[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insertion of heterologous peptide sequences into a protein carrier may impose structural constraints that could help the peptide to adopt a proper fold. This concept could be the starting point for the development of a new generation of safe subunit vaccines based on the expression of poorly immunogenic epitopes. In the present study, we characterized the tolerance of the TEM-1 class A beta-lactamase to the insertion of two different peptides, the V3 loop of the gp120 protein of HIV, and the thermostable STa enterotoxin produced by enterotoxic Escherichia coli. Insertion of the V3 loop of the HIV gp120 protein into the TEM-1 scaffold yielded insoluble and poorly produced proteins. By contrast, four hybrid beta-lactamases carrying the STa peptide were efficiently produced and purified. Immunization of BALB/c mice with these hybrid proteins produced high levels of TEM-1-specific antibodies, together with significant levels of neutralizing antibodies against STa.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is associated with severe respiratory disease in cattle. BRSV infection frequently leads to the death of young infected animals. The presence of BRSV in postmortem specimens is routinely detected using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). However, this technique requires special equipment and considerable expertise. The present paper describes the development of a 1-step ELISA for rapid (1.5 hours) detection of BRSV antigen in organ homogenates. The performance of the new 1-step ELISA was evaluated using bovine postmortem specimens (n = 108) in comparison with 3 other BRSV diagnostic techniques: indirect immunofluorescence, the Clearview respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) test, and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The relative sensitivity, specificity, and the kappa coefficient of 1-step ELISA, the Clearview RSV electroimmunoassay (EIA), and IIF were calculated, using real-time RT-PCR as the reference test. The new 1-step ELISA was the most sensitive and specific of the 3 tests. Thus, the new 1-step ELISA is a reliable test for detecting BRSV antigen in organ homogenates.
Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation: official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc 06/2007; 19(3):238-43. DOI:10.1177/104063870701900302 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins and cephalosporins. Class A beta-lactamases, the largest group of beta-lactamases, have been found in many bacterial strains, including mycobacteria, for which no beta-lactamase structure has been previously reported. The crystal structure of the class A beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum (MFO) has been solved at 2.13-A resolution. The enzyme is a chromosomally encoded broad-spectrum beta-lactamase with low specific activity on cefotaxime. Specific features of the active site of the class A beta-lactamase from M. fortuitum are consistent with its specificity profile. Arg278 and Ser237 favor cephalosporinase activity and could explain its broad substrate activity. The MFO active site presents similarities with the CTX-M type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases but lacks a specific feature of these enzymes, the VNYN motif (residues 103 to 106), which confers on CTX-M-type extended-spectrum beta-lactamases a more efficient cefotaximase activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The β-lactamase of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 has been purified to protein homogeneity. Its N-terminal sequence and catalytic properties are similar to those of the β-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 and establish this new enzyme as a member of molecular class A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38 belongs to the low molecular mass family 11 of endo-beta-1,4-xylanases. Its three-dimensional structure has been solved at 2.0 A and its optimum temperature and pH for enzymatic activity are 60 degrees C and 6.0, respectively. Aspergillus kawachii xylanase XynC belongs to the same family but is an acidophilic enzyme with an optimum pH of 2.0. Structural comparison of Xyl1 and XynC showed differences in residues surrounding the two glutamic acid side chains involved in the catalysis that could be responsible for the acidophilic adaptation of XynC. Mutations W20Y, N48D, A134E, and Y193W were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis and combined in multiple mutants. Trp 20 and Tyr 193 are involved in substrate binding. The Y193W mutation inactivated Xyl1 whereas W20Y decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 to 5.0 and slightly increased its specific activity. The N48D mutation also decreased the optimum pH of Xyl1 by one unit. The A134E substitution did not induce any change, but when combined with N48D, a synergistic effect was observed with a 1.4 unit decrease in the optimum pH. Modeling showed that the orientations of residue 193 and of the fully conserved Arg 131 are different in acidophilic and "alkaline" xylanases whereas the introduced Tyr 20 probably modifies the pKa of the acid-base catalyst via residue Asn 48. Docking of a substrate analog in the catalytic site highlighted striking differences between Xyl1 and XynC in substrate binding. Hydrophobicity calculations showed a correlation between acidophilic adaptation and a decreased hydrophobicity around the two glutamic acid side chains involved in catalysis.
Protein Science 06/2004; 13(5):1209-18. DOI:10.1110/ps.03556104 · 2.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155 has been purified to protein homogeneity. Its N-terminal sequence and catalytic properties are similar to those of the beta-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum D316 and establish this new enzyme as a member of molecular class A.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mycobacterium fallax (M. fallax) is naturally sensitive to many beta-lactam antibiotics (MIC < 2 mu g/ml) and devoid of beta-lactamase activity, In this paper, we show that the production of the beta-lactamase of Mycobacterium fortuitum by M. fallax significantly increased the MIC values for good substrates of the enzyme, whereas the potency of poor substrates or transient inactivators was not modified, The rates of diffusion of beta-lactams through the mycolic acid layer were low, hut for all studied compounds the half-equilibration times were such that they would only marginally affect the MIC values in the absence of beta-lactamase production, These results emphasize the importance of enzymatic degradation as a major factor in the resistance of mycobacteria to penicillins. (C) 1997 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Sixteen different compounds usually considered beta-lactamase stable or representing potential beta-lactam inhibitors and
inactivators were tested against the beta-lactamase produced by Mycobacterium fortuitum. The compounds exhibiting the most
interesting properties were BRL42715, which was by far the best inactivator, and CGP31608 and ceftazidime, which were not
recognized by the enzyme. These compounds thus exhibited adequate properties for fighting mycobacterial infections. Although
cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, cefoxitin, and CP65207-2 exhibited poor inhibitory efficiency against the enzyme, they were also
rather poor substrates and might be considered potential antimycobacterial agents. By contrast, CGP31523A and ceftamet were