[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gallbladder adenomyomatosis (GBA) is a hyperplastic disease affecting the wall of the gallbladder, with some typical features. It has historically been considered a benign condition, nevertheless recent reports highlighted a potential role of GBA in predisposing to malignancies of the gallbladder.
We reviewed the literature concerning GBA from its identification until July 2012. Owing to the relative rarity of the disease, studies often are case reports or case series. Thus we herein report a summary of the key-points concerning diagnosis and treatment of GBA, easily applicable in everyday practice, rather than a systematic review. Also, results are integrated with our recent experience.
In our experience, we observed a trend toward an increase of GBA during the last years, probably due to enhanced ultrasonographic technical advancements and physician's expertise. GBA has distinctive imaging features. Several recent reports highlight the potential risk of cancer associated with GBA; however the disease is still classified as a benign condition. Although its correlation with malignancy has not been demonstrated, it is prudent to recommend cholecystectomy in some cases. However, in selected asymptomatic patients, a wait-and-see policy is a viable alternative. We propose an algorithm, based on GBA pathological pattern (diffuse, segmental, localized or fundal), suitable for decision-making.
In symptomatic patients and if the diagnosis is doubtful, cholecystectomy is mandatory. Postponing surgery is an option to be offered to asymptomatic patients with low-risk GBA pattern who adhere to scheduled follow-ups.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Where population coverage is limited, the exclusive use of Cancer Registries might limit ascertainment of incident cancer cases. We explored the potentials of Nationwide hospital discharge records (NHDRs) to capture incident breast cancer cases in Italy. METHODS: We analyzed NHDRs for mastectomies and quadrantectomies performed between 2001 and 2008. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and related 95% Confidence Interval (CI) in the actual number of mastectomies and quadrantectomies performed during the study period were computed for the full sample and for subgroups defined by age, surgical procedure, macro-area and singular Region. Re-admissions of the same patients were separately presented. RESULTS: The overall number of mastectomies decreased, with an AAPC of -2.1% (-2.3 -1.8). This result was largely driven by the values observed for women in the 45 to 64 and 65 to 74 age subgroups (-3.0%, -3.4 -3.6 and -3.3%, -3.8 -2.8, respectively). We observed no significant reduction in mastectomies for women in the remaining age groups. Quadrantectomies showed an overall +4.7 AAPC (95%CI:4.5--4.9), with no substantial differences by age. Analyses by geographical area showed a remarkable decrease in mastectomies, with inter-regional discrepancies possibly depending upon variability in mammography screening coverage and adherence. Quadrantectomies significantly increased, with Southern Regions presenting the highest average rates. Data on repeat admissions within a year revealed a total number of 46,610 major breast surgeries between 2001 and 2008, with an overall +3.2% AAPC (95%CI:2.8-3.6). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, NHDRs might represent a valuable supplemental data source to integrate Cancer Registries in cancer surveillance.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 11/2012; 31(1):96. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The management of cutaneous metastases often represents a challenge because they may be widespread and may recur after radiotherapy or chemotherapy; breast cancer accounts for 51% of the total cases of cutaneous metastases. When surgical excision of chest wall recurrences is not possible and other local treatments such as radiotherapy or radiotherapy with hyperthermia fail, topical chemotherapy and electrochemotherapy (ECT) might be taken into account.ECT is a new local treatment of solid tumors which can be defined as the local potentiation, by means of permeabilizing electric pulses, of the antitumor activity of a non permeating anticancer drug with high intrinsic cytotoxicity.
This prospective observational study took place throughout March 2010 to October 2011. Twelve consecutive elderly patients (1 man and 11 women, median age of 76 years) with regional or distant skin or subcutaneous metastases from breast cancer, with or without visceral disease, were included in the study. Patient enrollment was carried out according to the ESOPE criteria. Bleomycin administration was followed by the application of brief electric pulses to each tumor nodule within 8 min after intravenous infusion of the drug. Electric currents were delivered by means of a 2-3 cm long needle electrode according to lesion size. All treatments were performed using the CliniporatorTM device.
We observed Complete Response(CR) in 75.3% (107 metastases), Partial Response(PR) in 17% (24 metastases), no change in 7.7% (11 metastases) . No serious ECT-related adverse events were reported; adverse events consisted of pain in the treated area one to two days after treatment (1 patient, 8.3%) and ulceration of treated area (1 patient, 8.3%).
ECT could be suggested as a primary local therapy in patients not suitable for surgical removal of the primary tumor, and clinicians should not hesitate to use it even in the elderly.
BMC Surgery 11/2012; 12 Suppl 1:S6. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Open inguinal hernia repair is associated with a low incidence of complications that can be influenced by the type of mesh and its method of fixation. Our aim was to investigate the frequency and severity of postoperative pain and other complications when lightweight, large-pore meshes, compared with heavyweight, small-pore meshes, are fixed with human fibrin glue (HFG) during open inguinal hernia repair. METHODS: A cohort of 80 patients undergoing open inguinal repair were enrolled. Forty patients received a lightweight and large porous mesh and 40 a standard heavyweight mesh with small pores. In all patients, HFG was used for mesh fixation. RESULTS: Patients who received lightweight, large-pore mesh reported less pain than those in the control group both postoperatively (2.8 ± 1.1 vs 4.9 ± 1.1; P = .0003) and at 1-month follow-up (1.7 ± 1.0 vs 3.1 ± 1.0; P = .0038), and took fewer analgesics. There was no difference in days off work/activity. No differences were observed concerning postoperative complications. After 6 months there was no difference in groin pain between groups. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent open inguinal hernia repair with lightweight, large-pore mesh fixed with HFG experienced less pain throughout the first month after operation compared with those receiving standard mesh.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Breast cancer, a leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide, is one of the most common neoplasms in women. The increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in breast lesion is critically involved in the mutagenic processes that drive to breast carcinoma initiation and progression. To date, the molecular events occurring in the tissue adjoin the cancer lesion have not been elucidated. Here, we investigated the role of excess ROS generation during human breast carcinogenesis by evaluating oxidative stress biomarkers, tissue transglutaminase (t-TGase) activity, and expression levels of ubiquitin and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the normal tissue adjoin to fibroadenoma (nFA), atypical ductal hyperplasia (nADH), and invasive ductal carcinoma (nIDC) from 45 breast cancer patients. We found that lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production significantly increased in nIDC respect to nFA and nADH (P < 0.005) whereas the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) protein-adducts increased only in nADH (P < 0.005). The increased lipid damage observed in nIDC correlates with estrogen receptor exposure in IDC (R(2) = 0.89). Moreover, nIDC and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) showed a 10-fold higher t-TGase activity compared to nFA and nADH. Contrary, COX-2 expression levels significantly decreased nIDC and IDC respect to the nFA and nADH (P < 0.001). The analysis of the free ubiquitin expression revealed equal levels in nADH and nIDC samples whereas high molecular weight-ubiquitin conjugate increased about fivefold only in nIDC (P < 0.01 vs. nADH). These novel findings reveal an interplay between membrane lipid peroxidation, t-TGase activity, and COX-2 expression levels in the tissue adjoining to neoplastic lesion during breast cancer progression.
Journal of Cellular Physiology 06/2011; 227(4):1577-82. · 4.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal tumours was introduced in 1982 by Heald et al. and has led both to a 5% de crease of local recurrences 5 and 10 years after the operation when compared with cases treated with conventional surgery, and to an increase of survival up to five years estimated in 80% of all cases. In Italy TME was firstly introduced for distal rectal carcinomas about 20 years ago, and has shown the same rate of local recurrences reported by Heald. The aim of our work is to highlight TME advantages and demonstrate how this more demanding and longer lasting method has an acceptable risk for the surgery of rectal tumours.
We have compared two groups of patients operated for rectal carcinoma; the first, "historical control group" (no TME, including 46 patients) was treated with the standard surgery technique, while the second group (TME, 47 patients) underwent the total mesorectal excision technique. 14 of non TME patients belonged to Dukes stage A, 20 to stage B and 12 to C; whereas in the TME group 16 patients belonged to Dukes stage A, 23 to B and 8 to C. The patients of both groups undergone the exams of follow up (blood test, hepatic ultrasonography, abdominal CT, thorax Ro); the follow up pattern included periodic controls with a check-up every three and six months, from one to five years.
