[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is a human enzyme best known for metabolizing nicotine and nitrosamine precarcinogens. Our aim was to discover and characterize new CYP2A6 alleles in a population of Black African descent.
We used cloning, sequencing and genotyping of genomic DNA to discover new variants, and in vivo nicotine pharmacokinetic phenotyping to characterize the functional effect of the new alleles.
Four new CYP2A6 alleles, CYP2A6*4G, *4H, *1B4 and *1L, were discovered and characterized in a population of Black African descent. The two new deletion alleles, CYP2A6*4G and *4H, are distinguished by different crossover junctions at 7.9 and 7.8 kb downstream of the CYP2A6 +1ATG start site, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 1.6%. The new gene conversion alleles, CYP2A6*1B4 and CYP2A6*1L, contain 27 and 10 bp of CYP2A7 sequence in the CYP2A6 3 -flanking region, respectively; their combined allele frequency is 7.3%. CYP2A6*4 appears to associate with lower CYP2A6 activity in vivo, while CYP2A6*1L does not; however, CYP2A6*1L confounds genotyping assays that use the 2A6R3 and 2A6R4 primers.
As new variants are discovered, the relationships between CYP2A6 genotype, nicotine metabolism, smoking behaviors and tobacco-related cancer risk will be further clarified.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is the main nicotine (NIC)-metabolizing enzyme in humans. We investigated the relationships between CYP2A6 genotype, baseline plasma trans- 3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine (3HC/COT) (a phenotypic marker of CYP2A6 activity), and smoking behavior in African-American light smokers. Cigarette consumption, age of initiation, and dependence scores did not differ among 3HC/COT quartiles or CYP2A6 genotype groups. Slow metabolizers (SMs; both genetic and phenotypic) had significantly higher plasma NIC levels, suggesting that cigarette consumption was not reduced to adjust for slower rates of NIC metabolism. Individuals in the slowest 3HC/COT quartile had higher quitting rates with both placebo and NIC gum treatments (odds ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-3.16, P = 0.03). Similarly, the slowest CYP2A6 genotype group had higher quitting rates, although this trend did not reach significance (odds ratio 1.61, 95% CI 0.95-2.72, P = 0.08). The determination of the 3HC/COT ratio, and possibly CYP2A6 genotype, may be useful in the future for personalizing the choice of smoking cessation treatment in African-American light smokers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The molecular genetics of nicotine metabolism involves multiple polymorphic catalytic enzymes. Variation in metabolic pathways results in nicotine disposition kinetics that differ between individuals and ethnic groups. Twin studies indicate that a large part of this variance is genetic in origin, although environmental influences also contribute. The primary aim of this chapter is to review the current knowledge regarding the genetic variability in the enzymes that metabolize nicotine in humans. The focus is on describing the genetic polymorphisms that exist in cytochromes P450 (CYPs), aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Genetic studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms in CYP2A6, the primary enzyme responsible for nicotine breakdown, make a sizable contribution to the wide range of nicotine metabolic capacity observed in humans. Thus, special attention will be given to CYP2A6, because slower nicotine metabolism requires less frequent self-administration, and accordingly influences smoking behaviors. In addition, the molecular genetics of nicotine metabolism in nonhuman primates, mice, and rats will be reviewed briefly.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of socioeconomics and drug use on current smokers (N = 137) and nonsmokers (N = 143) from an urban adult population of Black African descent. Median participant age was 33 years (range = 20-59). Smokers consumed a median of eight cigarettes/day (range = 0-35). Interestingly, 86% smoked fewer than 15 cigarettes/day and only 8% smoked menthol cigarettes. Socioeconomic and drug use variables significantly associated with smoking status in univariate analyses were included in a multiple logistic regression model that controlled for gender and age. Compared with nonsmokers, smokers were less likely to be university educated, more likely to be divorced, separated, or widowed, more likely to be current alcohol users, and more likely to be current marijuana users. Unexpectedly, household income and employment status were not associated with smoking status. Among current alcohol users, smokers consumed three times the number of drinks per month that nonsmokers consumed (p<.001). Among current marijuana users, smokers consumed more than five times the number of joints per month that nonsmokers consumed (p<.001). Overall, lower education levels, divorce, and alcohol and marijuana use were significantly associated with increased likelihood of smoking among this population.
