[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to cytotoxic drugs is thought to be a major cause of treatment failure in childhood neuroblastoma, and members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily may contribute to this phenomenon by active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. As a member of the C subfamily of ABC transporters, multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP4/ABCC4 has the ability to export a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances across the plasma membrane. In light of its capacity for chemotherapeutic drug efflux, MRP4 has been studied in the context of drug resistance in a number of cancer cell types. However, MRP4 also influences cancer cell biology independently of chemotherapeutic drug exposure, which highlights the potential importance of endogenous MRP4 substrates in cancer biology. Furthermore, MRP4 is a direct transcriptional target of Myc family oncoproteins and expression of this transporter is a powerful independent predictor of clinical outcome in neuroblastoma. Together, these features suggest that inhibition of MRP4 may be an attractive therapeutic approach for neuroblastoma and other cancers that rely on MRP4. In this respect, existing options for MRP4 inhibition are relatively non-selective and thus development of more specific anti-MRP4 compounds should be a major focus of future work in this area.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The majority of children with high-risk neuroblastoma eventually relapse with disease refractory to treatment. Conventional
chemotherapeutic approaches to high-risk neuroblastoma are at or approaching their tolerance limits, implying that future
improvements in outcome for these patients are likely to come from more targeted therapies, including those that either bypass
or reverse multidrug resistance. To achieve this aim, additional insights into drug resistance mechanisms are essential. Significant
advances in our understanding of multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma have recently come through a combination of comprehensive
patient sample studies, realistic mouse genetic models, and the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting resistance
mechanisms. These combined approaches are outlined here for the drug efflux pump MRP1 and for the p14ARF-MDM2-p53 pathway.
KeywordsDrug uptake-Drug efflux-ABC transporter-Solute carrier-Protein-Apoptosis
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the prognostic value of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (ABCC) transporters in childhood neuroblastoma is usually attributed to their role in cytotoxic drug efflux, certain observations have suggested that these multidrug transporters might contribute to the malignant phenotype independent of cytotoxic drug efflux.
A v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN)-driven transgenic mouse neuroblastoma model was crossed with an Abcc1-deficient mouse strain (658 hMYCN(1/-), 205 hMYCN(+/1) mice) or, alternatively, treated with the ABCC1 inhibitor, Reversan (n = 20). ABCC genes were suppressed using short interfering RNA or overexpressed by stable transfection in neuroblastoma cell lines BE(2)-C, SH-EP, and SH-SY5Y, which were then assessed for wound closure ability, clonogenic capacity, morphological differentiation, and cell growth. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the clinical significance of ABCC family gene expression in a large prospectively accrued cohort of patients (n = 209) with primary neuroblastomas. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to test for associations with event-free and overall survival. Except where noted, all statistical tests were two-sided.
Inhibition of ABCC1 statistically significantly inhibited neuroblastoma development in hMYCN transgenic mice (mean age for palpable tumor: treated mice, 47.2 days; control mice, 41.9 days; hazard ratio [HR] = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.65 to 32; P < .001). Suppression of ABCC1 in vitro inhibited wound closure (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .006); suppression of ABCC4 enhanced morphological differentiation (P < .001) and inhibited cell growth (P < .001). Analysis of 209 neuroblastoma patient tumors revealed that, in contrast with ABCC1 and ABCC4, low rather than high ABCC3 expression was associated with reduced event-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.2; P = .001), with 23 of 53 patients with low ABCC3 expression experiencing recurrence or death compared with 31 of 155 patients with high ABCC3. Moreover, overexpression of ABCC3 in vitro inhibited neuroblastoma cell migration (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .03). The combined expression of ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC4 was associated with patients having an adverse event, such that of the 12 patients with the "poor prognosis" expression pattern, 10 experienced recurrence or death (HR of recurrence or death = 12.3, 95% CI = 6 to 27; P < .001).