Postoperative complications in both groups do not show important differences in rates, although, the first group (no TME) had 11 cases with postoperative complications confronted with the 8 cases of the second group (TME). The complications taken into consideration were: anastomotic bleeding (3 patients no TME, 6% vs 1 patients TME, 2%), intestinal obstruction (1 patient no TME, 2% vs 1 patient TME, 2%), parietal infection (4 patients no TME, 9% vs 3 patients TME, 6%), anastomotic fistulae (2 patients no TME, 4% vs 2 patients TME, 4%), retention of urine and vesicular disorder (1 patient no TME, 2% vs 1 patient TME, 2%). Tumours closer to the anus have shown more complications compared with tumours at higher levels. As a matter of fact, 9 cases of no TME and TME patients with low located tumours have undergone complications compared with the 3 cases of no TME and TME patients with tumours being more distant from the anus; the rest 7 cases belonged to the middle rectum. A higher rate of local recurrences was noticed in the no TME group: 6 (13%) compared with the TME group: 3 (6%). Other tardy complications taken into consideration were: hepatic metastasis (5 patients no TME, 11% vs 4 patients TME, 8%), pulmonary metastasis (3, 6% of the no TME vs 2, 4% of the TME), anastomotic stenosis (4, 9% of the no TME vs 2, 4% of the TME), impotence (2, 4% of the no TME vs 1, 2% of the TME). We also noticed that most of the tardy complications in the TME group belonged to Dukes stage C.
From our experience, we concluded that, in TME patients, complications are lower than in no TME patients; the site of the tumour affects the appearance of complications which are more frequently in distal localizations. An important result is the minor incidence of local recurrences after TME, which brings us to the conclusion that TME can be considered a valid method with an acceptable risk for the surgery of rectal tumour.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adrenogenital Syndrome, more properly defined as Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH), is related to the enzyme 21-beta-hydroxylase deficiency, with impaired glucocorticoids and aldosterone syntheses and increased ACTH synthesis. This report describes a case of a monorchid patient suffering from Adrenogenital Syndrome and Leydig cell tumor of his testis. A right orchidectomy with implantation of testis prosthesis was performed, after informing the patient on the consequences of his castration and obtaining his consent. Histology showed a testis measuring 4 x 3 x 2.5 cm with a 6 cm long spermatic cord; there was a yellowish, well-defined nodule measuring 3.5 x 1.5 cm, surrounded by normal parenchyma. This nodule had morphologic and immunohistochemical characteristics of a Leydig cell tumor, even found in the spermatic cord; those cells showed positivity to inibine, MART-1 and vimentine.
Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/2010; 81(6):445-8. · 0.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to determine the incidence of women's breast cancer in Italy without using statistical approximations.
We analyzed the national hospitalizations database at the Ministry of Health to calculate the number of major surgeries in Italian women (mastectomies and quadrantectomies) due to breast cancer between 2000 and 2005, overall and by age groups (<44, 45-64, 65-74 and >or= 75 years old).
Over the six years examined, an overall number of 100,745 mastectomies and 168,147 quadrantectomies were performed. A total of 41,608 major surgeries due to breast cancer were performed in the year 2000 and this number rose to 47,200 in 2005, with a 13.4% increase over six years.
by analyzing the hospitalizations database concerning major breast surgery, incidence of breast cancer in Italy was found to be 26.5% higher than the official estimations which have been computed using statistical models (namely 47,200 vs. 37,300 cases in year 2005).
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 06/2009; 28:86. · 3.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Lichtenstein technique for inguinal hernia repair is easy to learn and associated with few complications. However, recent studies have suggested that this technique is inferior to some 'sutureless' repair systems in terms of perceived difficulty, operating time, surgeon satisfaction, etc.
We employed a sutureless Lichtenstein technique in 80 consecutive patients with primary unilateral inguinal hernia, to assess patient and trainee surgeon outcomes. Human fibrin glue was used in place of conventional sutures.
The mean operating time was 36 min and all patients were discharged 5-6 h after the operation. On a 100-point visual analogue scale, the surgeons rated the difficulty of the operation as low (mean score, 31), and perceived satisfaction as high (mean score, 84). No complications were observed at 12-month follow-up.
