Emi Inada

Kagoshima University, Kagosima, Kagoshima, Japan

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Publications (35)36.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is very difficult for dental professionals to objectively assess tooth brushing skill of patients, because an obvious index to assess the brushing motion of patients has not been established. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate toothbrush and arm-joint motion during tooth brushing. Tooth brushing motion, performed by dental hygienists for 15 s, was captured using a motion-capture system that continuously calculates the three-dimensional coordinates of object's motion relative to the floor. The dental hygienists performed the tooth brushing on the buccal and palatal sides of their right and left upper molars. The frequencies and power spectra of toothbrush motion and joint angles of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were calculated and analyzed statistically. The frequency of toothbrush motion was higher on the left side (both buccal and palatal areas) than on the right side. There were no significant differences among joint angle frequencies within each brushing area. The inter- and intra-individual variations of the power spectrum of the elbow flexion angle when brushing were smaller than for any of the other angles. This study quantitatively confirmed that dental hygienists have individual distinctive rhythms during tooth brushing. All arm joints moved synchronously during brushing, and tooth brushing motion was controlled by coordinated movement of the joints. The elbow generated an individual's frequency through a stabilizing movement. The shoulder and wrist control the hand motion, and the elbow generates the cyclic rhythm during tooth brushing.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 12/2014; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharyngeal airway size is increasingly recognized as an important factor in obstructive sleep apnea. However, few studies have examined the changes of pharyngeal airway form after dental procedures for treating obstructive sleep apnea during growth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Herbst appliance on the 3-dimensional form of the pharyngeal airway using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-four Class II subjects (ANB, ≥5°; 11 boys; mean age, 11.6 years) who required Herbst therapy with edgewise treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after Herbst treatment. Twenty Class I control subjects (9 boys; mean age, 11.5 years) received edgewise treatment only. The volume, depth, and width of the pharyngeal airway were compared between the groups using measurements from 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography images of the entire pharyngeal airway. The increase of the oropharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (5000.2 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (2451.6 mm(3)). Similarly, the increase of the laryngopharyngeal airway volume in the Herbst group (1941.8 mm(3)) was significantly greater than that of the control group (1060.1 mm(3)). The Herbst appliance enlarges the oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airways. These results may provide a useful assessment of obstructive sleep apnea treatment during growth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    12/2014; 146(6):776-85.
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    ABSTRACT: Isolation of cells harboring exogenous DNA is typically achieved by the introduction of plasmids, but its efficiency remains still low. In this study, we developed a novel strategy to obtain stable transfectants efficiently. Porcine embryonic fibroblasts were transfected with two plasmids: 1) pTransIEnd, which comprises the ubiquitous promoter, the piggyBac (PB) transposase gene, an internal ribosomal entry site, the Clostridium perfringens-derived endo-β-galactosidase C (EndoGalC) gene, and a poly(A) tail; and 2) a PB-based plasmid, termed pT-EGFP, which contains enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression unit flanked by PB acceptor sites. The PB transposase can accelerate the chromosomal integration of transposon vectors. EndoGalC expression results in removal of a cell surface α-Gal epitope, which is specifically recognized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia isolectin-B4 (IB4). Four days after transfection, cells were treated with IB4SAP (IB4 conjugated to saporin, which eliminates any α-Gal epitope-expressing cells) for a short period, followed by standard culture for approximately 10 days. Several colonies emerged, most of which were positive for EGFP expression and lacked TransIEnd. These results indicated that the proposed approach is useful and efficient for obtaining stable transfectants without the use of drug-resistance genes, and offers a novel route for gene manipulation in cultured nonhuman mammalian cells.
    Biotechnology Journal 10/2014; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate morphological differences of the facial soft tissue surface between male Japanese adults and children.
