Hisashi Mori

University of Toyama, Тояма, Toyama, Japan

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Publications (77)255.02 Total impact

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    Circulation journal : official journal of the Japanese Circulation Society. 07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the α-subunit of a cardiac potassium channel. Various mutations of hERG, including missense mutations, have been reported to cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and severe arrhythmic disorders such as sudden cardiac death. We identified a novel hERG frameshift mutation (hERG(ΔAT)) in the S5-pore region from a LQTS patient who died suddenly and analyzed its genetic profile and the molecular and electrophysiological behaviors of the protein product to assess the pathogenicity of hERG(ΔAT). Methods and results We performed direct sequencing of hERG and evaluated its transcript level by using a whole blood sample from the patient. We performed immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and patch-clamp recordings of HEK-293 T cells transfected with hERG(ΔAT), wild-type hERG (hERG(WT)), or both. The patient demonstrated an AT deletion (c.1735_1736del) in hERG and a decrease inhERG mRNA transcripts. HEK-293 T cells showed lower production and cell surface expression of hERG(ΔAT) compared with hERG(WT) protein. In addition, the hERG(ΔAT) protein failed to form functional channels, while the activation kinetics of functional channels, presumably consisting of hERG(WT) subunits, were unaffected. Conclusion The ΔAT mutation may decrease the number of functional hERG channels by impairing the posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing of the mutant product. This decrease may partly explain the cardiac symptoms of the patient who was heterozygous for hERG(ΔAT).
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    ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 encodes the α subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K+current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal α helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-Serine is an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor in the central nervous system and its synthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). Recently, the NMDA receptor has been found to be expressed in keratinocytes (KCs) of the skin and involved in the regulation of KC growth and differentiation. However, the localization and role of SR in the skin remain unknown. Here, using SR knockout (SR-KO) mice as the control, we demonstrated the localization of the SR protein in the granular and cornified layer of the epidermis of wild-type (WT) mice and its appearance in confluent WT KCs. We also demonstrated the existence of a mechanism for conversion of L-serine to D-serine in epidermal KCs. Furthermore, we found increased levels of gene expressions involved in the differentiation of epidermal KCs in adult SR-KO mice, and alterations in the barrier function and ultrastructure of the epidermis in postnatal day 5 SR-KO mice. Our findings suggest that SR in the skin epidermis is involved in the differentiation of epidermal KCs and the formation of the skin barrier.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 17 January 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.22.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: KCNE1 encodes a modulator of KCNH2 and KCNQ1 delayed rectifier K(+) current channels. KCNE1 mutations might cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) by impairing KCNE1 subunit's modulatory actions on these channels. There are major and minor polymorphismic KCNE1 variants whose 38(th) amino acids are glycine and serine [KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S) subunits], respectively. Despite its frequent occurrence, the influence of this polymorphism on the K(+) channels' function is unclear. Methods and Results: Patch-clamp recordings were obtained from human embryonic kidney -293T cells. KCNH2 channel current density in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was smaller than that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells by 34%. The voltage-sensitivity of the KCNQ1 channel current in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was lowered compared to that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells, with a +13mV shift in the half-maximal activation voltage. KCNH2 channel current density or KCNQ1 channel voltage-sensitivity was not different between KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells and cells transfected with both KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S). Moreover, the KCNH2 channel current in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was more susceptible to E4031, a QT prolonging drug and a condition with hypokalemia, than that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells. Conclusions: Homozygous inheritance of KCNE1(38S) might cause a mild reduction of the delayed rectifier K(+) currents and might thereby increase an arrhythmogenic potential particularly in the presence of QT prolonging factors. By contrast, heterozygous inheritance of KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S) might not affect the K(+) currents significantly.
