevalence of H2O2-induced breaks in different phases of the cell cycle was not different, and the degree of protection afforded by GCL over expression was also not cell cycle phase dependent. Our results support the hypothesis that GCL over expression enhanced GSH biosynthesis and protected cells from H2O2-induced DNA breaks. These results also suggest that genetic polymorphisms that affect GCL expression may be important determinants of oxidative DNA damage and cancer.
Cytometry Part A 10/2007; 71(9):686-92. · 3.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediates biological responses to certain exogenous ligands, such as the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), and has also been demonstrated to modulate the cell cycle and differentiated state of several cell lines independently of exogenous ligands. In this study, we used DNA microarray analysis to elucidate the profile of genes responsive to the expression of unliganded AhR by re-introducing AhR into an AhR-deficient mouse derivative (c19) of the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa 1c1c7. 22 gene products were up-regulated and 8 were down-regulated two-fold or more in c19 cells infected with a retroviral vector expressing mouse AhR. Surprisingly, expression of genes involved in cell proliferation or differentiation were not affected by introduction of AhR. AhR also did not restore expression of the albumin gene in c19 cells. Introduction of AhR into c12, a similar AhR-defective mouse hepatoma cell line, also did not restore albumin expression, and furthermore, did not lead to changes in cellular morphology or cell cycle parameters. These observations fail to support the notion that unliganded AhR regulates proliferation and differentiation of liver-derived cells.
Gene regulation and systems biology 01/2007; 1:49-56.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that also contains a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) domain. In addition to forming heterodimers with many other bHLH-PAS proteins, including the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha, 2alpha and 3alpha, Arnt can also form homodimers when expressed from its cDNA in vitro or in vivo. However, target genes of the Arnt/Arnt homodimer remain to be identified. In this study, we have elucidated the profile of genes responsive to the reintroduction of Arnt expression in an Arnt-deficient mouse hepatoma cell line (c4), using DNA microarray analysis. The expression of 27 genes was upregulated by 1.5-fold or more in c4 cells infected with a retroviral vector expressing mouse Arnt, while no genes were found to be downregulated. Among the upregulated genes, BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa-interacting protein 1 (NIP3), serine (or cysteine) proteinase inhibitor, clade E, member 1 (PAI1), and N-myc downstream regulated-like (NDR1), were confirmed to be induced by Arnt using real-time PCR. We also found that the 5' promoter region of 15 out of 20 upregulated genes contain the type 2 E-box 5'-CACGTG-3' Arnt/Arnt binding sequence, consistent with the notion that they represent target genes for Arnt.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acetaminophen overdose is a leading cause of drug-related acute liver failure in the United States. Glutathione, a tripeptide antioxidant protects cells against oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species and plays a crucial role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, including acetaminophen. Glutathione is synthesized in a two-step enzymatic reaction. Glutamate-cysteine ligase carries out the rate-limiting and first step in glutathione synthesis. We have generated C57Bl/6 mice that conditionally overexpress glutamate-cysteine ligase, and report here their resistance to acetaminophen-induced liver injury. Indices of liver injury included histopathology and serum alanine aminotransferase activity. Male transgenic mice induced to overexpress glutamate-cysteine ligase exhibited resistance to acetaminophen-induced liver injury when compared with acetaminophen-treated male mice carrying, but not expressing glutamate-cysteine ligase transgenes, or to female glutamate-cysteine ligase transgenic mice. We conclude that glutamate-cysteine ligase activity is an important factor in determining acetaminophen-induced liver injury in C57Bl/6 male mice. Because people are known to vary in their glutamate-cysteine ligase activity, this enzyme may also be an important determinant of sensitivity to acetaminophen-induced liver injury in humans.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2006; 281(39):28865-75. · 4.65 Impact Factor