    Archives of Oral Biology 08/2014; 59(12):1391-1399. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Control of plaque and debris is essential for the prevention of inflammatory periodontal diseases and dental caries, because plaque is the primary etiological factor in the introduction and development of both of these infection-oriented diseases. Plaque removal with a toothbrush is the most frequently used method of oral hygiene. Powered toothbrushes were developed beginning in the 1960s and are now widely used in developed countries. The bristles of a toothbrush should be able to reach and clean efficiently most areas of the mouth, and recently the design of both manual and powered toothbrushes has focused on the ability to reach and clean interproximal tooth surfaces. An individual's tooth brushing behavior, including force, duration, motivation and motion, are also critical to tooth brushing efficacy. Dental floss and the type of toothpaste play additional important roles as auxiliary tools for oral prophylaxis. Dental professionals should help their care-receivers’ meet the requirements of oral hygiene to maintain their QOL. This article reviews these topics.
    Japanese Dental Science Review 08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between cephalometric nasal soft tissue and skeletal landmarks in adults. Lateral cephalograms from Japanese adults (30 men: mean age, 24.5 ± 4.9 years; 30 women: mean age, 20.3 ± 3.3 years; overall mean age, 22.4 ± 2.4 years) were used in this study. Twenty-two skeletal points and three soft tissue nasal points were marked on each subject’s lateral cephalogram, and the coordinates of all the points were systematically digitised and transformed to a standardised plane. A forward stepwise regression analysis determined how combinations of the skeletal landmarks predict the location of the nasal soft tissue landmarks. Based on the result of our research, the location of the nasal soft tissue cephalometric landmarks in our adult subjects may be predicted based on skeletal landmarks, and different skeletal landmarks predicted the position of each soft tissue landmark in the adult males and females in this study.
    Australian Journal of Forensic Sciences 07/2014; 46(3). · 0.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence suggests that rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in children with maxillary constriction. Nonetheless, the effect of RME on pharyngeal airway pressure during inspiration is not clear. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate changes induced by the RME in ventilation conditions using computational fluid dynamics.
    International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 05/2014; · 1.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Oral mucosal wounds exhibit rapid remodeling comparing with those found in skin. Therefore, human buccal epithelial cells(hBECs) are considered as promising resources for regenerative medicine. However, little is known about the potentiality of hBECs. Here, we assessed this point by comparing the property of hBECs isolated from children with that of hBECs isolated from adults. Method: hBECs isolated from buccal mucosa in children and adults were cultured in Dulbecco’s-modified MEM containing 10% fetal bovine serum and 1% penicillin/streptomycin with mitomycin C-treated STO feeder layer. Quantitative (q) RT- PCR of RNAs isolated from hBECs was performed to examine expression of stem cell markers. Osteoblasts were obtained by cultivating hBECs in bone differentiation-inducing medium for 7 days. Alizarin red staining was performed to confirm bone formation. Result: qRT-PCR analysis revealed expression of several stem cell markers such as OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, MYC and NANOG in the juvenile hBECs. These cells also expressed differentiation markers such as BSP2, TH and nestin. When these juvenile cells were allowed to differentiate into osteoblasts in vitro, Alizarin red-stained cells were discernible. Conclusion: This study showed that the juvenile hBECs have the stem-cell like property and can differentiate into osteoblasts, and suggested the possibility of these cells as a valuable resource for regenerative medicine. Further investigation is now underway to confirm that the juvenile hBECs are classified as a progenitor cell.
    AADR Annual Meeting & Exhibition 2014; 03/2014
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    ABSTRACT: Minipreparation (MiniPrep) analysis is an essential step for obtaining a recombinant plasmid that carries a DNA insert containing a gene of interest. The most commonly used method for this involves cultivation of transformed Escherichia coli (E. coli) in liquid medium, brief centrifugation for precipitation of bacterial pellets, and subsequent lysis of the pellets. This process is time-consuming and laborious, especially when the sample number is high. Here, we describe a more convenient method for MiniPrep analysis that utilizes solid medium-based cultivation of bacteria.
    Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering 01/2014; 7:105-107.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to test the null hypothesis that molar movement during gum chewing in children with primary dentition is as smooth as in adults. Twenty-two healthy children with primary dentition and 23 healthy adult females participated in this study. Mandibular movement during gum chewing was recorded using an optoelectronic analysis system with six degrees-of-freedom at 100 Hz, and 10 cycles were selected for analysis. Normalized jerk cost (NJC) at the incisors and working and balancing molars were calculated in each phase (i.e., opening, closing and occlusal level phases) for each chewing cycle. The NJC of the working side molar in children was larger than in adults in both the opening and occlusal phases. Inter-individual variances of the NJC in each phase in children and adults were smaller than corresponding intra-individual variances, except for the NJC during the occlusal phase of adults for the working and balancing side molars. The inter- and intra-individual variances of the NJC during the closing phase were the smallest in each phase for both children and adults. This indicates that the jaw movements of children with primary dentition are more variable, less smooth, and faster than that of adults.
    Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice 10/2013; 31(4):260-9. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pancreas is considered a target of potential gene therapy because the organ is the site of several important diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. We aimed to develop an efficient in vivo gene delivery system by using non-viral DNA, such as plasmid DNA. Direct intraparenchymal injection of a solution containing circular plasmid pmaxGFP DNA was performed on adult anesthetized ICR female mice. The injection site was sandwiched with a pair of tweezer-type electrode disks, and electroporated using a square-pulse generator. Inspection of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-derived fluorescence on the injected pancreatic portion was performed one day after gene delivery. We demonstrate that electroporation is effective for safe and efficient transfection of pancreatic cells, although electroporation with more than 40 V of transfer pulse resulted in tissue damage. Expression of pmaxGFP did not persist for over one week; consequently, most fluorescence in the pancreas disappeared within a week after transfection. This novel gene delivery method to the pancreatic parenchyma might be useful for the development of gene therapy strategies for pancreatic diseases as well as for examination of specific gene function in situ.
    Biotechnology Journal 08/2013; · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is known to improve nasal airway ventilation. Recent evidence suggests that RME is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea in children with maxillary constriction. However, the effect of RME on tongue posture and pharyngeal airway volume in children with nasal airway obstruction is not clear. In this study, we evaluated these effects using cone-beam computed tomography. Twenty-eight treatment subjects (mean age 9.96 ± 1.21 years) who required RME treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after RME. Twenty control subjects (mean age 9.68 ± 1.02 years) received regular orthodontic treatment. Nasal airway ventilation was analyzed by using computational fluid dynamics, and intraoral airway (the low tongue space between tongue and palate) and pharyngeal airway volumes were measured. Intraoral airway volume decreased significantly in the RME group from 1212.9 ± 1370.9 mm(3) before RME to 279.7 ± 472.0 mm(3) after RME. Nasal airway ventilation was significantly correlated with intraoral airway volume. The increase of pharyngeal airway volume in the control group (1226.3 ± 1782.5 mm(3)) was only 41% that of the RME group (3015.4 ± 1297.6 mm(3)). In children with nasal obstruction, RME not only reduces nasal obstruction but also raises tongue posture and enlarges the pharyngeal airway.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 02/2013; 143(2):235-45. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is known to be expressed in the several somatic stem cells and cancer cells. To investigate whether ALP may be a promising marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs), we examined the expression of ALP in human squamous cell carcinoma HeLa cells using a cytochemical staining kit. We found that approximately 40% of HeLa cells were positive for ALP activity. A single cell-derived colony assay revealed that the newly formed colonies could be classified into uniformly (U, 23%), mosaically (M, 17%), and non-stained (N, 60%) colonies. Each colony was picked and cultured for 2 additional weeks for cell propagation; the cells were either M- (45%) or N-type (55%), suggesting that the U-type colonies may have spontaneously changed to M-type colonies during cultivation. These resulting M- or N-type cells were stable with respect to ALP activity. DNA microarray analysis revealed that the gene expression pattern of N-type cells is almost identical to that of their parental HeLa cells (comprising M-type cells), but several genes including ALP gene were upregulated in the HeLa cells. Cultivation of single HeLa cell-derived colonies in the presence of the small molecule 6-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (BIO), a potent inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), caused a reduction in the ratio of M-type colonies, suggesting that the transition from U- to M-type colonies is regulated by the Wnt/-catenin signaling pathway. Although there is no evidence, at present, that the ALP-positive cells are CSCs, future investigation may reveal that HeLa cells may be a good model for CSC study.
    Advances in Stem Cells. 01/2013; Article ID 208514:15.