ABCC transporters can affect neuroblastoma biology independently of their role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, enhancing their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased expression of specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is known to mediate the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. Therefore, establishing how ABC transporter genes are controlled at their transcription level may help provide insight into the role of these multifaceted transporters in the malignant phenotype. We have investigated ABC transporter gene expression in a large neuroblastoma data set of 251 tumor samples. Clustering analysis demonstrated a strong association between differential ABC gene expression patterns in tumor samples and amplification of the MYCN oncogene, suggesting a correlation with MYCN function. Using expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, we show that MYCN oncoprotein coordinately regulates transcription of specific ABC transporter genes, by acting as either an activator or a repressor. Finally, we extend these notions to c-MYC showing that it can also regulate the same set of ABC transporter genes in other tumor cells through similar dynamics. Overall our findings provide insight into MYC-driven molecular mechanisms that contribute to coordinate transcriptional regulation of a large set of ABC transporter genes, thus affecting global drug efflux.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(25):19532-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug transporter proteins are best known for their contributions to chemoresistance through the efflux of anticancer drugs from cancer cells. However, a considerable body of evidence also points to their importance in cancer extending beyond drug transport to fundamental roles in tumour biology. Currently, much of the evidence for these additional roles is correlative and definitive studies are needed to confirm causality. We propose that delineating the precise roles of these transporters in tumorigenesis and treatment response will be important for the development of more effective targeted therapies.
Nature Reviews Cancer 02/2010; 10(2):147-56. · 29.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fully differentiated mature smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are characterized by the presence of a unique repertoire of smooth muscle-specific proteins. Although previous studies have shown myocardin to be a critical transcription factor for stimulating expression of smooth muscle-specific genes, the mechanisms regulating myocardin activity are still poorly understood. We used a yeast two-hybrid screen with myocardin as bait to search for factors that may regulate the transcriptional activity of the myocardin. From this screen we identified a HECT domain-containing protein UBR5 (ubiquitin protein ligase E3 component n-recognin 5) as a myocardin-binding protein. Previous studies have shown that HECT domain-containing proteins are ubiquitin E3 ligases that play an important role in protein degradation. UBR5 has, however, also been shown to regulate transcription independent of its E3 ligase activity. In the current study we demonstrated that UBR5 localized in the nuclei of SMCs and forms a complex with myocardin in vivo and in vitro. We also show that UBR5 specifically enhanced trans-activation of smooth muscle-specific promoters by the myocardin family of proteins. In addition, UBR5 significantly augmented the ability of myocardin to induce expression of endogenous SMC marker genes independent on its E3 ligase function. Conversely, depletion of endogenous UBR5 by small interfering RNA in fibroblast cells attenuated myocardin-induced smooth muscle-specific gene expression, and UBR5 knockdown in SMCs resulted in down-regulation of smooth muscle-specific genes. Furthermore, we found that UBR5 can attenuate myocardin protein degradation resulting in increased myocardin protein expression without affecting myocardin mRNA expression. The effects of UBR5 on myocardin requires only the HECT and UBR1 domains of UBR5. This study reveals an unexpected role for the ubiquitin E3 ligase UBR5 as an activator of smooth muscle differentiation through its ability to stabilize myocardin protein.