Nicotine & Tobacco Research 08/2008; 10(8):1319-25. · 2.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is a human enzyme best known for metabolizing tobacco-related compounds, such as nicotine, cotinine (COT), and nitrosamine procarcinogens. CYP2A6 genetic variants have been associated with smoking status, cigarette consumption, and tobacco-related cancers. Our objective was to functionally characterize four nonsynonymous CYP2A6 sequence variants with respect to their haplotype, allele frequency, and association with in vivo CYP2A6 activity. In vivo, nicotine was administered orally to 281 volunteers of Black African descent. Blood samples were collected for kinetic phenotyping and CYP2A6 genotyping. In vitro, nicotine C-oxidation catalytic efficiencies of heterologously expressed variant enzymes were assessed. The four uncharacterized sequence variants were found in seven novel alleles CYP2A6(*)24A&B ; (*)25, (*)26, (*)27, and *28A&B, most were associated with impaired in vivo CYP2A6 activity. Nicotine metabolism groupings, based on the in vivo data of variant alleles, were created. Mean trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine (3HC/COT) differed (P<0.001) between normal (100%), intermediate (64%), and slow (40%) groups. Systemic exposure to nicotine following oral administration also differed (P<0.001) between normal (100%), intermediate (139%), and slow (162%) metabolism groups. In addition, alleles of individuals with unusual phenotype-genotype relationships were sequenced, resulting in the discovery of five novel uncharacterized alleles and at least one novel duplication allele. A total of 7% of this population of Black African descent had at least one of the eight novel characterized alleles and 29% had at least one previously established allele. These findings are important for increasing the accuracy of association studies between CYP2A6 genotype and behavioral, disease, or pharmacological phenotypes.
Human Mutation 06/2008; 29(5):679-88. · 5.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) is the human enzyme responsible for the majority of nicotine's metabolism. CYP2A6 genetic variants contribute to the interindividual and interethnic variation in nicotine metabolism. We examined the association between the CYP2A6*1B variant and nicotine's in vivo metabolism. Intravenous infusions of deuterium-labeled nicotine were administered to 292 volunteers, 163 of whom were White and did not have common CYP2A6 variants, other than CYP2A6*1B. We discovered three novel CYP2A6*1B variants in the 3'-flanking region of the gene that can confound genotyping assays. We found significant differences between CYP2A6*1A/*1A, CYP2A6*1A/*1B, and CYP2A6*1B/*1B groups in total nicotine clearance (17.2+/-5.2, 19.0+/-6.4, and 20.4+/-5.9, P<0.02), non-renal nicotine clearance (16.4+/-5.0, 18.5+/-6.2, and 19.8+/-5.7, P<0.01), and the plasma trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio (0.26+/-0.1, 0.26+/-0.1, and 0.34+/-0.1, P<0.001). There were also differences in total nicotine (29.4+/-12.9, 25.8+/-0.12.9, and 22.4+/-12.4, P<0.01), cotinine (29.2+/-8.1, 32.2+/-9.1, and 33.0+/-6.6, P<0.01) and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (32.4+/-9.1, 34.2+/-12.3, and 41.3+/-11.3, P<0.001) excreted in the urine. We report evidence that CYP2A6*1B genotype is associated with faster nicotine clearance in vivo, which will be important to future CYP2A6 genotype association studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CYP2A6 is the main enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism in humans. We have identified a novel allele, CYP2A6*23 (2161C>T, R203C), in individuals of Black-African descent and investigated its impact on enzyme activity and association with smoking status.
Wild-type and variant enzymes containing amino acid changes R203C (CYP2A6*23), R203S (CYP2A6*16) and V365M (CYP2A6*17) were expressed in Escherichia coli. The effect of CYP2A6*23 in vivo was examined in individuals of Black-African descent given 4 mg oral nicotine.
CYP2A6*23 occurred at an allele frequency of 2.0% in individuals of Black-African descent (N=560 alleles, 95% confidence interval, 0.8-3.1%) and was not detected in Caucasians (N=334 alleles), Chinese (N=288 alleles) or Japanese (N=104 alleles). In vitro, CYP2A6.23 had greatly reduced activity toward nicotine C-oxidation similar to CYP2A6.17, as well as reduced coumarin 7-hydroxylation. Conversely, CYP2A6.16 did not differ in activity compared with the wild-type enzyme. The trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio, a phenotypic measure of CYP2A6 activity in vivo, was lower in CYP2A6*1/*23 and CYP2A6*23/*23 individuals (mean adjusted ratio of 0.60, n=5) compared with CYP2A6*1/*1 individuals (mean adjusted ratio of 1.21, n=150) (P<0.04). CYP2A6*23 trended toward a higher allele frequency in nonsmokers (3.1%, N=9/286 alleles) compared with smokers (0.7%, N=2/274 alleles) (P=0.06).