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    ABSTRACT: STO feeder cells, a line established from mouse SIM embryonic fibroblasts, have been frequently used for establishing embryonic stem cells and maintaining them in an undifferentiated state. There are some reports demonstrating that fibroblastic cells have the ability to phagocytose Gram-positive bacterium (e.g., streptococci and staphylococci). In this study, we examined the possibility that STO cells could phagocytose Streptococcus mutans (a bacteria causing tooth decay), which always contaminates cultures of primarily isolated human deciduous dental pulp cells (HDDPCs). Simple cultivation of the primary HDDPCs in the absence of STO cells allowed S. mutans to massively propagate in the medium, thus leading to an opaque medium. In contrast, there was no bacterial contamination in the cultures containing mitomycin C (MMC)-inactivated STO cells. Furthermore, STO cells indicated bacterial phagocytic activity under fluorescent microscopy with the dye pHrodo. Besides removal of contaminating bacteria, STO feeder cells allowed the HDDPCs to spread out. These data suggest that MMC-treated STO cells can be useful for propagation of HDDPCs by eliminating contaminating bacteria and by promoting cellular outgrowth.
    Cell Medicine. 01/2013; 6:75-81.
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    ABSTRACT: Most current research on cancer stem cells (CSCs) associated with human tumors has focused on the molecular and cellular analysis of hematopoietic lineage markers (e.g., CD44, CD138, and CD 133), which can also serve as important CSC markers in a variety of cancers. However, these markers are generally expressed at late stages in embryonic development. Oct-3/4, a member of the family of POU-domain transcriptional factors, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) are known to be expressed in the inner cell mass of blastocysts, germ cells, and pluripotent embryonic stem cells. We thus consider Oct-3/4 and ALP to be promising markers for CSC. Herein, we examined expression of Oct-3/4 and ALP using 6 established human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence of Oct-3/4 and ALP mRNA in those cells. Immunocytochemical and cytochemical staining revealed that both Oct-3/4 and ALP proteins are present as mosaics in PANC-1 cell line, one of those 6 cell lines (23% and 19%, respectively). However, Oct-3/4-positive PANC-1 cells did not exhibit overt ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) activity, as revealed by Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion assay. Transfection of PANC-1 cells with an Oct-3/4 promoter-directed, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) construct confirmed the presence of Oct-3/4-positive cells. These findings indicate that in PANC-1 cells there are at least 2 subset populations, namely Oct-3/4-positive and ALP-positive cells. However, it remains unknown whether expression of these 2 markers overlaps. Enrichment of Oct-3/4- or ALP-positive cells by gene transfer and subsequent drug selection will be helpful for further characterization of these cells as possible CSCs.
    Advanced Studies in Biology. 01/2013; 5:157-172.
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    ABSTRACT: Head rotation is coordinated with mandibular movement during mouth opening, and the range of head rotation and mouth opening change with food size. However, past research did not include upper body movement, and no reports have related head and mandibular movement during realistic eating. The purpose of this study was to analyse head and mandibular movements with intake of different-sized food pieces during realistic eating. The test food consisted of apple cut into two different cube sizes (10mm and 20mm). Head and mandibular movements of 20 healthy young adults eating the apple pieces were simultaneously recorded in three dimensions by a wireless opto-electronic system. Reflective markers were attached to the upper lip and chin to measure the mouth opening range. Five markers were attached to eyeglasses frames to measure linear motion and rotation of the head. One marker was attached to the jugular notch of the sternum to measure linear motion of the upper body. Linear motion, and the inclination angle of the head and upper body, and mouth opening range were compared during intake of different-sized apple pieces. Mouth opening, head-neck rotation angle and the amount of upper body forward translation and inclination increased with larger apple pieces. However, isolated relative head motion was stabilized. We conclude that upper body forward motion and head-neck rotation assist mouth opening whilst stabilizing head orientation, and that the range of head-neck rotation angle, upper body translation and range of mouth opening change with food size during realistic eating.