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2010; 285(16):11800-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse following initial chemotherapy remains a barrier to survival in approximately 20% of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Recently, to investigate the mechanism of relapse, we analysed clonal populations in 27 pairs of matched diagnosis and relapse ALL samples using PCR-based detection of multiple antigen receptor gene rearrangements. These clonal markers revealed the emergence of apparently new populations at relapse in 13 patients. In those cases where the new 'relapse clone' could be detected in the diagnosis population, there was a close correlation between length of first remission and quantity of the relapse clone in the diagnosis sample. A shorter length of time to first relapse correlated with a higher quantity of the relapsing clone at diagnosis. This observation, together with demonstrated differential chemosensitivity between sub-clones at diagnosis, indicates that relapse in ALL patients may commonly involve selection of a minor intrinsically resistant sub-clone that is undetectable by routine PCR-based methods. From a clinical perspective, relapse prediction may be improved with strategies to detect minor potentially resistant sub-clones early during treatment, hence allowing intensification of therapy. Together with the availability of relevant in vivo experimental models and powerful technology for detailed analysis of patient specimens, this new information will help shape future experimentation towards targeted therapy for high-risk ALL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite a high initial response rate to first-line platinum/paclitaxel chemotherapy, most women with epithelial ovarian cancer relapse with recurrent disease that becomes refractory to further cytotoxic treatment. We have previously shown that the E3 ubiquitin ligase, EDD, a regulator of DNA damage responses, is amplified and overexpressed in serous ovarian carcinoma. Given that DNA damage pathways are linked to platinum resistance, the aim of this study was to determine if EDD expression was associated with disease recurrence and platinum sensitivity in serous ovarian cancer. High nuclear EDD expression, as determined by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 151 women with serous ovarian carcinoma, was associated with an approximately two-fold increased risk of disease recurrence and death in patients who initially responded to first-line chemotherapy, independently of disease stage and suboptimal debulking. Although EDD expression was not directly correlated with relative cisplatin sensitivity of ovarian cancer cell lines, sensitivity to cisplatin was partially restored in platinum-resistant A2780-cp70 ovarian cancer cells following siRNA-mediated knockdown of EDD expression. These results identify EDD as a new independent prognostic marker for outcome in serous ovarian cancer, and suggest that pathways involving EDD, including DNA damage responses, may represent new therapeutic targets for chemoresistant ovarian cancer.
British Journal of Cancer 04/2008; 98(6):1085-93. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multidrug resistance is a major obstacle to cancer treatment and leads to poor prognosis for the patient. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) transports a wide range of therapeutic agents as well as diverse physiological substrates and may play a role in the development of drug resistance in several cancers including those of the lung, breast and prostate, as well as childhood neuroblastoma. The majority of patients with neuroblastoma present with widely disseminated disease at diagnosis and despite intensive treatment, the prognosis for such patients is dismal. There is increasing evidence that MRP1 is a MYCN target gene involved in the development of multidrug resistance in neuroblastoma. Given the importance of MRP1 overexpression in neuroblastoma, MRP1 inhibition may be a clinically relevant approach to improving patient outcome in this disease.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2008; 59(12):752-7. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), whose mutation causes colorectal cancers, is a key player in the Wnt signaling pathway. While the role of APC in inhibition of beta-catenin/LEF1-dependent activation of transformation-inducing genes has been intensively studied and well established, regulation of APC expression at the protein level is only partially understood. Here we report that APC is up-regulated by EDD, the mammalian orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster"hyperplastic discs" gene (hyd) that is considered to be a putative tumor suppressor. Screening of APC immunocomplexes by mass spectrometry identified EDD as a putative APC-interacting protein. Exogenously expressed and endogenous APC interacted with EDD in vivo. Indirect immunofluorescent analyses demonstrated that APC and EDD co-localized in the cytoplasm of the cell. Over-expression of EDD enhanced the protein expression level of APC and its binding partner Axin, resulting in inhibition of Wnt signaling downstream of beta-catenin. Conversely, siRNA knock-down of EDD down-regulated APC at the protein level without altering its mRNA level, causing enhanced protein expression of beta-catenin. Thus, through protein-protein interaction, EDD stabilizes APC and up-regulates APC's function to inhibit beta-catenin, suggesting that EDD could act as a colorectal tumor suppressor.
