Ian C Summerhayes

Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (95)540.08 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small, noncoding RNAs with important regulatory roles in development, differentiation, cell proliferation, and death as well as the complex process of acquired drug resistance. The goal of this study was to identify specific miRNAs and their potential protein targets that confer acquired resistance to gemcitabine in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) cell lines. Gemcitabine-resistant cells were established from 6 cell lines following exposure to escalating concentrations of the drug and by passaging cells in the presence of the drug over a 2- to 3-month period. Differential miRNA expression was identified in a microarray format comparing untreated controls with resistant cell lines, representing the maximum tolerated concentration, and results were validated via qRT-PCR. The involvement of specific miRNAs in chemoresistance was confirmed with transfection experiments, followed by clonogenic assays and Western blot analysis. Gemcitabine resistance was generated in 6 UCB cell lines. Microarray analysis comparing miRNA expression between gemcitabine-resistant and parental cells identified the differential expression of 66 miRNAs. Confirmation of differential expression was recorded via qRT-PCR in a subset of these miRNAs. Within this group, let-7b and let-7i exhibited decreased expression, while miR-1290 and miR-138 displayed increased expression levels in gemcitabine-resistant cells. Transfection of pre-miR-138 and pre-miR-1290 into parental cells attenuated cell death after exposure to gemcitabine, while transfection of pre-miR-let-7b and pre-miR-let-7i into the resistant cells augmented cell death. Mucin-4 was up-regulated in gemcitabine-resistant cells. Ectopic expression of let-7i and let-7b in the resistant cells resulted in the down-regulation of mucin-4. These results suggest a role for miRNAs 1290, 138, let-7i, and let-7b in imparting resistance to gemcitabine in UCB cell lines in part through the modulation of mucin-4. Alterations in these miRNAs and/or mucin-4 may constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for improving the efficacy of gemcitabine in UCB.
    Genes & cancer 08/2013; 4(1-2):61-9. DOI:10.1177/1947601913484495
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    ABSTRACT: Protein expression profiles throughout 28 days of peripheral nerve regeneration were characterized using an established rat sciatic nerve transection injury model. Reverse phase protein microarrays were used to identify the spatial and temporal expression profile of multiple proteins implicated in peripheral nerve regeneration including growth factors, extracellular matrix proteins, and proteins involved in adhesion and migration. This high-throughput approach enabled the simultaneous analysis of 3,360 samples on a nitrocellulose-coated slide. The extracellular matrix proteins collagen I and III, laminin gamma-1, fibronectin, nidogen and versican displayed an early increase in protein levels in the guide and proximal sections of the regenerating nerve with levels at or above the baseline expression of intact nerve by the end of the 28 day experimental course. The 28 day protein levels were also at or above baseline in the distal segment however an early increase was only noted for laminin, nidogen, and fibronectin. While the level of epidermal growth factor, ciliary neurotrophic factor and fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2 increased throughout the experimental course in the proximal and distal segments, nerve growth factor only increased in the distal segment and fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2 and nerve growth factor were the only proteins in that group to show an early increase in the guide contents. As expected, several proteins involved in cell adhesion and motility; namely focal adhesion kinase, N-cadherin and β-catenin increased earlier in the proximal and distal segments than in the guide contents reflecting the relatively acellular matrix of the early regenerate. In this study we identified changes in expression of multiple proteins over time linked to regeneration of the rat sciatic nerve both demonstrating the utility of reverse phase protein arrays in nerve regeneration research and revealing a detailed, composite spatiotemporal expression profile of peripheral nerve regeneration.
    Proteome Science 02/2012; 10(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1477-5956-10-9 · 1.73 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 07/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1184 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.698 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2011; 185(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2011.02.1211 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is involved in tumor progression where the underlying cellular changes associated with EMT have been identified in in vitro models and confirmed in a limited number of in vivo studies. ZEB1, which targets E-cadherin repression, is a transcriptional regulator that has been implicated in EMT, and is associated with uterine and colorectal cancers. Regulation of ZEB1 expression has been shown to involve different microRNAs (miRNAs), identifying a potential role for miRNA in EMT. In the present study we have identified novel expression of ZEB1 in bladder tumours and shown a role for ZEB1 in enhanced migration and invasion potential in in vitro assays. Confirmation of ZEB1 expression in bladder tumours was shown in tissue microarrays (TMAs). To evaluate ZEB1 expression in bladder tumorigenesis and define a possible role for this transcription factor in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder (UCBs). Five hundred and fifty-eight samples were assembled in 10 tissue microarrays (TMAs; 263 non-muscle-invasive Ta/T1/Tis, 295 muscle-invasive T2-T4). All tumours were transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) and processed for immunohistochemistry to assess nuclear ZEB1 expression. Expression levels of ZEB1 were modulated in bladder carcinoma cell lines CUBIII or UM-UC-3 after forced expression or shRNA knockdown, respectively. Protein expression levels were determined using western blot analysis and transfectants were assessed for migration and invasion potential in standard in vitro assays. Nuclear ZEB1 expression was recorded in 22.8% of non-muscle-invasive UCBs and 21.7% of muscle-invasive UCBs, including 24.1% grade I/II and 21.1% grade III tumours, and absent in normal bladder mucosa. No significant correlation was observed for tumour stage and grade, nodal involvement, vascular invasion, metastasis and overall or cancer-specific survival. The introduction or knockdown of ZEB1 expression in bladder carcinoma cell lines showed enhanced or reduced migration and invasive potential, respectively. Changes in ZEB1 expression were accompanied by altered microRNA (miRNA) expression underlying events linked to epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The results in the present study showed novel expression of ZEB1 in bladder cancer in the absence of a link to clinical variables of change, including metastasis and survival. However, in vitro assays showed enhanced or reduced migration and invasion after the introduction or reduction of ZEB1, respectively, in transfected bladder cell lines. Modulation in expression of ZEB1 was closely linked to changes in the miR-200 family along with alternative known prognostic indicators of bladder tumour progression.
    BJU International 02/2011; 107(4):656-63. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2010.09489.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the ability of different classes of histone deacetylase inhibitors to target tumor and invasive suppressor genes in a panel of bladder carcinoma cell lines using reverse phase protein arrays. Three poorly, moderately and highly invasive cell lines were exposed to histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A, apicidin, valproic acid (Sigma) and MS-275 (AXXORA) for 0 to 36 hours. Lysates were harvested and arrayed in a 10-fold dilution series in duplicate. Data points were collected and analyzed using a concentration interpolation methodology after normalization. Protein expression profiles revealed up-regulation of gamma-catenin in highly invasive lines, and alpha-catenin in moderately and highly invasive lines after exposure to all histone deacetylase inhibitors, apicidin and MS-275, respectively. Gelsolin was up-regulated in poorly and moderately invasive lines after exposure to all histone deacetylase inhibitors. Desmoglein was down-regulated in poorly and moderately invasive cell lines by all 4 histone deacetylase inhibitors, in addition to decreased FAK (Transduction Laboratories) expression in moderately and highly invasive lines exposed to valproic acid and MS-275. Different histone deacetylase inhibitor classes have the potential to modulate tumor and invasive suppressor gene expression, identifying histone deacetylase inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents for bladder cancer. Reverse phase protein arrays enable high throughput screening of multiple compounds to assess the expression profile of specific protein groups targeted for therapy.
