Emi Inada

Kagoshima University, Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan

Are you Emi Inada?

Claim your profile

Publications (40)42.02 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Some reports demonstrated successful genome editing in pigs by one-step zygote microinjection of mRNA of CRISPR/Cas9-related components. Given the relatively long gestation periods and the high cost of housing, the establishment of a single blastocyst-based assay for rapid optimization of the above system is required. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to disrupt a gene (GGTA1) encoding the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase that synthesizes the α-Gal epitope using parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes. The lack of α-Gal epitope expression can be monitored by staining with fluorescently labeled isolectin BS-I-B4 (IB4), which binds specifically to the α-Gal epitope. When oocytes were injected with guide RNA specific to GGTA1 together with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and human Cas9 mRNAs, 65% (24/37) of the developing blastocysts exhibited green fluorescence, although almost all (96%, 23/24) showed a mosaic fluorescent pattern. Staining with IB4 revealed that the green fluorescent area often had a reduced binding activity to IB4. Of the 16 samples tested, six (five fluorescent and one non-fluorescent blastocysts) had indel mutations, suggesting a correlation between EGFP expression and mutation induction. Furthermore, it is suggested that zygote microinjection of mRNAs might lead to the production of piglets with cells harboring various mutation types.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 08/2015; 16(8):17838-56. DOI:10.3390/ijms160817838 · 2.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability of human deciduous tooth dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) to differentiate into odontoblasts that generate mineralized tissue holds immense potential for therapeutic use in the field of tooth regenerative medicine. Realization of this potential depends on efficient and optimized protocols for the genetic manipulation of HDDPCs. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a PiggyBac (PB)-based gene transfer system as a method for introducing nonviral transposon DNA into HDDPCs and HDDPC-derived inducible pluripotent stem cells. The transfection efficiency of the PB-based system was significantly greater than previously reported for electroporation-based transfection of plasmid DNA. Using the neomycin resistance gene as a selection marker, HDDPCs were stably transfected at a rate nearly 40-fold higher than that achieved using conventional methods. Using this system, it was also possible to introduce two constructs simultaneously into a single cell. The resulting stable transfectants, expressing tdTomato and enhanced green fluorescent protein, exhibited both red and green fluorescence. The established cell line did not lose the acquired phenotype over three months of culture. Based on our results, we concluded that PB is superior to currently available methods for introducing plasmid DNA into HDDPCs. There may be significant challenges in the direct clinical application of this method for human dental tissue engineering due to safety risks and ethical concerns. However, the high level of transfection achieved with PB may have significant advantages in basic scientific research for dental tissue engineering applications, such as functional studies of genes and proteins. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for the isolation of genetically engineered HDDPC-derived stem cells for studies in tooth regenerative medicine.International Journal of Oral Science advance online publication, 24 July 2015; doi:10.1038/ijos.2015.18.
    International Journal of Oral Science 07/2015; DOI:10.1038/ijos.2015.18 · 2.03 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled the editing of mammalian genomes; however, its applicability and efficiency in the pig genome has not been studied in depth. The α-gal epitope synthesized by α-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1) is known as a xenoantigen obtained upon pig-to-human xenotransplantation. We here employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system-mediated knock-in of endogenous GGTA1 via targeted homologous recombination (HR). Linearized donors with ~800-bp homology flanking the CRISPR/Cas9 target site [exon 4 (containing ATG) of GGTA1] served as a template for gene targeting by HR. Using a targeted toxin strategy to select clones lacking α-gal epitope expression, we successfully obtained several knock-in clones within 3 weeks of initial transfection. These results suggest that the use of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated HR to knock-in a mutated fragment at defined loci represents an efficient strategy to achieve the rapid modulation of genes of interest in swine cells and is a promising tool for the creation of KO piglets. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