Genes to Cells 01/2008; 12(12):1339-45. · 2.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cellular response to DNA damage is critical for maintenance of genomic integrity and inhibition of tumorigenesis. Mutations or aberrant expression of the E3 ubiquitin ligase EDD have been observed in a number of carcinomas and we recently reported that EDD modulates activity of the DNA damage checkpoint kinase, CHK2. Here, we demonstrate that EDD is necessary for G(1)/S and intra S phase DNA damage checkpoint activation and for the maintenance of G(2)/M arrest after double strand DNA breaks. Defective checkpoint activation in EDD-depleted cells led to radio-resistant DNA synthesis, premature entry into mitosis, accumulation of polyploid cells, and cell death via mitotic catastrophe. In addition to decreased CHK2 activation in EDD-depleted cells, the expression of several key cell cycle mediators including Cdc25A/C and E2F1 was altered, suggesting that these checkpoint defects may be both CHK2-dependent and -independent. These data support a role for EDD in the maintenance of genomic stability, emphasising the potential importance of dysregulated EDD expression and/or function in the evolution of cancer.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Relapse following remission induction chemotherapy remains a barrier to survival in approximately 20% of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To investigate the mechanism of relapse, 27 matched diagnosis and relapse ALL samples were analyzed for clonal populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of multiple antigen receptor gene rearrangements. These clonal markers revealed the emergence of apparently new populations at relapse in 13 patients. More sensitive clone-specific PCR revealed that, in 8 cases, these "relapse clones" were present at diagnosis and a significant relationship existed between presence of the relapse clone at diagnosis and time to first relapse (P < .007). Furthermore, in cases where the relapse clone could be quantified, time to first relapse was dependent on the amount of the relapse clone at diagnosis (r = -0.84; P = .018). This observation, together with demonstrated differential chemosensitivity between subclones at diagnosis, argues against therapy-induced acquired resistance as the mechanism of relapse in the informative patients. Instead these data indicate that relapse in ALL patients may commonly involve selection of a minor intrinsically resistant subclone that is undetectable by routine PCR-based methods. Relapse prediction may be improved with strategies to detect minor potentially resistant subclones early during treatment, hence allowing intensification of therapy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EDD, the human orthologue of Drosophila melanogaster "hyperplastic discs," is overexpressed or mutated in a number of common human cancers. Although EDD has been implicated in DNA damage signaling, a definitive role has yet to be demonstrated. Here we report a novel interaction between EDD and the DNA damage checkpoint kinase CHK2. EDD and CHK2 associate through a phospho-dependent interaction involving the CHK2 Forkhead-associated domain and a region of EDD spanning a number of putative Forkhead-associated domain-binding threonines. Using RNA interference, we demonstrate a critical role for EDD upstream of CHK2 in the DNA damage signaling pathway. EDD is necessary for the efficient activating phosphorylation of CHK2 in response to DNA damage following exposure to ionizing radiation or the radiomimetic, phleomycin. Cells depleted of EDD display impaired CHK2 kinase activity and an inability to respond to DNA damage. These results identify EDD as a novel mediator in DNA damage signal transduction via CHK2 and emphasize the potential importance of EDD in cancer.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2007; 281(52):39990-40000. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EDD is the mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila melanogaster hyperplastic disc gene (hyd), which is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in flies through regulation of hedgehog and decapentaplegic signaling. Amplification and overexpression of EDD occurs frequently in several cancers, including those of the breast and ovary, and truncating mutations of EDD are also observed in gastric and colon cancer with microsatellite instability. EDD has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, is involved in regulation of the DNA damage response, and may control hedgehog signaling, but a definitive biological role has yet to be established. To investigate the role of Edd in vivo, gene targeting was used to generate Edd knockout (Edd(Delta/Delta)) mice. While heterozygous mice had normal development and fertility, no viable Edd-deficient embryos were observed beyond E10.5, with delayed growth and development evident from E8.5 onward. Failed yolk sac and allantoic vascular development, along with defective chorioallantoic fusion, were the primary effects of Edd deficiency. These extraembryonic defects presumably compromised fetal-maternal circulation and hence efficient exchange of nutrients and oxygen between the embryo and maternal environment, leading to a general failure of embryonic cell proliferation and widespread apoptosis. Hence, Edd has an essential role in extraembryonic development.