    The Journal of urology 06/2010; 183(6):2395-402. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.004 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Research 04/2010; 70(8 Supplement):3026-3026. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM10-3026 · 9.33 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2010; 183(4). DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2010.02.640 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to identify microRNA (miRNA) involved in the transition between the noninvasive and invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) phenotype. Differential expression of miRNA was identified in a microarray format between noninvasive and invasive UCB cell lines and confirmed using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) within this cell panel. Normalization of qRT-PCR with miR-222 was established from the microarray data and validated within a panel of 57 UCB tumors (26 noninvasive lesions (Ta/G1) and 31 invasive lesions (T2-T4). Pre-miR constructs were transfected into appropriate UCB cell lines to establish a change in invasive potential. Differential expression of miRNAs was identified from microarray analysis and included reduced expression associated with miR-30b, miR-31, miR-141, miR-200a, miR-200b, miR-200c, miR-205, miR-21 in invasive lesions and elevated miR-99a in noninvasive UCB lesions. Reduced invasion potential was recorded in UM-UC-3, following pre-miR transfection, in all UCB cell lines with the exception of UM-UC-3/miR-30b transfectants. Our results identify a panel of miRNA modulated and expressed in invasive UCB tumors and demonstrates a role for them in the invasive phenotype. The diagnostic test, based on the three most discriminatory miRNAs in our panel (miR-200c, miR-141, and miR-30b), showed a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96.2%. Such a panel of miRNAs has the potential to identify invasive bladder tumors misclassified in pathologic assessment of bladder biopsy specimens.
    Urologic Oncology 11/2009; 29(6):794-801.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2009.08.024 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Given the steadily growing cancer survivor population, increasing pressure has been placed on more effective clinical approaches and biomarker assays to manage care. For bladder cancer despite the high probability of recurrence the number of patients with recurrent disease is significantly lower than the number that remains cancer free at any monitoring interval. We developed a noninvasive urine assay using a novel approach to identify patients without recurrent cancer with extremely high confidence. Previous studies show that matrix metalloproteinases are increased in the urine of patients with cancer compared to that in disease-free individuals. To determine the clinical usefulness of these markers as monitors for bladder cancer recurrence we measured and compared metalloproteinase-2, metalloproteinase-9 and metalloproteinase-9/neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and zymography in a set of 530 samples, including 84 samples from patients with bladder cancer. Initial studies using urine metalloproteinase to discriminate disease-free patients from those with bladder cancer resulted in 80% sensitivity (67 of 84) and 71% specificity (318 of 446) for metalloproteinase-9. By applying our novel Clinical Intervention Determining Diagnostic() clinical approach to metalloproteinase-9 we correctly identified 42% of cases that were cystoscopy negative with 98% negative predictive value. A noninvasive urine diagnostic assay that uses metalloproteinases with the Clinical Intervention Determining Diagnostic could lead to more efficient treatment in bladder cancer survivors by decreasing the number of negative cystoscopies (42%), allowing physicians to more selectively monitor those at high risk.
    The Journal of urology 09/2009; 182(5):2188-94. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2009.07.032 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2009; 181(4):346-346. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(09)60985-X · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2009; 181(4):347-347. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(09)60987-3 · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Necrosis of surgically transferred flaps is a major problem in reconstructive surgery. We investigated efficacy of a new vector system-adeno-associated viral 2 (AAV2)-mediated bFGF gene transfer to enhance survival of the ischemic flap. Thirty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 gene therapy groups and 1 nontreated control of 9 or 10 each. 7.5 x 10(10) AAV2-bFGF viral particles were injected to the dorsum of each of the 29 rats; these rats were divided into 3 groups according to the timing of flap elevation. At the time of surgery, 1 week, and 2 weeks after surgery, flaps of 3 x 7 cm were raised. One week after surgery, flap viability was measured. Vascularization and immunohistochemical staining of the bFGF were evaluated of histologic sections. Flap viability was significantly improved by the AAV2-bFGF gene therapy at the time of surgery, and the flaps with the greatest survival area were found in the rats injected with AAV2-bFGF, 2 weeks before surgery. However, flap viability was significantly decreased by the gene therapy 1 week before surgery. Histologically, vascularity was increased in the groups with AAV2-bFGF injection and immunohistochemical staining showed greatly enhanced bFGF expression by gene transfer. The novel approach of AAV2-bFGF gene therapy shows encouraging manifestations in improving survival of flaps when the flaps are prefabricated during or 2 weeks before surgery.
    Annals of plastic surgery 02/2009; 62(1):87-91. DOI:10.1097/SAP.0b013e31817439fe · 1.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify changes associated with P-cadherin expression in bladder cancer and evaluate the potential role of such events in determining the clinical outcome and cell behaviour, as the function of P-cadherin in normal epithelium is unknown, as is its potential role in neoplastic progression in different cancers. In all, 536 bladder tumour specimens from 408 patients were assembled in seven tissue microarrays. Paraffin sections from each array were processed for immunohistochemistry to assess the expression of P-cadherin. The expression of P-cadherin was forced using lipofectin, followed by an assessment of migration and invasion potential using standard in vitro assays. The absence of P-cadherin staining was associated with muscle-invasive disease, grade 3 (P < 0.001) and nodal disease (P = 0.009). Similar results were obtained when considering cytoplasmic and unrestricted localization of P-cadherin (P < 0.001), except for nodal involvement. The group with cytoplasmic location of P-cadherin showed a shorter cancer-specific survival than the group with membrane location of P-cadherin (P = 0.03). Forced expression of P-cadherin in EJ and UM-UC-3 cells, that constitutively lack P-cadherin expression, resulted in modulation of catenin expression and enhanced migration of EJ and UM-UC-3/P-cadherin transfectants (>200%). These results showed that loss of expression, cytoplasmic relocation or unrestricted tissue location of P-cadherin was associated with a poor clinical outcome and prognosis in bladder cancer. From the in vitro work it is evident that P-cadherin plays a role in regulating the migration potential of bladder carcinoma cells.
    BJU International 11/2008; 102(11):1707-14. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2008.08115.x · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to identify a microRNA (miRNA) signature in bladder cancer capable of differentiating superficial from invasive disease. Expression profiling of 343 miRNAs was performed in a microarray format using noninvasive and invasive bladder carcinoma cell lines with differential expression confirmed using a single molecule detection platform assay. miR-21 and miR-205 expression levels were determined in 53 bladder tumors (28 superficial and 25 invasive). Sensitivity, specificity, and a ROC curve were calculated to determine the discriminatory power of the miRNA ratio to predict invasion. Knockdown and forced expression of miRNAs was performed to evaluate their role in invasion. Expression profiling of 343 miRNAs, using noninvasive and invasive bladder cell lines, revealed significant differential expression of 9 miRNAs. Cell lines characterized as invasive showed a miR-21:miR-205 ratio at least 10-fold higher than the quantitative ratio obtained from non-invasive cell lines. The same expression ratio was determined in 53 bladder tumors. From these results, we recorded a sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 78%, respectively, using a cutoff of 1.79 to predict an invasive lesion. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve was 0.89. Using in vitro invasion assays, we have demonstrated a role for miR-21 in establishing the invasive phenotype of bladder carcinoma cells. In this study, we identified a miR-21:miR-205 expression ratio that has the ability to distinguish between invasive and noninvasive bladder tumors with high sensitivity and specificity, with the potential to identify superficial lesions at high risk to progress.
    Urologic Oncology 10/2008; 28(1):39-48. DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2008.06.006 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • 103rd Annual Meeting of the American-Urological-Association; 04/2008
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2008; 179(4):317-318. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(08)60929-5 · 4.47 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2008; 179(4):264-264. DOI:10.1016/S0022-5347(08)60766-1 · 4.47 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
540.08 Total Impact Points


  • 1998–2012
    • Lahey Hospital and Medical Center
      Burlington, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • Burlington College
      Burlington, Vermont, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • Roger Williams University
      Бристоль, Rhode Island, United States
  • 2007
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004
    • Johns Hopkins Medicine
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • Andrews Research & Education Institute
      Florida, United States
  • 1988–1997
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Surgery
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States