    Reproduction in Domestic Animals 07/2015; DOI:10.1111/rda.12565 · 1.18 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is very difficult for dental professionals to objectively assess tooth brushing skill of patients, because an obvious index to assess the brushing motion of patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing. Tooth brushing motion, performed by dental hygienists for 15 s, was captured using a motion-capture system that continuously calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of object's motion relative to the floor. The dental hygienists performed the tooth brushing on the buccal and palatal sides of their right and left upper molars. The frequencies and power spectra of toothbrush motion and joint angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were calculated and analyzed statistically. The frequency of toothbrush motion was higher on the left side (both buccal and palatal areas) than on the right side. There were no significant differences among joint angle frequencies within each brushing area. The inter- and intra-individual variations of the power spectrum of the elbow flexion angle when brushing were smaller than for any of the other angles. This study quantitatively confirmed that dental hygienists have individual distinctive rhythms during tooth brushing. All arm joints moved synchronously during brushing, and tooth brushing motion was controlled by coordinated movement of the joints. The elbow generated an individual's frequency through a stabilizing movement. The shoulder and wrist control the hand motion, and the elbow generates the cyclic rhythm during tooth brushing.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 12/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1007/s00784-014-1367-2 · 2.29 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pharyngeal airway size is increasingly recognized as an important factor in obstructive sleep apnea. However, few studies have examined the changes of pharyngeal airway form after dental procedures for treating obstructive sleep apnea during growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Herbst appliance on the 3-dimensional form of the pharyngeal airway using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-four Class II subjects (ANB, ≥5°; 11 boys; mean age, 11.6 years) who required Herbst therapy with edgewise treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after Herbst treatment. Twenty Class I control subjects (9 boys; mean age, 11.5 years) received edgewise treatment only. The volume, depth, and width of the pharyngeal airway were compared between the groups using measurements from 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the entire pharyngeal airway. The increase of the oropharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (5000.2 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (2451.6 mm(3)). Similarly, the increase of the laryngopharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (1941.8 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (1060.1 mm(3)). The Herbst appliance enlarges the oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airways. These results may provide a useful assessment of obstructive sleep apnea treatment during growth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 12/2014; 146(6):776-85. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2014.08.017 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has enabled genome editing of mammalian genomes; however, its applicability and efficiency in the pig have not been studied in depth. To destroy the function of the porcine alpha-1,3-galactosyltransferase gene (GGTA1) whose product is responsible for the synthesis of the alpha-Gal epitope, we first employed an approach for induction of indel mutations in the target gene by transfecting pig cells with CRISPR/Cas9-relating plasmids. As a result, we succeeded to obtain cells lacking alpha-Gal epitope expression (Sato et al., Xenotransplantation 21, 291-300, 2014). We next used this system to achieve complete knock-in of defined mutation into the exon 4 (containinig ATG) of GGTA1. As a result, almost all of the resulting colonies were found to lack alpha-Gal epitope expression. These results suggest that the CRISPR/Cas9 system is a promising tool for the creation of KO cloned piglets.
    The Asian Federation of Laboratory Animal Science Associations (AFLAS) Congress 2014, Loyal Chulan Hotel, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 11/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isolation of cells harboring exogenous DNA is typically achieved by the introduction of plasmids, but its efficiency remains still low. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to obtain stable transfectants efficiently. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with two plasmids: 1) pTransIEnd, which comprises the ubiquitous promoter, the piggyBac (PB) transposase gene, an internal ribosomal entry site, the Clostridium perfringens-derived endo-β-galactosidase C (EndoGalC) gene, and a poly(A) tail; and 2) a PB-based plasmid, termed pT-EGFP, which contains enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression unit flanked by PB acceptor sites. The PB transposase can accelerate the chromosomal integration of transposon vectors. EndoGalC expression results in removal of a cell surface α-Gal epitope, which is specifically recognized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin-B4 (IB4). Four days after transfection, cells were treated with IB4SAP (IB4 conjugated to saporin, which eliminates any α-Gal epitope-expressing cells) for a short period, followed by standard culture for approximately 10 days. Several colonies emerged, most of which were positive for EGFP expression and lacked TransIEnd. These results indicated that the proposed approach is useful and efficient for obtaining stable transfectants without the use of drug-resistance genes, and offers a novel route for gene manipulation in cultured nonhuman mammalian cells.
    Biotechnology Journal 10/2014; 10(1). DOI:10.1002/biot.201400283 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate morphological differences of the facial soft tissue surface between male Japanese adults and children.