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 09/2004; 24(16):7225-34. · 5.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: EDD (E3 isolated by differential display), located at chromosome 8q22.3, is the human orthologue of the Drosophila melanogaster tumour suppressor gene 'hyperplastic discs' and encodes a HECT domain E3 ubiquitin protein-ligase. To investigate the possible involvement of EDD in human cancer, several cancers from diverse tissue sites were analysed for allelic gain or loss (allelic imbalance, AI) at the EDD locus using an EDD-specific microsatellite, CEDD, and other polymorphic microsatellites mapped in the vicinity of the 8q22.3 locus. Of 143 cancers studied, 38 had AI at CEDD (42% of 90 informative cases). In 14 of these cases, discrete regions of imbalance encompassing 8q22.3 were present, while the remainder had more extensive 8q aberrations. AI of CEDD was most frequent in ovarian cancer (22/47 informative cases, 47%), particularly in the serous subtype (16/22, 73%), but was rare in benign and borderline ovarian tumours. AI was also common in breast cancer (31%), hepatocellular carcinoma (46%), squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (50%) and metastatic melanoma (18%). AI is likely to represent amplification of the EDD gene locus rather than loss of heterozygosity, as quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry showed that EDD mRNA and protein are frequently overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancers, while among breast cancer cell lines EDD overexpression and increased gene copy number were correlated. These results demonstrate that AI at the EDD locus is common in a diversity of carcinomas and that the EDD gene is frequently overexpressed in breast and ovarian cancer, implying a potential role in cancer progression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinases are key regulators of cellular organization and function. To understand the mechanisms(s) by which these ubiquitous kinases affect specific cellular changes, it is necessary to identify their diverse and numerous substrates in different cell contexts and compartments. As a first step in achieving this goal, we engineered a mutant ERK2 in which a bulky amino acid residue in the ATP binding site (glutamine 103) is changed to glycine, allowing this mutant to utilize an analog of ATP (cyclopentyl ATP) that cannot be used by wild-type ERK2 or other cellular kinases. The mutation did not inhibit ERK2 kinase activity or substrate specificity in vitro or in vivo. This method allowed us to detect only ERK2-specific phosphorylations within a mixture of proteins. Using this ERK2 mutant/analog pair to phosphorylate ERK2-associated proteins in COS-1 cells, we identified the ubiquitin ligase EDD (E3 identified by differential display) and the nucleoporin Tpr (translocated promoter region) as two novel substrates of ERK2, in addition to the known ERK2 substrate Rsk1. To further validate the method, we present data that confirm that ERK2 phosphorylates EDD in vitro and in vivo. These results not only identify two novel ERK2 substrates but also provide a framework for the future identification of numerous cellular targets of this important signaling cascade.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2003; 278(17):14926-35. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin-protein ligase EDD encodes an orthologue of the hyperplastic discs tumor suppressor gene, which has a critical role in Drosophila development. Frequent allelic imbalance at the EDD chromosomal locus in human cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In addition to a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) domain, the EDD protein contains a UBR1 zinc finger motif and ubiquitin-associated domain, each of which indicates involvement in ubiquitinylation pathways. This study shows that EDD interacts with importin alpha 5 through consensus basic nuclear localization signals and is localized in cell nuclei. EDD also binds progesterone receptor (PR) and potentiates progestin-mediated gene transactivation. This activity is comparable with that of the coactivator SRC-1, but, in contrast, the interaction between EDD and PR does not appear to involve an LXXLL receptor-binding motif. EDD also binds calcium- and integrin-binding protein/DNA-dependent protein kinase-interacting protein, a potential target of ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, and an altered association is found between EDD and calcium- and integrin-binding protein/DNA-dependent protein kinase-interacting protein in response to DNA damage. The data presented here demonstrate a role for EDD in PR signaling but also suggest a link to cancer through DNA damage response pathways.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2002; 277(29):26468-78. · 4.65 Impact Factor