Hisashi Mori

University of Toyama, Тояма, Toyama, Japan

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Publications (81)272.91 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: D-Serine is a physiological activator of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in the nervous system that mediates several NMDAR-mediated processes, ranging from normal neurotransmission to neurodegeneration. D-Serine is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SR), a brain-enriched enzyme. Yet, little is known about the regulation of D-serine synthesis. We now demonstrate that the F-box only protein 22 (FBXO22) interacts with SR and is required for optimal D-serine synthesis in cells. Although FBXO22 is classically associated with the ubiquitin system and is recruited to the Skip1-Cul1-F-box E3 complex, SR interacts preferentially with free FBXO22 species. In vivo ubiquitination and SR half-life determination indicate that FBXO22 does not target SR to the proteasome system. FBXO22 primarily affects SR subcellular localization and seems to increase D-serine synthesis by preventing the association of SR to intracellular membranes. Our data highlight an atypical role of FBXO22 in enhancing D-serine synthesis that is unrelated to its classical effects as a component of the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway.
    The Journal of biological chemistry. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: D-Aspartate is an endogenous free amino acid in the brain, endocrine tissues, and exocrine tissues in mammals, and it plays several physiological roles. In the testis, D-aspartate is detected in elongate spermatids, Leydig cells, and Sertoli cells, and implicated in the synthesis and release of testosterone. In the hippocampus, D-aspartate strongly enhances N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent long-term potentiation and is involved in learning and memory. The existence of aspartate racemase, a candidate enzyme for D-aspartate production, has been suggested. Recently, mouse glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 1-like 1 (Got1l1) has been reported to synthesize substantially D-aspartate from L-aspartate and to be involved in adult neurogenesis. In this study, we investigated the function of Got1l1 in vivo by generating and analyzing Got1l1 knockout (KO) mice. We also examined the enzymatic activity of recombinant Got1l1 in vitro. We found that Got1l1 mRNA is highly expressed in the testis, but it is not detected in the brain and submandibular gland, where D-aspartate is abundant. The D-aspartate contents of wild-type and Got1l1 KO mice were not significantly different in the testis and hippocampus. The recombinant Got1l1 expressed in mammalian cells showed L-aspartate aminotransferase activity, but lacked aspartate racemase activity. These findings suggest that Got1l1 is not the major aspartate racemase and there might be an as yet unknown D-aspartate-synthesizing enzyme.
    Amino Acids 10/2014; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The term anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis refers to an autoimmune disorder in which IgG antibodies (ABs) against the NR1 subunit of NMDAR cause receptor internalization and decreased NMDAR-mediated neurotransmission. NMDAR encephalitis predominantly affects women, children and young adults, occurs with or without tumor association and is characterized by a predictable set of symptoms including psychosis as a common early feature, disorganized behavior, motor (e.g. catatonia and dyskinesia) manifestations and seizures.
    Biological psychiatry 09/2014; · 8.93 Impact Factor
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    Circulation Journal 07/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the α-subunit of a cardiac potassium channel. Various mutations of hERG, including missense mutations, have been reported to cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and severe arrhythmic disorders such as sudden cardiac death. We identified a novel hERG frameshift mutation (hERG(ΔAT)) in the S5-pore region from a LQTS patient who died suddenly and analyzed its genetic profile and the molecular and electrophysiological behaviors of the protein product to assess the pathogenicity of hERG(ΔAT). Methods and results We performed direct sequencing of hERG and evaluated its transcript level by using a whole blood sample from the patient. We performed immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and patch-clamp recordings of HEK-293 T cells transfected with hERG(ΔAT), wild-type hERG (hERG(WT)), or both. The patient demonstrated an AT deletion (c.1735_1736del) in hERG and a decrease inhERG mRNA transcripts. HEK-293 T cells showed lower production and cell surface expression of hERG(ΔAT) compared with hERG(WT) protein. In addition, the hERG(ΔAT) protein failed to form functional channels, while the activation kinetics of functional channels, presumably consisting of hERG(WT) subunits, were unaffected. Conclusion The ΔAT mutation may decrease the number of functional hERG channels by impairing the posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing of the mutant product. This decrease may partly explain the cardiac symptoms of the patient who was heterozygous for hERG(ΔAT).
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    ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 encodes the α subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K+current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal α helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 04/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: D-Serine is an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor in the central nervous system and its synthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). Recently, the NMDA receptor has been found to be expressed in keratinocytes (KCs) of the skin and involved in the regulation of KC growth and differentiation. However, the localization and role of SR in the skin remain unknown. Here, using SR knockout (SR-KO) mice as the control, we demonstrated the localization of the SR protein in the granular and cornified layer of the epidermis of wild-type (WT) mice and its appearance in confluent WT KCs. We also demonstrated the existence of a mechanism for conversion of L-serine to D-serine in epidermal KCs. Furthermore, we found increased levels of gene expressions involved in the differentiation of epidermal KCs in adult SR-KO mice, and alterations in the barrier function and ultrastructure of the epidermis in postnatal day 5 SR-KO mice. Our findings suggest that SR in the skin epidermis is involved in the differentiation of epidermal KCs and the formation of the skin barrier.Journal of Investigative Dermatology accepted article preview online, 17 January 2014. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.22.
    Journal of Investigative Dermatology 01/2014; · 6.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: KCNE1 encodes a modulator of KCNH2 and KCNQ1 delayed rectifier K(+) current channels. KCNE1 mutations might cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) by impairing KCNE1 subunit's modulatory actions on these channels. There are major and minor polymorphismic KCNE1 variants whose 38(th) amino acids are glycine and serine [KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S) subunits], respectively. Despite its frequent occurrence, the influence of this polymorphism on the K(+) channels' function is unclear. Methods and Results: Patch-clamp recordings were obtained from human embryonic kidney -293T cells. KCNH2 channel current density in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was smaller than that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells by 34%. The voltage-sensitivity of the KCNQ1 channel current in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was lowered compared to that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells, with a +13mV shift in the half-maximal activation voltage. KCNH2 channel current density or KCNQ1 channel voltage-sensitivity was not different between KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells and cells transfected with both KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S). Moreover, the KCNH2 channel current in KCNE1(38S)-transfected cells was more susceptible to E4031, a QT prolonging drug and a condition with hypokalemia, than that in KCNE1(38G)-transfected cells. Conclusions: Homozygous inheritance of KCNE1(38S) might cause a mild reduction of the delayed rectifier K(+) currents and might thereby increase an arrhythmogenic potential particularly in the presence of QT prolonging factors. By contrast, heterozygous inheritance of KCNE1(38G) and KCNE1(38S) might not affect the K(+) currents significantly.
    Circulation Journal 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: KCNQ1 encodes the α subunit of the voltage-gated channel that mediates the cardiac slow delayed rectifier K + current (IKs). Here, we report a KCNQ1 allele encoding an A590T mutation [KCNQ1(A590T)] found in a 39-year-old female with a mild QT prolongation. A590 is located in the C-terminal α helical region of KCNQ1 that mediates subunit tetramerization, membrane trafficking, and interaction with Yotiao. This interaction is known to be required for the proper modulation of IKs by cAMP. Since previous studies reported that mutations in the vicinity of A590 impair IKs channel surface expression and function, we examined whether and how the A590T mutation affects the IKs channel. Electrophysiological measurements in HEK-293 T cells showed that the A590T mutation caused a reduction in IKs density and a right-shift of the current-voltage relation of channel activation. Immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses showed the reduced cell surface expression of KCNQ1(A590T) subunit and its rescue by coexpression of the wild-type KCNQ1 [KCNQ1(WT)] subunit. Moreover, KCNQ1(A590T) subunit interacted with Yotiao and had a cAMP-responsiveness comparable to that of KCNQ1(WT) subunit. These findings indicate that the A590 of KCNQ1 subunit plays important roles in the maintenance of channel surface expression and function via a novel mechanism independent of interaction with Yotiao.
    Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 01/2014; · 5.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine is a coagonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). The overactivation of the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, strokes, and epileptic seizures, thus, the inhibitors of SR have potential against these pathological states. Here, we have developed novel inhibitors of SR by in silico screening and in vitro enzyme assay. The newly developed inhibitors have lower IC50 value comparing with that of malonate, one of the standard SR inhibitor. The structural features of novel inhibitors suggest the importance of central amide structure having a phenoxy substituent in their structure for the SR inhibitory activity. The present findings suggest the importance and rational development of new drugs for diseases of NMDAR overactivation.
    Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We screened 2400 compounds to find novel inhibitors of the adenylyl cyclase (AC)-protein kinase A (PKA)-cAMP response-element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway (AC/PKA/CREB pathway). Using a multistep cell-based screening system employing split luciferase technique, we narrowed down the candidates effectively from 2400 chemical compounds and identified a novel AC inhibitor (compound 1). Since dysregulation of the AC/PKA/CREB pathway is known to cause diseases not only in the nervous system but also in other organs, compound 1 is expected to be developed as a medicine for these diseases.
    Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 01/2014; 37(10):1689-93. · 1.85 Impact Factor
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    Ayako Tabata-Imai, Ran Inoue, Hisashi Mori
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    ABSTRACT: D-Serine, an endogenous coagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), is widely distributed in the central nervous system and is synthesized from L-serine by serine racemase (SR). NMDAR plays an important role in pain processing including central sensitization that eventually causes hyperalgesia. To elucidate the roles of D-serine and SR in pain transmission, we evaluated the behavioral changes and spinal nociceptive processing induced by formalin using SR knock-out (KO) mice. We found that SR is mainly distributed in lamina II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in wild-type (WT) mice. Although the formalin injected subcutaneously induced the biphasic pain response of licking in SR-KO and WT mice, the time spent on licking was significantly longer in the SR-KO mice during the second phase of the formalin test. The number of neurons immunopositive for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), which are molecular pain markers, in laminae I-II of the ipsilateral dorsal horn was significantly larger in the SR-KO mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that the distribution of SR changed from being broad to being concentrated in cell bodies after the formalin injection. On the other hand, the expression level of the cytosolic SR in the ipsilateral dorsal horn significantly decreased. Oral administration of 10 mM D-serine in drinking water for one week cancelled the difference in pain behaviors between WT and SR-KO mice in phase 2 of the formalin test. These findings demonstrate that the SR-KO mice showed increased sensitivity to inflammatory pain and the WT mice showed translocation of SR and decreased SR expression levels after the formalin injection, which suggest a novel antinociceptive mechanism via SR indicating an important role of D-serine in pain transmission.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(8):e105282. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is involved in normal physiological and pathological states in the brain. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is characterized by memory deficits, seizures, confusion, and psychological disturbances in males and females of all ages. This type of encephalitis is often associated with ovarian teratoma in young women, but children are less likely to have tumors. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a neuroimmune syndrome in patients with autoantibodies recognizing extracellular epitopes of NMDAR, and the autoantibodies attenuate NMDAR function through the internalization of NMDAR. Following the initial symptoms of inflammation, the patients show the various symptoms such as memory loss, confusion, emotional disturbances, psychosis, dyskinesis, decrease in speech intelligibility, and seizures. About half of these patients improved with immunotherapy including high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins is administrated to these patients, but the patients who had no improvement with these therapy require further treatments with rituximab or cyclophosphamide. It is necessary to detect anti-NMDAR antibodies at early stages, because the prognosis of these patients may be improved by early treatment. Recovery is slow, and the patients may have some disturbances in their motor function and cognition. The pathologic mechanism underlying the development of anti-NMDAR encephalitis has been elucidated gradually, but the optimal treatment has not yet been clarified. Further studies are required to clarify in detail the mechanism underlying anti-NMDA encephalitis and to develop effective treatments.
    Brain & development 11/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We identified human bocavirus (HBoV) DNA by PCR in cerebrospinal fluid from adults and children with encephalitis in Sri Lanka. HBoV types 1, 2, and 3 were identified among these cases. Phylogenetic analysis of HBoV1 strain sequences found no subclustering with strains previously identified among encephalitis cases in Bangladesh.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 19(11):1859-62. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: The human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the α-subunit of a cardiac potassium channel. Various mutations of hERG, including missense mutations, have been reported to cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) and severe arrhythmic disorders such as sudden cardiac death. We identified a novel hERG frameshift mutation (hERG(ΔAT)) in the S5-pore region from a LQTS patient who died suddenly and analyzed its genetic profile and the molecular and electrophysiological behaviors of the protein product to assess the pathogenicity of hERG(ΔAT). METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed direct sequencing of hERG and evaluated its transcript level by using a whole blood sample from the patient. We performed immunoblotting, immunocytochemistry, and patch-clamp recordings of HEK-293 T cells transfected with hERG(ΔAT), wild-type hERG (hERG(WT)), or both. The patient demonstrated an AT deletion (c.1735_1736del) in hERG and a decrease in hERG mRNA transcripts. HEK-293 T cells showed lower production and cell surface expression of hERG(ΔAT) compared with hERG(WT) protein. In addition, the hERG(∆AT) protein failed to form functional channels, while the activation kinetics of functional channels, presumably consisting of hERG(WT) subunits, were unaffected. CONCLUSION: The ΔAT mutation may decrease the number of functional hERG channels by impairing the posttranscriptional and posttranslational processing of the mutant product. This decrease may partly explain the cardiac symptoms of the patient who was heterozygous for hERG(ΔAT).
    Deutsche Zeitschrift für die gesamte gerichtliche Medizin 04/2013; 128:105-115. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine, an endogenous co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is synthesized from l-serine by serine racemase (SRR). A previous study of Srr knockout (Srr-KO) mice showed that levels of d-serine in forebrain regions, such as frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, but not cerebellum, of mutant mice are significantly lower than those of wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting that SRR is responsible for d-serine production in the forebrain. In this study, we attempted to determine whether SRR affects the level of other amino acids in brain tissue. We found that tissue levels of d-aspartic acid in the forebrains (frontal cortex, hippocampus and striatum) of Srr-KO mice were significantly lower than in WT mice, whereas levels of d-aspartate in the cerebellum were not altered. Levels of d-alanine, l-alanine, l-aspartate, taurine, asparagine, arginine, threonine, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and methionine, remained the same in frontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cerebellum of WT and mutant mice. Furthermore, no differences in d-aspartate oxidase (DDO) activity were detected in the forebrains of WT and Srr-KO mice. These results suggest that SRR and/or d-serine may be involved in the production of d-aspartic acid in mouse forebrains, although further detailed studies will be necessary to confirm this finding.