    Archives of Oral Biology 08/2014; 59(12):1391-1399. DOI:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2014.08.004 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Control of plaque and debris is essential for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases and dental caries, because plaque is the primary etiological factor in the introduction and development of both of these infection-oriented diseases. Plaque removal with a toothbrush is the most frequently used method of oral hygiene. Powered toothbrushes were developed beginning in the 1960s and are now widely used in developed countries. The bristles of a toothbrush should be able to reach and clean efficiently most areas of the mouth, and recently the design of both manual and powered toothbrushes has focused on the ability to reach and clean interproximal tooth surfaces. An individual's tooth brushing behavior, including force, duration, motivation and motion, are also critical to tooth brushing efficacy. Dental floss and the type of toothpaste play additional important roles as auxiliary tools for oral prophylaxis. Dental professionals should help their care-receivers’ meet the requirements of oral hygiene to maintain their QOL. This article reviews these topics.
    Japanese Dental Science Review 08/2014; 50(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jdsr.2014.04.001
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cephalometric nasal soft tissue and skeletal landmarks in adults. Lateral cephalograms from Japanese adults (30 men: mean age, 24.5 ± 4.9 years; 30 women: mean age, 20.3 ± 3.3 years; overall mean age, 22.4 ± 2.4 years) were used in this study. Twenty-two skeletal points and three soft tissue nasal points were marked on each subject’s lateral cephalogram, and the coordinates of all the points were systematically digitised and transformed to a standardised plane. A forward stepwise regression analysis determined how combinations of the skeletal landmarks predict the location of the nasal soft tissue landmarks. Based on the result of our research, the location of the nasal soft tissue cephalometric landmarks in our adult subjects may be predicted based on skeletal landmarks, and different skeletal landmarks predicted the position of each soft tissue landmark in the adult males and females in this study.
    Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 07/2014; 46(3). DOI:10.1080/00450618.2013.877079 · 0.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with maxillary constriction. Nonetheless, the effect of RME on pharyngeal airway pressure during inspiration is not clear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate changes induced by the RME in ventilation conditions using computational fluid dynamics. Methods: Twenty-five subjects (14 boys, 11 girls; mean age 9.7 years) who required RME had cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images taken before and after the RME. The CBCT data were used to reconstruct 3-dimensional shapes of nasal and pharyngeal airways. Measurement of airflow pressure was simulated using computational fluid dynamics for calculating nasal resistance during exhalation. This value was used to assess maximal negative pressure in the pharyngeal airway during inspiration. Results: Nasal resistance after RME, 0.137 Pa/(cm(3)/s), was significantly lower than that before RME, 0.496 Pa/(cm(3)/s), and the maximal negative pressure in the pharyngeal airway during inspiration was smaller after RME (-48.66 Pa) than before (-124.96 Pa). Conclusion: Pharyngeal airway pressure during inspiration is decreased with the reduction of nasal resistance by the RME. This mechanism may contribute to the alleviation of OSAS in children.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 05/2014; 78(8). DOI:10.1016/j.ijporl.2014.05.004 · 1.32 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: Oral mucosal wounds exhibit rapid remodeling comparing with those found in skin. Therefore, human buccal epithelial cells(hBECs) are considered as promising resources for regenerative medicine. However, little is known about the potentiality of hBECs. Here, we assessed this point by comparing the property of hBECs isolated from children with that of hBECs isolated from adults. Method: hBECs isolated from buccal mucosa in children and adults were cultured in Dulbecco’s-modified MEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin with mitomycin C-treated STO feeder layer. Quantitative (q) RT- PCR of RNAs isolated from hBECs was performed to examine expression of stem cell markers. Osteoblasts were obtained by cultivating hBECs in bone differentiation-inducing medium for 7 days. Alizarin red staining was performed to confirm bone formation. Result: qRT-PCR analysis revealed expression of several stem cell markers such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, MYC and NANOG in the juvenile hBECs. These cells also expressed differentiation markers such as BSP2, TH and nestin. When these juvenile cells were allowed to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro, Alizarin red-stained cells were discernible. Conclusion: This study showed that the juvenile hBECs have the stem-cell like property and can differentiate into osteoblasts, and suggested the possibility of these cells as a valuable resource for regenerative medicine. Further investigation is now underway to confirm that the juvenile hBECs are classified as a progenitor cell.
    AADR Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2014; 03/2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Minipreparation (MiniPrep) analysis is an essential step for obtaining a recombinant plasmid that carries a DNA insert containing a gene of interest. The most commonly used method for this involves cultivation of transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) in liquid medium, brief centrifugation for precipitation of bacterial pellets, and subsequent lysis of the pellets. This process is time-consuming and laborious, especially when the sample number is high. Here, we describe a more convenient method for MiniPrep analysis that utilizes solid medium-based cultivation of bacteria.
    Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 01/2014; 7(03):105-107. DOI:10.4236/jbise.2014.73013
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: STO feeder cells, a line established from mouse SIM embryonic fibroblasts, have been frequently used for establishing embryonic stem cells and maintaining them in an undifferentiated state. There are some reports demonstrating that fibroblastic cells have the ability to phagocytose Gram-positive bacterium (e.g., streptococci and staphylococci). In this study, we examined the possibility that STO cells could phagocytose Streptococcus mutans (a bacteria causing tooth decay), which always contaminates cultures of primarily isolated human deciduous dental pulp cells (HDDPCs). Simple cultivation of the primary HDDPCs in the absence of STO cells allowed S. mutans to massively propagate in the medium, thus leading to an opaque medium. In contrast, there was no bacterial contamination in the cultures containing mitomycin C (MMC)-inactivated STO cells. Furthermore, STO cells indicated bacterial phagocytic activity under fluorescent microscopy with the dye pHrodo. Besides removal of contaminating bacteria, STO feeder cells allowed the HDDPCs to spread out. These data suggest that MMC-treated STO cells can be useful for propagation of HDDPCs by eliminating contaminating bacteria and by promoting cellular outgrowth.
    12/2013; 6:75-81. DOI:10.3727/215517913X674234
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The pancreas is considered a target of potential gene therapy because the organ is the site of several important diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. We aimed to develop an efficient in vivo gene delivery system by using non-viral DNA, such as plasmid DNA. Direct intraparenchymal injection of a solution containing circular plasmid pmaxGFP DNA was performed on adult anesthetized ICR female mice. The injection site was sandwiched with a pair of tweezer-type electrode disks, and electroporated using a square-pulse generator. Inspection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived fluorescence on the injected pancreatic portion was performed one day after gene delivery. We demonstrate that electroporation is effective for safe and efficient transfection of pancreatic cells, although electroporation with more than 40 V of transfer pulse resulted in tissue damage. Expression of pmaxGFP did not persist for over one week; consequently, most fluorescence in the pancreas disappeared within a week after transfection. This novel gene delivery method to the pancreatic parenchyma might be useful for the development of gene therapy strategies for pancreatic diseases as well as for examination of specific gene function in situ.
    Biotechnology Journal 11/2013; 8(11). DOI:10.1002/biot.201300169 · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that molar movement during gum chewing in children with primary dentition is as smooth as in adults. Twenty-two healthy children with primary dentition and 23 healthy adult females participated in this study. Mandibular movement during gum chewing was recorded using an optoelectronic analysis system with six degrees-of-freedom at 100 Hz, and 10 cycles were selected for analysis. Normalized jerk cost (NJC) at the incisors and working and balancing molars were calculated in each phase (i.e., opening, closing and occlusal level phases) for each chewing cycle. The NJC of the working side molar in children was larger than in adults in both the opening and occlusal phases. Inter-individual variances of the NJC in each phase in children and adults were smaller than corresponding intra-individual variances, except for the NJC during the occlusal phase of adults for the working and balancing side molars. The inter- and intra-individual variances of the NJC during the closing phase were the smallest in each phase for both children and adults. This indicates that the jaw movements of children with primary dentition are more variable, less smooth, and faster than that of adults.
    Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice 10/2013; 31(4):260-9. · 0.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is known to be expressed in the several somatic stem cells and cancer cells. To investigate whether ALP may be a promising marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs), we examined the expression of ALP in human squamous cell carcinoma HeLa cells using a cytochemical staining kit. We found that approximately 40% of HeLa cells were positive for ALP activity. A single cell-derived colony assay revealed that the newly formed colonies could be classified into uniformly (U, 23%), mosaically (M, 17%), and non-stained (N, 60%) colonies. Each colony was picked and cultured for 2 additional weeks for cell propagation; the cells were either M- (45%) or N-type (55%), suggesting that the U-type colonies may have spontaneously changed to M-type colonies during cultivation. These resulting M- or N-type cells were stable with respect to ALP activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of N-type cells is almost identical to that of their parental HeLa cells (comprising M-type cells), but several genes including ALP gene were upregulated in the HeLa cells. Cultivation of single HeLa cell-derived colonies in the presence of the small molecule 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), caused a reduction in the ratio of M-type colonies, suggesting that the transition from U- to M-type colonies is regulated by the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway. Although there is no evidence, at present, that the ALP-positive cells are CSCs, future investigation may reveal that HeLa cells may be a good model for CSC study.
