[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anaemia is a serious comorbidity that is common in patients with renal failure or cancer. CNTO 528 is the first Mimetibody developed to mimic the effects of erythropoietin (EPO), a hormone that stimulates the production of red blood cells (RBCs). The objective of this study was to develop a pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model for CNTO 528 in healthy male subjects.
A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for CNTO 528 was developed to describe the serum concentration versus time profile and the pharmacological responses of percentage of reticulocytes, total RBC counts and haemoglobin concentration after a single intravenous administration of CNTO 528 at 0.03, 0.09, 0.3 and 0.9 mg/kg in 24 healthy subjects. An open, linear, two-compartment model was used to characterize the pharmacokinetic parameters of CNTO 528. A catenary cell production and lifespan loss model was used to fit the pharmacodynamic data, yielding estimates of drug potency (SC(50)), efficacy (S(max)) and other pharmacodynamic parameters. Bootstrap and posterior predictive checks (PPC) were used to evaluate the model.
Administration of CNTO 528 stimulated the production of reticulocytes, RBCs and haemoglobin. CNTO 528 exhibits a half-life of 141 hours, or approximately 5.9 days. The SC(50) was estimated to be 0.37 mg/L, indicating that low serum CNTO 528 concentration was sufficient to produce pharmacological effects. Compared with historical controls, CNTO 528 S(max) appears to be 2-fold higher than recombinant human EPO. Bootstrap analysis and PPCs confirmed the accuracy and precision in the parameter estimates and the adequacy of the model to describe the CNTO 528 pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.
The mechanistic population model was suitable to characterize the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenously administered CNTO 528 in healthy subjects. This qualified model is deemed appropriate to conduct clinical trial simulations and to support the decision-making process for dose selection in studies of EPO-stimulating agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the Netherlands 170,000 patients yearly fall victim to poor communication between health care professionals,with 44% of patients receiving inappropriate therapy as a result. Evidence indicates that this problem may be due to physicians learning to communicate therapeutic content by unstructured means during training.
To introduce a structured format for creating and communicating therapeutic plans; to provide for students opportunities to practice and feedback on their abilities.
We developed the Individualized Therapy Evaluation and Plan (ITEP) for therapeutic decision-making and communication based on the subjective objective assessment and plan note. The therapeutic plans from students of the 2003 cohort were assessed with one simple and one complex case using a 15-point criteria form. Over the next 3 years students were given more practice using the ITEP and the average score on the complex case was tracked and compared to the 2003 cohort.
In cohort 2003, 82% of the students satisfactorily completed the simple case, while only 32% did so with the complex case. In subsequent years, the average scores on the complex case significantly improved from 3.8 to 6.8 with increasing practice.
Students can select a simple drug regimen, but without practice using the ITEP will not help to deal with multiple disease states.
Medical Teacher 01/2009; 31(5):415-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The erythropoietin mimetic antibody fusion protein CNTO 528 was developed as a novel antibody fusion protein by constructing an active hematopoietic peptide onto an IgG1-based scaffold. This resulted in a molecule with a long circulating half-life and a prolonged effect of stimulating reticulocyte production and hemoglobin (Hgb) synthesis. To assess the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of CNTO 528, the authors gave 44 adult healthy male subjects single or fractionated doses of intravenous CNTO 528 or placebo. CNTO 528 was generally well tolerated. The maximum observed concentration (Cmax) and the area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) increased in an approximately dose-dependent manner between the 0.09-mg/kg and 0.9-mg/kg doses. The maximum effect on the reticulocyte response occurred approximately 8 to 9 days after administration. A median increase in Hgb (> or =1 g/dL above baseline) was achieved 9 to 10 days after administration, with a maximum effect between 19 and 26 days. Two subjects in the 0.9-mg/kg dose group had elevated Hgb concentrations requiring phlebotomy. In this first-in-human study, CNTO 528 was well tolerated and effective in elevating and maintaining Hgb by at least 1 g/dL following a single intravenous administration, which suggests that an erythropoietin mimetic molecule, such as CNTO 528, may be an effective therapy for patients with anemia.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 10/2008; 48(10):1197-207. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the pharmacokinetics of single increasing intravenous doses (40-160 mg) and repeated doses (80 mg for 7 days) of lecithinized superoxide dismutase (PC-SOD) in Japanese volunteers and to compare the pharmacokinetics of PC-SOD between Caucasians and Japanese. The Japanese study consisted of 2 parts: a single-dose, open-label, dose-escalation part and a multiple-dose, single-blind, placebo-controlled part. The pharmacokinetics of PC-SOD were determined using noncompartmental and compartmental methods. Pharmacokinetic data from a study with PC-SOD in Caucasians were reanalyzed using the same methodology. The mean (SD) terminal half-life of PC-SOD in Japanese subjects was 25 (4) hours for the 40-mg and 80-mg doses and 31 (15) hours for the 160-mg dose. There was nonlinearity between dose-normalized C(max) and clearance (P values .002 and .022). After multiple dosing, steady state was reached after 5 days. The observed accumulation ratio was 2.6 (0.5). The pharmacokinetics of the single 80-mg dose were similar for Japanese and Caucasians. The pharmacokinetics of PC-SOD was shown to be nonlinear with dose, which may be attributable to a saturable clearing mechanism. The relatively long half-life of PC-SOD (>24 hours) suggests that it is worthwhile to study the compound as a protective agent in clinical conditions with free radical overload.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 02/2008; 48(2):184-92. · 2.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Due to curricular changes at Leiden University Medical School, students have been exposed to different amounts of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy education. Cohort 1999 received little training; whereas cohort 2000 was provided with self-study materials preclinically and extra attention to pharmacotherapy during rotations. This study compares the cohorts by performance in and perception of pharmacotherapeutic abilities during the internal medicine rotation.
Preclinically, both cohorts were unable to adequately complete therapeutic plans. While cohort 1999 did not improve during the rotation, cohort 2000 did. For both cohorts the percentage of students feeling confident about various pharmacotherapeutic abilities increased significantly during rotations, but only 25% felt secure about their overall ability.
The extra education helped cohort 2000 perform better, but did not improve their confidence in their pharmacotherapeutic ability. Thorough preclinical training and compulsory practice with feedback and assessment are necessary for students to develop competence in pharmacotherapy.
Medical Teacher 12/2007; 29(9):981-3. · 1.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the effects of adjunctive pregabalin 300 mg/day versus placebo on polysomnographic (PSG) variables in patients with well controlled partial seizures and subjectively reported sleep disturbance.
An exploratory, 4-week, double-blind, randomized study in patients with well controlled partial seizures on AED monotherapy and subjective sleep disturbance over the previous 6 months. Mean changes from baseline to endpoint in PSG and subjective sleep variables (MOS Sleep Scale, Groningen Sleep Questionnaire) in patients on adjunctive pregabalin 300 mg/day (n=8) were compared with patients on placebo (n=7).
Baseline PSGs showed sleep fragmentation. Mean sleep efficiency improved significantly in both treatment groups in the mean baseline to endpoint change; there was no significant between-group difference. Pregabalin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in number of awakenings (p = 0.02), and improvement in wake time after sleep onset approached significance (p = 0.055), suggesting improvement in sleep continuity that was not observed in the placebo group. Pregabalin was also associated with significant improvements in the MOS sleep disturbance and sleep quantity subscales compared with placebo (p < or =0.03). There were no changes in self-reported seizure control.
This exploratory pilot study suggests that pregabalin may improve sleep continuity in patients with clinically relevant sleep disturbance. The effect on disturbed sleep appears independent of seizure control. The effects of pregabalin on disturbed sleep and seizures and their interrelationships warrant further study.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 08/2007; 3(5):473-8. · 2.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: * Many studies have investigated the effects of thiazolidinediones on isolated biochemical markers (biomarkers) or sets of markers in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy volunteers. * However, a limited number of parameters is not capable of capturing the broad response to pharmacological intervention with these types of (pleiotropic) drugs, which are known to activate the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma). * Our study tested the new hypothesis (primary objective) that nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics, capable of providing a readout of global metabolite concentrations in biofluids, could provide a better (more holistic) picture of the the multiparametric response to pharmacological intervention with a PPARgamma agonist and thus yield a broad array of biomarkers ('fingerprint') that could be used to support and expedite clinical development of novel thiazolidinediones.
* NMR-based metabolomics coupled with sophisticated bioinformatics is indeed capable of identifying rapid changes in global metabolite profiles in urine and plasma (treatment 'fingerprints'), which may be linked to the well-documented early changes in hepatic insulin senstitivity following thiazolidinedione intervention in T2DM patients. * Consequently, this approach (upon proper validation) comprises an important new addition to the early clinical development 'proof of concept' toolbox for thiazolidinediones, and may also be applicable to other classes of drugs.
To explore the usefulness of metabolomics as a method to obtain a broad array of biomarkers for the pharmacological effects of rosiglitazone (RSG) in plasma and urine samples from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Additionally, we explored the differences in metabolite concentrations between T2DM patients and HVs to identify a putative metabolic disease fingerprint for T2DM.
(1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to profile blood plasma and urine samples of 16 T2DM patients and 16 HVs receiving RSG 4 mg or placebo twice daily for 6 weeks. Multivariate analyses were employed to identify treatment- and disease-related effects on global endogenous metabolite profiles.
RSG treatment led to a rapid relative reduction in urinary hippurate and aromatic amino acids as well as an increase in plasma branched chain amino acids and alanine, glutamine and glutamate in the T2DM group. No RSG treatment effects were noted in the HV group. Exploratory baseline analyses showed that urine and plasma metabolites discriminated between genders and disease state. T2DM patients showed a relative increase in urinary concentrations of several amino acids, citrate, phospho(enol)pyruvate and hippurate. Putative T2DM-related changes in plasma were largely attributable to increased plasma lipids.
The results of this study indicate that NMR-based metabolomics of urine and blood plasma samples can yield a broad array of early responding biomarkers for the effects of RSG in T2DM patients, as well as nonglucose biomarkers that may reflect the T2DM state.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2007; 63(5):562-74. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) not only enhance cellular glucose transport but are reported to have potent anti-inflammatory effects. These effects may play an important role in the insulin sensitizing mechanism, and possibly precede the effects on parameters of glucoregulation. We sought to investigate whether these anti-inflammatory effects could yield early responding biomarkers for TZD action in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy volunteers (HV) to expedite early clinical development of novel compounds.
We investigated the timing of treatment effects on several proinflammatory cytokines and markers of inflammation in comparison with effects on typical measures of glucoregulation in T2DM patients and HV receiving rosiglitazone 4 mg or placebo twice daily for 6 weeks.
We found a significant reduction in interleukin (IL)-6 [-39.4%, confidence interval (CI) - 60.0, - 8.2] and white blood cell count (-18.4%, CI - 30.2, - 4.5) after 4 weeks of treatment in the T2DM group. These anti-inflammatory effects did not precede the effects on typical parameters of glucoregulation in the T2DM group and there was no significant anti-inflammatory response in the HV group.
We could not identify biomarkers that precede the effects of rosiglitazone on parameters of glucoregulation in T2DM or that have a significant response in HV. However, the IL-6 response observed in this study indicates a potential role for this cytokine as complementary biomarker in clinical 'proof of concept' studies with novel TZDs.
British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 11/2006; 62(4):391-402. · 3.58 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess whether sleep disturbance is more frequent among patients with partial seizures and what impact on quality of life (QoL) sleep disturbance may have on patients with partial seizures.
Questionnaire booklets were mailed to 1,183 patients from four Dutch clinics. Each patient was asked to find two age- and gender-matched controls to complete the same set of questionnaires [Sleep Diagnosis List (SDL), Medical Outcomes Study (MOS)-Sleep Scale, Groningen Sleep Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and the SF-36 Health Survey]. The prevalence of sleep disturbance, based on the SDL, was compared between those with partial epilepsy and controls. Mean scores on sleep and the SF-36 Physical (PCS) and Mental (MCS) Component Summary scales were compared.
Responses from 486 patients and 492 controls were analyzed. Respondents with partial epilepsy had a highly significant, twofold higher prevalence of sleep disturbance compared with controls (38.6 vs. 18.0%; p < 0.0001). Most sleep-disorder subscales showed significant abnormalities in respondents with epilepsy, compared with controls. Mean SF-36 MCS and PCS scores were significantly lower in respondents with epilepsy compared with controls in both the strata with sleep disturbance and without (all p values <0.05). The presence of a sleep disturbance in respondents with epilepsy was associated with the greatest impairment in QoL.
Sleep disturbance is more than twice as prevalent in persons with partial epilepsy compared with controls, and most domains of sleep are significantly disturbed. Persons with partial epilepsy have significant QoL impairment, and sleep disturbance further compounds this.