This study confirms the efficacy of mesh fixation with human fibrin glue, and supports the viability of a sutureless Lichtenstein procedure.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated if interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) under ultrasound (US) guidance of intraparenchymal small HCC (<2 cm) in cirrhosis can be safely and effectively performed without any anesthesia.
Twelve cirrhotic patients with 14 nodules of HCC (diameter 1.2-2.0 cm; mean: 1.7) underwent ILP. All procedures were performed without local or general anesthesia. Necrosis of the nodules was evaluated with triphasic contrast-enhanced CT.
Post-treatment CT showed complete necrosis in all cases. Pain occurred in 5 patients during the treatment was treated with iv pain-killer and only in 1 case the procedure was stopped before the scheduled time. No major complication occurred.
ILP under US guidance is feasible without any anesthesia in patients with small intraparenchymal HCC.
I supplementi di Tumori : official journal of Società italiana di cancerologia ... [et al.]. 01/2005; 4(3):S53.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Preoperative localisation of non-palpable breast lesions is necessary for excisional biopsies. This can be achieved with methods such as anchor wire, charcoal marking, or radio-guided localisation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate retrospectively our experience with the wire localisation technique. One hundred and eighty-two patients with non-palpable breast lesions (diameter: 0.4-1.5 cm) were operated on under local anaesthesia. Intraoperative X-rays were performed in all cases. No serious perioperative complications occurred. Three patients (2 with postoperative haematomas and 1 with wound infection) underwent conservative therapy. The lesions were benign in 67/182 patients (37%), ductal and/or lobular invasive cancer in 42 (23%), carcinoma in situ in 23 patients (12.5%) and ADH-ALH in 50 patients (27.5%). Our experience confirms that wire localisation biopsies constitute an excellent method for the excision of non-palpable breast lesions. This technique is characterised by high reliability (100% total excisions) and assures a prognostic evaluation of high-risk lesions such as ductal an/or lobular atypical hyperplasia.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The incidence of varicose veins rises with age and over 30% of elderly people suffer from this disease. In recent years, the surgical treatment of varicose veins has moved more to day surgery (DS), but elderly patients are often excluded. Objective: The aim of this study was to consider retrospectively our 10-year experience of varicose disease surgery in elderly patients with reference to the feasibility of day surgeries, and to evaluate the problems that the age of patients causes to shorten hospital stay. Material and methods: All 2032 patients who underwent varicose vein surgery at our institution from January 1993 to December 2002 were evaluated retrospectively; of these, 312 patients (15.35%) were older than 65 years. In the group of the elderly patients, 214 (68.6%) were operated on as inpatients and 98 (31.4%) as day-care cases; in the younger group, 60.23% were treated as day cases. All patients were examined and selected depending on their general health conditions, local conditions and logistics. After their surgery, all patients were checked for at least 3 h and were discharged according to the Post-Anaesthesia Discharge Scoring System. Every patient was given written instructions for home behaviour in the postoperative period, and also phone numbers for medical advice if needed. Results: Among the general conditions the reasons for excluding the elderly patients from day-care surgery (DCS) were above all concurrent pathologies (43.9%) and anxiety (17.8%); with regard to local conditions, 31 patients (14.5%) with extensive bilateral varices and 27 patients (12.6%) with complex recurrent disease were excluded; 24 patients (11.2%) were excluded because of logistics. Nearly half (44.9%) of the elderly patients required multiple admissions for diagnostics before surgery. In 15 patients (15.31%), 3–5 weeks passed from the first admission to the operation in order for treatment with drugs of concurrent pathologies. In the elderly group of patients, there was a lower number of long (7.1% versus 15.9%) and below-knee (48.0% versus 56.9%) strippings of the great saphenous vein, and on the contrary a higher number of perforator veins sections (7.1% versus 1.4%), stab avulsions (10.2% versus 1.7%) and skin grafts for ulcers (8.2% versus 2.2%). No problems occurred during surgery and no patient required readmission to hospital for complications. Conclusion: This study supports the evidence that varicose vein disease can be safely managed in a day-care unit even in elderly patients. Preoperative restrictive selection is necessary for obtaining good results as numerous old patients are suffering from concurrent pathologies. Particular attention is to be given to anxiety of the patient and the attending persons. Postoperative overnight stay can increase the patient satisfaction and reduce the number of elderly patients excluded from day-care surgery.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe the preliminary results of a special method of wound closure in varicose vein surgery using the tissue adhesive butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.
Eighteen consecutive young women (mean age 23 years) underwent partial stripping of the greater saphenous vein for varicose veins of the lower limbs by an external phleboextractor. Their wounds were closed without sutures by means of the adhesive butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The cutaneous edges were drawn together by linear traction between forceps and the adhesive was applied and allowed to set. Less than 0.5 ml of adhesive was required to complete the entire procedure. Wounds were evaluated at 7 days for infection, dehiscence, and tissue reactions. At 6 months all wounds were rated for cosmesis using a validated visual analog scale, that is, a 100 mm line with "worst scar" at the right end of the line and "best scar" at the left end. All patients were interviewed about their acceptance of tissue adhesive skin closure.
The mean time required to close the epidermis with the adhesive was 117 seconds. All patients were followed up for 6 months. At 7 days no adverse outcomes had occurred. Results of wound evaluation at 6 months by the visual analog scale showed scores of 22.2 +/- 13.8 mm (optimal). The percentage of optimal scores was 94.4%, and only one patient (5.6%) had a suboptimal score. Inquiry into the patient's opinions suggested that this procedure was very acceptable.
Preliminary results with sutureless skin closure in varicose vein surgery have been very encouraging. This fast and cosmetic method of wound repair can replace the need for skin sutures in varicose vein surgery.
Dermatologic Surgery 04/2001; 27(3):306-8. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective. To describe the preliminary results of a special method of wound closure in varicose vein surgery using the tissue adhesive butyl-2-cyanoacrylate.Methods. Eighteen consecutive young women (mean age 23 years) underwent partial stripping of the greater saphenous vein for varicose veins of the lower limbs by an external phleboextractor. Their wounds were closed without sutures by means of the adhesive butyl-2-cyanoacrylate. The cutaneous edges were drawn together by linear traction between forceps and the adhesive was applied and allowed to set. Less than 0.5 ml of adhesive was required to complete the entire procedure. Wounds were evaluated at 7 days for infection, dehiscence, and tissue reactions. At 6 months all wounds were rated for cosmesis using a validated visual analog scale, that is, a 100 mm line with “worst scar” at the right end of the line and “best scar” at the left end. All patients were interviewed about their acceptance of tissue adhesive skin closure.Results. The mean time required to close the epidermis with the adhesive was 117 seconds. All patients were followed up for 6 months. At 7 days no adverse outcomes had occurred. Results of wound evaluation at 6 months by the visual analog scale showed scores of 22.2 ± 13.8 mm (optimal). The percentage of optimal scores was 94.4%, and only one patient (5.6%) had a suboptimal score. Inquiry into the patient's opinions suggested that this procedure was very acceptable.Conclusion. Preliminary results with sutureless skin closure in varicose vein surgery have been very encouraging. This fast and cosmetic method of wound repair can replace the need for skin sutures in varicose vein surgery.
Dermatologic Surgery 02/2001; 27(3):306 - 308. · 1.87 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To clarify the possible role of persistent thrombocytosis after splenectomy as being a predisposing factor causing thromboembolism. Blood coagulation profiles were studied in 35 patients (20 M and 15 F, mean age 42 +/- 17.5) suffering from thrombocytosis (> 500,000/dl) who underwent splenectomy for non-malignant and non-traumatic diseases. Seventy healthy subjects acted as a control group. Tests were performed 6 months after the operation and for both groups (patients and controls) blood samples were collected for: platelets, fibrinogen, PT, APTT, AT III, plasminogen, F1 + 2, t-PA and DNA analysis for F V, F II and MTHFR. After one year all subjects were controlled for thrombocytosis, genomic abnormalities and venous thrombosis. All the analyses were performed according to the Statistical Package for Social Science. The significance of the differences in means was evaluated by non-parametric tests, differences with a P value < 0.05 being considered significant. Increased plasma levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, F1 + 2 and PAI-1 were found in the patients compared with the control group. TPA was significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. At the one year follow-up, two patients with genetic polymorphism had suffered deep venous thrombosis. Our findings indicate that splenectomy contributes to abnormal platelet aggregation and endothelial cell activation with hypercoagulability.