    03/2013; Article ID 208514:15. DOI:10.5171/2013.208514
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is known to improve nasal airway ventilation. Recent evidence suggests that RME is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in children with maxillary constriction. However, the effect of RME on tongue posture and pharyngeal airway volume in children with nasal airway obstruction is not clear. In this study, we evaluated these effects using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-eight treatment subjects (mean age 9.96 ± 1.21 years) who required RME treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after RME. Twenty control subjects (mean age 9.68 ± 1.02 years) received regular orthodontic treatment. Nasal airway ventilation was analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics, and intraoral airway (the low tongue space between tongue and palate) and pharyngeal airway volumes were measured. Intraoral airway volume decreased significantly in the RME group from 1212.9 ± 1370.9 mm(3) before RME to 279.7 ± 472.0 mm(3) after RME. Nasal airway ventilation was significantly correlated with intraoral airway volume. The increase of pharyngeal airway volume in the control group (1226.3 ± 1782.5 mm(3)) was only 41% that of the RME group (3015.4 ± 1297.6 mm(3)). In children with nasal obstruction, RME not only reduces nasal obstruction but also raises tongue posture and enlarges the pharyngeal airway.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 02/2013; 143(2):235-45. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.09.014 · 1.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Masahiro Sato · Maeda S · Inada E · Saitoh I · Kubota N
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most current research on cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with human tumors has focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of hematopoietic lineage markers (e.g., CD44, CD138, and CD 133), which can also serve as important CSC markers in a variety of cancers. However, these markers are generally expressed at late stages in embryonic development. Oct-3/4, a member of the family of POU-domain transcriptional factors, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are known to be expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts, germ cells, and pluripotent embryonic stem cells. We thus consider Oct-3/4 and ALP to be promising markers for CSC. Herein, we examined expression of Oct-3/4 and ALP using 6 established human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of Oct-3/4 and ALP mRNA in those cells. Immunocytochemical and cytochemical staining revealed that both Oct-3/4 and ALP proteins are present as mosaics in PANC-1 cell line, one of those 6 cell lines (23% and 19%, respectively). However, Oct-3/4-positive PANC-1 cells did not exhibit overt ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) activity, as revealed by Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay. Transfection of PANC-1 cells with an Oct-3/4 promoter-directed, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) construct confirmed the presence of Oct-3/4-positive cells. These findings indicate that in PANC-1 cells there are at least 2 subset populations, namely Oct-3/4-positive and ALP-positive cells. However, it remains unknown whether expression of these 2 markers overlaps. Enrichment of Oct-3/4- or ALP-positive cells by gene transfer and subsequent drug selection will be helpful for further characterization of these cells as possible CSCs.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Rapid maxillary expansion is known to improve nasal airway ventilation. However, it is difficult to precisely evaluate this improvement with conventional methods. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use computational fluid dynamics to estimate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion. Twenty-three subjects (9 boys, 14 girls; mean ages, 9.74 ± 1.29 years before rapid maxillary expansion and 10.87 ± 1.18 years after rapid maxillary expansion) who required rapid maxillary expansion as part of their orthodontic treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after rapid maxillary expansion. The computed tomography data were used to reconstruct the 3-dimensional shape of the nasal cavity. Two measures of nasal airflow function (pressure and velocity) were simulated by using computational fluid dynamics. The pressure after rapid maxillary expansion (80.55 Pa) was significantly lower than before rapid maxillary expansion (147.70 Pa), and the velocity after rapid maxillary expansion (9.63 m/sec) was slower than before rapid maxillary expansion (13.46 m/sec). Improvement of nasal airway ventilation by rapid maxillary expansion was detected by computational fluid dynamics.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2012; 141(3):269-78. DOI:10.1016/j.ajodo.2011.08.025 · 1.44 Impact Factor