    Archives of oral biology 03/2012; 57(3):307-13. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rapid maxillary expansion is known to improve nasal airway ventilation. However, it is difficult to precisely evaluate this improvement with conventional methods. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to use computational fluid dynamics to estimate the effect of rapid maxillary expansion. Twenty-three subjects (9 boys, 14 girls; mean ages, 9.74 ± 1.29 years before rapid maxillary expansion and 10.87 ± 1.18 years after rapid maxillary expansion) who required rapid maxillary expansion as part of their orthodontic treatment had cone-beam computed tomography images taken before and after rapid maxillary expansion. The computed tomography data were used to reconstruct the 3-dimensional shape of the nasal cavity. Two measures of nasal airflow function (pressure and velocity) were simulated by using computational fluid dynamics. The pressure after rapid maxillary expansion (80.55 Pa) was significantly lower than before rapid maxillary expansion (147.70 Pa), and the velocity after rapid maxillary expansion (9.63 m/sec) was slower than before rapid maxillary expansion (13.46 m/sec). Improvement of nasal airway ventilation by rapid maxillary expansion was detected by computational fluid dynamics.
    American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics: official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics 03/2012; 141(3):269-78. · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of permanent and primary tooth-crown inclinations. Landmark points from cephalograms and dental casts of two groups; 23 women (mean 20.3 +/- 3.3 years) and 11 girls (mean 5.2 +/- 0.1 years) were digitized, and the coordinates were integrated and transformed to a standardized plane. The 3-dimensional crown inclinations were projected on the sagittal plane, and the angles between the tooth vectors and the FH plane were calculated. An independent-group t-test was used to test for group differences of each tooth inclination, and correlation coefficients were generated for the inclination angles among the permanent and primary teeth. Most maxillary tooth-crown inclinations showed significant age-related differences, while only the second premolar and primary second molar differed significantly in the mandible. The maxillary molars were parallel to the corresponding mandibular molars and correlated with each other, but the primary molars were not. Significant correlations were found between inclinations of most permanent teeth, but not the primary teeth. Maxillary tooth-crown inclinations change during growth, but tooth-crown inclinations of the mandibular teeth do not.
    Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice 01/2012; 30(1):41-51. · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Occlusal contact area (OCA) is most important during the occlusal phase when food particles are being pulverized. OCA is most easily measured statically at the maximum intercuspal position (ICP). However, the assumption of coincidence between dynamic maximum closing position (MCP) and statically determined ICP has not been previously tested. The purpose of this study is to introduce a method of quantifying OCA of all teeth during dynamic mastication to determine whether the OCA at the dynamic MCP during chewing is similar to the statically determined maximum possible OCA. Thirteen healthy females participated in this study. Morphologic tooth shape data were measured from dental models using an automatic 3D digitizer. Mandibular movement during gum chewing was recorded using an optoelectronic analysis system with 6 degrees of freedom, and ten cycles were selected for analysis. The dynamic OCA was estimated with a measurement system combining 3D tracking of mandibular movements with 3D digitization of tooth shape. The estimated mean 3D difference between the incisor position at ICP and MCP was 0.129 mm. At the dynamic MCP, the maximum OCA was 98.5% (68.42 mm(2)) of the maximum possible contact area in the static ICP (69.46 mm(2)). Both between-subject and within-subject variation were least at the dynamic MCP. The maximum OCA during chewing is nearly identical to statically determined maximum possible OCA.
    Archives of oral biology 08/2011; 56(12):1616-23. · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that condylar shape varies based upon the condition of anterior disk displacement in young adolescent patients with temporomandibular disorder (TMD). The study design consisted of 96 juvenile female patients (aged 9 to 20; 15.1 +/- 2.3 yrs.) with clinical signs and/or symptoms of TMD. Bilateral high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed in frontal and horizontal views with the mandible in the closed position. Disk positions were evaluated to classify the patients into three diagnostic groups. The results of the study, using ANOVA and Bonferroni tests, demonstrated significant differences among the groups. The conclusion drawn from the study was that condylar shape and size vary based on anterior disk position in juvenile females with TMD. The study's results suggest that disk displacement results in a smaller condyle.
    Cranio: the journal of craniomandibular practice 04/2011; 29(2):100-10. · 1.11 Impact Factor