    Neurochemistry International 02/2013; · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: d-Serine and glycine are coagonists of NMDA receptors (NMDARs), but their relative contributions for several NMDAR-dependent processes are unclear. We now report that the alanine-serine-cysteine transporter-1 (Asc-1) mediates release of both d-serine and glycine from neurons, and, in turn, this modulates NMDAR synaptic activity. Asc-1 antiporter activity is enhanced by d-isoleucine (d-Ile), which releases d-serine and glycine from Asc-1-transfected cells, primary neuronal cultures, and hippocampal slices. d-Ile has no effect on astrocytes, which do not express Asc-1. We show that d-Ile enhances the long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat and mouse hippocampal CA1 by stimulating Asc-1-mediated endogenous d-serine release. d-Ile effects on synaptic plasticity are abolished by enzymatically depleting d-serine or by using serine racemase knock-out (SR-KO) mice, confirming its specificity and supporting the notion that LTP depends mostly on d-serine release. Conversely, our data also disclose a role of glycine in activating synaptic NMDARs. Although acute enzymatic depletion of d-serine also drastically decreases the isolated NMDAR synaptic potentials, these responses are still enhanced by d-Ile. Furthermore, NMDAR synaptic potentials are preserved in SR-KO mice and are also enhanced by d-Ile, indicating that glycine overlaps with d-serine binding at synaptic NMDARs. Altogether, our results disclose a novel role of Asc-1 in regulating NMDAR-dependent synaptic activity by mediating concurrent non-vesicular release of d-serine and glycine. Our data also highlight an important role of neuron-derived d-serine and glycine, indicating that astrocytic d-serine is not solely responsible for activating synaptic NMDARs.
    Journal of Neuroscience 02/2013; 33(8):3533-44. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Mao Horio, Hisashi Mori, Kenji Hashimoto
    Biological psychiatry 08/2012; · 8.93 Impact Factor
  • Herman Wolosker, Hisashi Mori
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of large amounts of D-serine in the brain challenged the dogma that only L-amino acids are relevant for eukaryotes. The levels of D-serine in the brain are higher than many L-amino acids and account for as much as one-third of L-serine levels. Several studies in the last decades have demonstrated a role of D-serine as an endogenous agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). D-Serine is required for NMDAR activity during normal neurotransmission as well as NMDAR overactivation that takes place in neurodegenerative conditions. Still, there are many unanswered questions about D-serine neurobiology, including regulation of its synthesis, release and metabolism. Here, we review the mechanisms of D-serine synthesis by serine racemase and discuss the lessons we can learn from serine racemase knockout mice, focusing on the roles attributed to D-serine and its cellular origin.
    Amino Acids 07/2012; 43(5):1895-904. · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptor plays a key role in excitatory synaptic transmission. The overactivation of the NMDA receptor has been implicated in the development of epileptic seizures. d-Serine is a coagonist of the NMDA receptor and its biosynthesis is catalyzed by serine racemase (SR). Here, we examined the effect of d-serine deficiency on the seizures induced by a single injection of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) using SR knockout (KO) mice. We found that, compared with wild-type (WT) mice, SR-KO mice showed the attenuation of seizure expression in terms of a significantly shortened duration of generalized seizures and resistance to generalized clonic-tonic seizures. Consistently, immunohistochemical analysis of c-Fos demonstrated that the numbers of cells expressing c-Fos induced by high-dose PTZ in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal CA1, hippocampal CA3, and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala in WT mice were significantly higher than those in SR-KO mice. Moreover, PTZ induced an increase in extracellular glutamate level in the dentate gyrus of WT mice at two different time phases. However, such a PTZ-induced increase in glutamate level was completely inhibited in SR-KO mice. The present findings suggest that SR may be a target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for epileptic seizures.
    Epilepsy research 06/2012; · 2.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
272.91 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2014
    • University of Toyama
      • • Department of Molecular Neuroscience
      • • Department of Legal Medicine
      Тояма, Toyama, Japan
  • 2012
    • Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
      H̱efa, Haifa District, Israel
  • 1998–2009
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Faculty & Graduate School of Medicine
      • • School of Medicine
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan
  • 1994
    • Niigata University
      • Department of Pharmacology
      Niahi-niigata, Niigata, Japan