    Circulation Journal 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 encodes the α subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K + current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal α helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293 T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine is a coagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). The overactivation of the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, strokes, and epileptic seizures, thus, the inhibitors of SR have potential against these pathological states. Here, we have developed novel inhibitors of SR by in silico screening and in vitro enzyme assay. The newly developed inhibitors have lower IC50 value comparing with that of malonate, one of the standard SR inhibitor. The structural features of novel inhibitors suggest the importance of central amide structure having a phenoxy substituent in their structure for the SR inhibitory activity. The present findings suggest the importance and rational development of new drugs for diseases of NMDAR overactivation.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 01/2014;
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    Ayako Tabata-Imai, Ran Inoue, Hisashi Mori
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    ABSTRACT: D-Serine, an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), is widely distributed in the central nervous system and is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SR). NMDAR plays an important role in pain processing including central sensitization that eventually causes hyperalgesia. To elucidate the roles of D-serine and SR in pain transmission, we evaluated the behavioral changes and spinal nociceptive processing induced by formalin using SR knock-out (KO) mice. We found that SR is mainly distributed in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in wild-type (WT) mice. Although the formalin injected subcutaneously induced the biphasic pain response of licking in SR-KO and WT mice, the time spent on licking was significantly longer in the SR-KO mice during the second phase of the formalin test. The number of neurons immunopositive for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), which are molecular pain markers, in laminae I-II of the ipsilateral dorsal horn was significantly larger in the SR-KO mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the distribution of SR changed from being broad to being concentrated in cell bodies after the formalin injection. On the other hand, the expression level of the cytosolic SR in the ipsilateral dorsal horn significantly decreased. Oral administration of 10 mM D-serine in drinking water for one week cancelled the difference in pain behaviors between WT and SR-KO mice in phase 2 of the formalin test. These findings demonstrate that the SR-KO mice showed increased sensitivity to inflammatory pain and the WT mice showed translocation of SR and decreased SR expression levels after the formalin injection, which suggest a novel antinociceptive mechanism via SR indicating an important role of D-serine in pain transmission.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105282. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in normal physiological and pathological states in the brain. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion, and psychological disturbances in males and females of all ages. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women, but children are less likely to have tumors. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a neuroimmune syndrome in patients with autoantibodies recognizing extracellular epitopes of NMDAR, and the autoantibodies attenuate NMDAR function through the internalization of NMDAR. Following the initial symptoms of inflammation, the patients show the various symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, psychosis, dyskinesis, decrease in speech intelligibility, and seizures. About half of these patients improved with immunotherapy including high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins is administrated to these patients, but the patients who had no improvement with these therapy require further treatments with rituximab or cyclophosphamide. It is necessary to detect anti-NMDAR antibodies at early stages, because the prognosis of these patients may be improved by early treatment. Recovery is slow, and the patients may have some disturbances in their motor function and cognition. The pathologic mechanism underlying the development of anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been elucidated gradually, but the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Further studies are required to clarify in detail the mechanism underlying anti-NMDA encephalitis and to develop effective treatments.
    Brain & development 11/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified human bocavirus (HBoV) DNA by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from adults and children with encephalitis in Sri Lanka. HBoV types 1, 2, and 3 were identified among these cases. Phylogenetic analysis of HBoV1 strain sequences found no subclustering with strains previously identified among encephalitis cases in Bangladesh.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 19(11):1859-62. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the α-subunit of a cardiac potassium channel. Various mutations of hERG, including missense mutations, have been reported to cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and severe arrhythmic disorders such as sudden cardiac death. We identified a novel hERG frameshift mutation (hERG(ΔAT)) in the S5-pore region from a LQTS patient who died suddenly and analyzed its genetic profile and the molecular and electrophysiological behaviors of the protein product to assess the pathogenicity of hERG(ΔAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed direct sequencing of hERG and evaluated its transcript level by using a whole blood sample from the patient. We performed immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and patch-clamp recordings of HEK-293 T cells transfected with hERG(ΔAT), wild-type hERG (hERG(WT)), or both. The patient demonstrated an AT deletion (c.1735_1736del) in hERG and a decrease in hERG mRNA transcripts. HEK-293 T cells showed lower production and cell surface expression of hERG(ΔAT) compared with hERG(WT) protein. In addition, the hERG(∆AT) protein failed to form functional channels, while the activation kinetics of functional channels, presumably consisting of hERG(WT) subunits, were unaffected. CONCLUSION: The ΔAT mutation may decrease the number of functional hERG channels by impairing the posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing of the mutant product. This decrease may partly explain the cardiac symptoms of the patient who was heterozygous for hERG(ΔAT).
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die gesamte gerichtliche Medizin 04/2013; 128:105-115. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SRR). A previous study of Srr knockout (Srr-KO) mice showed that levels of d-serine in forebrain regions, such as frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, but not cerebellum, of mutant mice are significantly lower than those of wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that SRR is responsible for d-serine production in the forebrain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether SRR affects the level of other amino acids in brain tissue. We found that tissue levels of d-aspartic acid in the forebrains (frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, whereas levels of d-aspartate in the cerebellum were not altered. Levels of d-alanine, l-alanine, l-aspartate, taurine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and methionine, remained the same in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of WT and mutant mice. Furthermore, no differences in d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity were detected in the forebrains of WT and Srr-KO mice. These results suggest that SRR and/or d-serine may be involved in the production of d-aspartic acid in mouse forebrains, although further detailed studies will be necessary to confirm this finding.