These results suggest the novel CYP2A6*23 allele impairs enzyme function in vitro and in vivo and trends toward an association with lower risk of smoking.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 02/2008; 18(1):67-75. · 3.61 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nicotine is the psychoactive substance responsible for tobacco dependence. It is also a therapeutic used to aid smoking cessation. Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6 is the human hepatic enzyme that mediates most of nicotine's metabolic inactivation to cotinine. Genetic variation in the CYP2A6 gene can increase or decrease enzyme activity through altering the protein's expression level or its structure and function. This article reviews CYP2A6 genetic variation and its impact on in vivo nicotine kinetics, including a description of the individual variants, different phenotyping approaches for assessing in vivo CYP2A6 activity and other sources of variation in nicotine metabolism such as gender. In addition, the effect of CYP2A6 polymorphisms on smoking behavior and tobacco-related lung cancer risk are briefly described. Furthering knowledge in this area will improve interpretation of studies examining smoking behavior, as well as those using nicotine as a therapeutic agent.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation in CYP2A6 (the main nicotine metabolizing enzyme) accounts for some, but not all, of the interindividual and interethnic variability in the rates of nicotine metabolism. We conducted a nicotine kinetic study in smokers and nonsmokers of black African descent (N=190), excluding those with common genetic variants in CYP2A6, to investigate the association of demographic variables with CYP2A6 activity (3HC/COT ratio) and nicotine disposition kinetics (estimated nicotine AUC). An additional aim was to examine whether impaired CYP2A6 activity and/or nicotine disposition kinetics were associated with lower cigarette consumption in a population of light smokers (mean<or=10 cigarettes per day). We found that smokers had decreased nicotine metabolism (p<0.05), that women had higher CYP2A6 activity (p<0.01) and that, in non-elderly adults, age did not impact CYP2A6 activity (p=0.65) or nicotine disposition kinetics (p=0.06). Our study also demonstrated that neither current alcohol use nor current marijuana use was associated with altered CYP2A6 activity (p=0.55 and 0.72, respectively) or nicotine disposition kinetics (p=0.38 and 0.91, respectively). Despite the light cigarette consumption of the smokers (N=94), higher CYP2A6 activity was associated with greater cigarette consumption (p<0.005). These findings highlight the need for smoking status and gender to be considered when interpreting studies using nicotine.
Drug and Alcohol Dependence 07/2007; 89(1):24-33. · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The impact of CYP2A6*21 (K476R) on in vivo nicotine metabolism and disposition was investigated.
A two-step allele-specific PCR assay was developed to detect the 6573A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CYP2A6*21. Nicotine metabolism phenotypes from a previously described intravenous labeled nicotine and cotinine infusion study  was used to assess the impact of CYP2A6*21. Genomic DNA samples from 222 (111 monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs) Caucasian subjects were genotyped for CYP2A6 alleles (CYP2A6*1X2, -*1B, -*2, -*4, -*7, -*9, -*10, -*12, and -*21). The pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between individuals with no detected CYP2A6 variants (CYP2A6*1/*1, n = 163) and individuals heterozygous for the CYP2A6*21 allele (CYP2A6*1/*21, n = 9).
The frequency of the CYP2A6*21 allele was found to be 2.3% in Caucasians (n = 5/222 alleles, evaluated in one twin from each twin pair). In vivo pharmacokinetic parameters, such as nicotine clearance (1.32+/-0.37 vs. 1.18+/-0.20 L/min), fractional clearance of nicotine to cotinine (1.02+/-0.36 vs. 0.99+/-0.23 L/min), nicotine half-life (111+/-37 vs. 116+/-29 min), and the trans-3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine ratio (1.92+/-1.0 vs. 1.55+/-0.58) indicated no substantial differences in nicotine metabolism between those without the variant (CYP2A6*1/*1, n = 163) and those with the variant (CYP2A6*1/*21, n = 9), respectively.
CYP2A6*21 does not have a detectable impact on nicotine metabolism in vivo. Our data suggest that CYP2A6*21 may not be important for future studies of nicotine metabolism and the resulting impacts on smoking behaviors.
European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 06/2006; 62(6):481-4. · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A6 is the main human nicotine metabolizing enzyme coded for by a highly polymorphic gene, CYP2A6. CYP2A6*7, CYP2A6*8 and CYP2A6*10 are variant alleles common to Asian ethnicities. The CYP2A6*7 and CYP2A6*8 alleles each contain a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 6558T>C and 6600G>T, respectively, whereas the CYP2A6*10 haplotype allele contains both. We have developed the first haplotyping assay; it can unambiguously distinguish the CYP2A6*7, CYP2A6*8 and CYP2A6*10 alleles. The allele frequencies of these three variants were assessed using the novel haplotyping assay in Chinese-Canadian (n=112), Chinese-American (n=221), Taiwanese (n=319), Korean-American (n=207) and Japanese-Canadian (n=64) populations, as well as in Caucasian (n=110) and African-Canadian (n=113) populations. Our new method demonstrated higher frequencies of CYP2A6*7 and CYP2A6*10, and a lower frequency of CYP2A6*8 in Asian populations, but no significant change of allele frequencies in Caucasian or African-Canadian populations.
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics 03/2005; 15(3):189-92. · 3.61 Impact Factor