    Neurochemistry International 02/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine and glycine are coagonists of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), but their relative contributions for several NMDAR-dependent processes are unclear. We now report that the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter-1 (Asc-1) mediates release of both d-serine and glycine from neurons, and, in turn, this modulates NMDAR synaptic activity. Asc-1 antiporter activity is enhanced by d-isoleucine (d-Ile), which releases d-serine and glycine from Asc-1-transfected cells, primary neuronal cultures, and hippocampal slices. d-Ile has no effect on astrocytes, which do not express Asc-1. We show that d-Ile enhances the long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat and mouse hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Asc-1-mediated endogenous d-serine release. d-Ile effects on synaptic plasticity are abolished by enzymatically depleting d-serine or by using serine racemase knock-out (SR-KO) mice, confirming its specificity and supporting the notion that LTP depends mostly on d-serine release. Conversely, our data also disclose a role of glycine in activating synaptic NMDARs. Although acute enzymatic depletion of d-serine also drastically decreases the isolated NMDAR synaptic potentials, these responses are still enhanced by d-Ile. Furthermore, NMDAR synaptic potentials are preserved in SR-KO mice and are also enhanced by d-Ile, indicating that glycine overlaps with d-serine binding at synaptic NMDARs. Altogether, our results disclose a novel role of Asc-1 in regulating NMDAR-dependent synaptic activity by mediating concurrent non-vesicular release of d-serine and glycine. Our data also highlight an important role of neuron-derived d-serine and glycine, indicating that astrocytic d-serine is not solely responsible for activating synaptic NMDARs.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2013; 33(8):3533-44. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Mao Horio, Hisashi Mori, Kenji Hashimoto
    Biological psychiatry 08/2012; · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Herman Wolosker, Hisashi Mori
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of large amounts of D-serine in the brain challenged the dogma that only L-amino acids are relevant for eukaryotes. The levels of D-serine in the brain are higher than many L-amino acids and account for as much as one-third of L-serine levels. Several studies in the last decades have demonstrated a role of D-serine as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). D-Serine is required for NMDAR activity during normal neurotransmission as well as NMDAR overactivation that takes place in neurodegenerative conditions. Still, there are many unanswered questions about D-serine neurobiology, including regulation of its synthesis, release and metabolism. Here, we review the mechanisms of D-serine synthesis by serine racemase and discuss the lessons we can learn from serine racemase knockout mice, focusing on the roles attributed to D-serine and its cellular origin.
    Amino Acids 07/2012; 43(5):1895-904. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor plays a key role in excitatory synaptic transmission. The overactivation of the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the development of epileptic seizures. d-Serine is a coagonist of the NMDA receptor and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). Here, we examined the effect of d-serine deficiency on the seizures induced by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) using SR knockout (KO) mice. We found that, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, SR-KO mice showed the attenuation of seizure expression in terms of a significantly shortened duration of generalized seizures and resistance to generalized clonic-tonic seizures. Consistently, immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos demonstrated that the numbers of cells expressing c-Fos induced by high-dose PTZ in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA1, hippocampal CA3, and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in WT mice were significantly higher than those in SR-KO mice. Moreover, PTZ induced an increase in extracellular glutamate level in the dentate gyrus of WT mice at two different time phases. However, such a PTZ-induced increase in glutamate level was completely inhibited in SR-KO mice. The present findings suggest that SR may be a target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for epileptic seizures.
    Epilepsy research 06/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: hERG(G487R) Channel. Introduction: Mutations of human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG), which encodes a cardiac K(+) channel responsible for the acceleration of the repolarizing phase of an action potential and the prevention of premature action potential regeneration, often cause severe arrhythmic disorders. We found a novel missense mutation of hERG that results in a G487R substitution in the S2-S3 loop of the channel subunit [hERG(G487R)] from a family and determined whether this mutant gene could induce an abnormality in channel function. Methods and Results: We made whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from HEK-293T cells transfected with wild-type hERG [hERG(WT)], hERG(G487R), or both. We measured hERG channel-mediated current as the "tail" of a depolarization-elicited current. The current density of the tail current and its voltage- and time-dependences were not different among all the cell groups. The time-courses of deactivation, inactivation, and recovery from inactivation and their voltage-dependences were not different among all the cell groups. Furthermore, we performed immunocytochemical analysis using an anti-hERG subunit antibody. The ratio of the immunoreactivity of the plasma membrane to that of the cytoplasm was not different between cells transfected with hERG(WT), hERG(G487R), or both. Conclusion: hERG(G487R) can produce functional channels with normal gating kinetics and cell-surface expression efficiency with or without the aid of hERG(WT). Therefore, neither the heterozygous nor homozygous inheritance of hERG(G487R) is thought to cause severe cardiac disorders. hERG(G487R) would be a candidate for a rare variant or polymorphism of hERG with an amino acid substitution in the unusual region of the channel subunit. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. pp. 1-8).
    Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 05/2012; 23:1246-1253. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor that contributes to memory formation. The transcriptional activity of CREB is induced by its phosphorylation at Ser-133 and subsequent interaction with the CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300. We designed and optimized firefly split luciferase probe proteins that detect the interaction of the kinase-inducible domain (KID) of CREB and the KIX domain of CBP/p300. The increase in the light intensity of the probe proteins results from the phosphorylation of the responsible serine corresponding to Ser-133 of CREB. Because these proteins have a high signal-to-noise ratio and are nontoxic, it has become possible for the first time to carry out long-term measurement of KID-KIX interaction in living cells. Furthermore, we examined the usefulness of the probe proteins for future high-throughput cell-based drug screening and found several herbal extracts that activated CREB.
    Bioconjugate Chemistry 04/2012; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors play a role in behavioral abnormalities observed after administration of the psychostimulant, methamphetamine (METH). Serine racemase (SRR) is an enzyme which synthesizes D-serine, an endogenous co-agonist of NMDA receptors. Using Srr knock-out (KO) mice, we investigated the role of SRR on METH-induced behavioral abnormalities in mice. Evaluations of behavior in acute hyperlocomotion, behavioral sensitization, and conditioned place preference (CPP) were performed. The role of SRR on the release of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens after administration of METH was examined using in vivo microdialysis technique. Additionally, phosphorylation levels of ERK1/2 proteins in the striatum, frontal cortex and hippocampus were examined using Western blot analysis. Acute hyperlocomotion after a single administration of METH (3 mg/kg) was comparable between wild-type (WT) and Srr-KO mice. However, repeated administration of METH (3 mg/kg/day, once daily for 5 days) resulted in behavioral sensitization in WT, but not Srr-KO mice. Pretreatment with D-serine (900 mg/kg, 30 min prior to each METH treatment) did not affect the development of behavioral sensitization after repeated METH administration. In the CPP paradigm, METH-induced rewarding effects were demonstrable in both WT and Srr-KO mice. In vivo microdialysis study showed that METH (1 mg/kg)-induced DA release in the nucleus accumbens of Srr-KO mice previously treated with METH was significantly lower than that of the WT mice previously treated with METH. Interestingly, a single administration of METH (3 mg/kg) significantly increased the phosphorylation status of ERK1/2 in the striatum of WT, but not Srr-KO mice. These findings suggest first, that SRR plays a role in the development of behavioral sensitization in mice after repeated administration of METH, and second that phosphorylation of ERK1/2 by METH may contribute to the development of this sensitization as seen in WT but not Srr-KO mice.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35494. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, plays an important role in mammalian brain neurotransmission, via the NMDA receptor. D-Serine is synthesized from L-serine by the pyridoxal-5' phosphate-dependent enzyme serine racemase (SRR), and D-serine is metabolized by D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO). In this study, we measured levels of the neurotransmission related amino acids, d-serine, L-serine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum as well as in peripheral tissues of blood, heart, pancreas, spleen, liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, heart, lung, muscle and eyeball, in wild-type (WT) and Srr-knockout (Srr-KO) mice. Levels of D-serine in the frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, while levels in the cerebellum stayed the same. In contrast, levels of L-serine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate remained the same in all tested brain regions. In vivo microdialysis using free-moving mice showed that extracellular levels of D-serine in the hippocampus of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice while the other amino acid levels remained the same between mice. In peripheral organs, levels of D-serine in the kidney, testis, and muscle of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice. Tissue levels of the other tested amino acids in peripheral organs were not altered. These results suggest that SRR is the major enzyme responsible for D-serine production in the mouse forebrain, and that other pathways of d-serine production may exist in the brain and peripheral organs.
    Neurochemistry International 08/2011; 59(6):853-9. · 2.66 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
255.02 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Toyama
      • • Department of Molecular Neuroscience
      • • Department of Legal Medicine
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2012
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 1998–2009
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Faculty & Graduate School of Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1994
    • Niigata University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan