A Behmel

Medical University of Graz, Gratz, Styria, Austria

Are you A Behmel?

Claim your profile

Publications (19)45.22 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hereditary and sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) are closely associated with RET proto-oncogene mutations. However, the role of additional changes in the tumor genomes remains unclear. Our objective was the identification of chromosomal regions involved in MTC tumorigenesis and to assess their significance by using MTC-derived cell lines. We used array-CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) to map chromosomal imbalances in 52 primary tumors and ten metastases. Eleven tumors (11/52, 21%) were hereditary and 41 (41/52, 79%) were sporadic. Among the latter, 15 tumors (15/41, 37%) harbored RET mutations. Furthermore, we characterized five MTC cell lines in detail and evaluated the tumorigenicity by severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-mouse experiments. Most MTCs had only few copy number changes, and losses of chromosomes 1p, 4q, 19p and 22q were observed most frequently. The number of chromosomal aberrations increased in metastases. Twenty-three percent (12/52) of the primary tumors did not even show any chromosomal gains and losses. We injected three cell lines (two of these were without chromosomal changes and pathogenic RET mutations) into immune deficient SCID mice, and in each case, we observed rapid tumor growth at the injection sites. Our data suggest that MTCs--in contrast to most other tumor entities--do not acquire a multitude of genomic imbalances. SCID mouse experiments performed with chromosomally normal cell lines and without RET mutations suggest that presently unknown submicroscopic genomic changes are sufficient in MTC tumorigenesis.
    International Journal of Cancer 10/2011; 131(2):E66-73. · 6.20 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Carcinoids are rare tumors derived from enterochromaffin (EC) cells of the embryonic neural crest. They have malignant potential and their incidence is steadily increasing. The only curative treatment option is surgery. We have focused on cultivation of human neuroendocrine tumors (NET) as relevant models for the study of potential therapy. Only a few cell lines from human carcinoids have been established so far, among them our earlier KRJ-I cell line from a human ileal carcinoid. The reason for the poor success in establishing carcinoid cell lines is due to the small amount of tissue available and the low mitotic activity in primary cultures. We have successfully established three continuously growing cell lines from tissue obtained from a metastatic human carcinoid of the terminal ileum (midgut carcinoid): P-STS was derived from the primary tumor, L-STS from a lymph node metastasis and H-STS from a hepatic metastasis. Immunocytochemistry proved the maintenance of characteristic neuroendocrine properties. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules. The three cell lines were tumorigenous in SCID-mice. Cytogenetic analyses revealed clonal tetraploidy, inversion and deletion in chromosome 18q, and non-clonal numerical and structural aberrations. Array CGH did not show notable imbalances. Mutation screening of P-STS excluded a MEN1-gene-associated genetic predisposition with high probability. The novel cell lines P-STS, L-STS and H-STS may be useful in vitro and in vivo models for further studies of biological characteristics and the development of new therapeutic agents.
    Anticancer research 07/2009; 29(6):1951-61. · 1.71 Impact Factor
  • Culture of Human Tumor Cells, 01/2005: pages 373 - 403; , ISBN: 9780471722786
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A unilateral, apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma was removed from the right adrenal of a 73-yr-old Caucasian woman. At the time of surgery, germline DNA from the patient was not available. However, a continuous cell line (KNA) established from the tumor showed a heterozygous sequence variant TGC (cysteine) to TGG (tryptophan) in exon 10, codon 611 of the RET proto-oncogene. Subsequent genetic testing of the patient and her offspring revealed the same base-change in herself, one daughter, one son, and the only grandson, confirming hereditary disease classified as MEN2A-2. Clinical follow up of the patient revealed elevated serum calcitonin after 6 yr. Thyroidectomy was performed and revealed a small medullary thyroid carcinoma. The patient's children thus far show no evidence of MEN2, but C-cell hyperplasia has been diagnosed in the grandson. Our serendipitous finding of a MEN2A-2 mutation in a patient with initial diagnosis of late onset, unilateral, "sporadic" pheochromocytoma would argue for routine mutation screening of even elderly patients presenting with a pheochromocytoma.
    Endocrine Pathology 02/2003; 14(4):375-82. · 1.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report a 59-year-old, male, chronic myeloid leukemia patient with a rare variant Philadelphia (Ph) translocation t(9;10;22)(q34;q22;q11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization with whole chromosome paints was used to confirm the cytogenetic findings. With a BCR/ABL-specific probe, the known rearrangement on the derivative chromosome 22 was found. The prognostic implications as well as the relevance of the additional breakpoint region 10q22 are discussed.
    Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 09/2001; 129(1):76-9. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Classical chromosomal analysis and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) were performed in a tubular bronchial gland adenoma. Trisomy of chromosomes 2, 11, 18 and 20 and clonal loss of Y were found in cultured cells derived from two different kryotubes; this was also confirmed by CGH from one of these tubes. Cells from two other tubes, investigated by CGH only, showed gains and losses of parts of chromosome 11q in one, and in the second additional gain of the distal portion of 9q and 17q, respectively. CGH analysis of tumor DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded sections showed no chromosomal imbalances. In cell culture growth the advantage of specific clones probably altered the clone distribution. This study highlights the risk of cytogenetic analysis based on cell cultures only.
    International Journal of Oncology 06/2001; 18(5):923-8. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A malignant insulinoma (LOHG-I), a carcinoid of the lung (LOHG-L), a parathyroid adenoma (LOHG-NSA), and a fibroma (LOHG-F) were obtained from a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). Long-term cultures were established. Essential neurobiological properties of the cell lines were proven immunocytochemically and by electron microscopy. Molecular analysis of the germline DNA showed a 4 bp deletion in exon 3 of the MEN1 gene. Cytogenetic and CGH analyses of the tumors/tumor cell lines revealed diploidy and balanced and unbalanced structural aberrations different for each tumor. Chromosomes 6q21, 11q and 17q were most frequently involved in clonal structural aberrations.
    International Journal of Oncology 08/1999; 15(1):41-51. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytomas are rare tumours, with an incidence of 1-2 per million which arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. They occur sporadically or as part of dominantly inherited cancer syndromes like multiple endocrine neoplasia 2 (MEN2A and 2B) and others. Continuous cell lines, not available so far, are essential tools for studies in these tumours. A continuous cell line (KNA) was established from a sporadic pheochromocytoma of the right adrenal gland of a 73-year-old woman. The KNA cells grow as suspensions of spheroids and show the morphological and immunocytochemical characteristics of neuronal chromaffin cells, such as neuroendocrine granules, and positive reactions to chromogranin- and related peptide-, neuron specific enolase and vasoactive intestinal peptide antibodies. Neurite-like processes are formed after addition of nerve growth factor. Chromosomal analyses revealed a diploid (46,XX,n = 50) to hypodiploid (43-45,XX,n = 15) karyotype. In hypodiploid metaphases most frequently #19, #17, #21 and #22 were missing. Chromosome arms 1p and 4q showed apparently consistent interstitial deletions: 6q, 8q, 13q and 22q showed clonal interstitial deletions. The cell line shows a heterozygous sequence variant TGC (cysteine) to TGG (tryptophan) in codon 611 in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene. So far, PC-12, a rat adrenal pheochromocytoma, has been the only continuous pheochromocytoma cell line available. KNA represents the first report on a human continuous pheochromocytoma cell line, the first report of structural chromosome aberrations in pheochromocytomas and the first report of a RET mutation TGC to TGG in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene in a sporadic pheochromocytoma.
    Journal of Neurocytology 04/1998; 27(3):175-86. · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A new continuous cell line from a human malignant carcinoid of the small intestine (KRJ-I) was established. The cells showed morphological and immunocytochemical features of the tumor of origin and expressed estrogen receptors. The cells are growing as a suspension, forming multicellular aggregates and spheroids. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of neuroendocrine granules. Dose-dependent growth inhibition was observed after incubation with 5-azacytidine. Cytogenetic analyses of the tumor of origin, the cell line KRJ-I and a liver metastasis KRJ-II revealed clonal tetraploidy and clonal loss of the Y-chromosome and chromosome 19.
    International Journal of Oncology 03/1996; 8(3):513-20. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to clarify by a cost-effectiveness analysis, if a triple-marker screening for trisomy 21 (triple test) should be established in Austria. The published triple-test results of the last years were combined with the data of the Styrian Malformation Register covering the years 1985-1992. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on total costs of prenatal diagnosis, costs per fetus diagnosed as affected, the number of affected fetuses detected, and the number of procedure-related losses. If low costs are given priority, the triple test should be offered to women 35 years of age or older. If a high detection rate is given top priority, the test should be offered to all pregnant women. The results suggest that the present policy of maternal age screening in Austria should be replaced by maternal serum screening.
    Gynäkologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau 02/1996; 36(3):169-77.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: ZusammenfassungFragestellung: Das Ziel der Studie war es, durch eine Kosten-Nutzen-Rechnung zu klären, ob ein Serum-Screening nach fetaler Trisomie 21 (Triple-Test) in Österreich empfehlenswert ware. Methoden: Die Triple-Test-Ergebnisse internationaler Studien der letzten Jahre wurden mit den Daten des Steirischen Fehlbildungsregisters der Jahre 1985–1992 kombiniert. Vier Faktoren wurden zu einer Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse herangezogen: Die Gesamtkosten der pränatalen Diagnostik, die Kosten pro diagnostizierten Fetus mit Trisomie 21 die Zahl der entdeckten Feten mit Trisomie 21 und die Zahl der eingriffsbedingten Fehlgeburten. Ergebnisse: Wenn man der Kostenfrage Priorität einräumt, so sollte der Triple-Test Schwangeren im Alter von > 35 Jahren angeboten werden. Wird eine maximale Entdeckungszahl von Feten mit Trisomie 21 als Priorität erachtet, sollte der Triple-Test Schwangeren aller Alters-gruppen angeboten werden. Schlussfolgerung: Die derzeit gängige Praxis des Angebotes einer fetalen Karyotypisierung an Schwangere im Alter von > 35 Jahren ist den Szenarien mit Triple-Test unterlegen.Copyright © 1996 S. Karger AG, Basel
    Gynakologisch-geburtshilfliche Rundschau - GYNAKOL GEBURTSHILFL RUNDSCH. 01/1996; 36(3):169-177.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) occurs sporadically or as part of the inherited cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2. In MEN 2A, germline missense mutations are found in one of five cysteine codons within exons 10 and 11 in the extracellular domain of the RET protooncogene. In MEN 2B, germline mutations occur in codon 918 (exon 16) within the catalytic core of the tyrosine kinase domain. To determine if RET mutations similar to those in MEN 2A and 2B play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic MTC, we analysed 71 sporadic tumours comprising 68 primary tumours and three cell lines, for mutations in RET exons 10, 11, and 16. We found that 23% of sporadic MTC had RET codon 918 mutations, while only 3% had exon 10 mutations, and none had mutations in exon 11. We found no exon 16 mutations in MTC from 14 MEN 2A cases. Thus, exon 10 and 11 mutations, commonly found in familial MTC and MEN 2A, rarely occur in sporadic MTC; somatic mutation of RET codon 918 appears to play a role in the tumourigenesis of a significant minority of sporadic MTC but not MEN 2A tumours. In addition to their biological interest, these findings may have some clinical application in determining whether a patient presenting with isolated MTC is truly sporadic or is part of an inherited cancer syndrome.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 04/1995; 12(3):209-12. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) occurs sporadically or as part of the inherited cancer syndrome multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) type 2. In MEN 2A, germline missense mutations are found in one of five cysteine codons within exons 10 and 11 in the extracellular domain of the RET protooncogene. In MEN 2B, germline mutations occur in codon 918 (exon 16) within the catalytic core of the tyrosine kinase domain. To determine if RET mutations similar to those in MEN 2A and 2B play a role in the pathogenesis of sporadic MTC, we analysed 71 sporadic tumours comprising 68 primary tumours and three cell lines, for mutations in RET exons 10, 11, and 16. We found that 23% of sporadic MTC had RET codon 918 mutations, while only 3% had exon 10 mutations, and none had mutations in exon 11. We found no exon 16 mutations in MTC from 14 MEN 2A cases. Thus, exon 10 and 11 mutations, commonly found in familial MTC and MEN 2A, rarely occur in sporadic MTC; somatic mutation of RET codon 918 appears to play a role in the tumourigenesis of a significant minority of sporadic MTC but not MEN 2A tumours. In addition to their biological interest, these findings may have some clinical application in determining whether a patient presenting with isolated MTC is truly sporadic or is part of an inherited cancer syndrome.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 01/1995; 12(3):209-212. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: SINJ is a new continuous human cell line derived from a lymph node metastasis of a probably sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma. It is compared to MTC-SK, another medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line, established earlier (1). SINJ has been continuously cultivated in vitro for two years. The cells grow as a suspension of single cells and cell clusters. Repeated immunocytochemistry showed positive immunoreactivity with antibodies to CT, CGRP and GRP. The maintenance of NSE and chromogranins were proved. Northern blot analysis confirmed endocrine activity at mRNA level. Flow cytometry of 27 SINJ - clones showed 25 diploid and two tetraploid subpopulations. Cytogenetic analyses strengthened these findings. According to DNA analysis the cells are free of SV40 sequences. Tumorigenicity was proved in nude mice. The new cell line SINJ has potential use for in vitro studies of medullary thyroid carcinomas in sporadic as well as hereditary forms - the MEN2A syndrome.
    International Journal of Oncology 05/1993; 2(5):831-6. · 2.66 Impact Factor
  • Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 10/1992; 63(2):137-137. · 1.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique has been combined with chromosome flow sorting to characterise two lymphoblastoid cell lines and one medullary thyroid carcinoma cell line carrying translocations close to the locus for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A). Five hundred copies of the derivative chromosome(s) were flow sorted from each cell line and amplified by degenerate oligonucleotide-primed-polymerase chain reaction (DOP-PCR). This generated pools of DNA sequences corresponding to the abnormal chromosomes, which were then used as probes in fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) experiments on normal metaphase cells. The resultant chromosome paints revealed the portions of the normal chromosomes related to those involved in the translocations. By this technique, translocation breakpoints in bands p15, q11.2, and q21 of chromosome 10 were defined in the above cell lines, in two cases refining previous cytogenetic data. This study shows that flow sorting of aberrant chromosomes and chromosome painting can be used as a rapid aid to cytogenetic analysis, particularly in cases of difficult karyotypes, such as tumours. Furthermore, the DOP-PCR technique described here will have applications to other areas of genome analysis, such as cloning of new markers; its design will allow a general and representative amplification to occur from any starting DNA in any species.
    Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 05/1992; 4(3):257-63. · 3.55 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Neuroendocrine features and cytogenetic abnormalities of one continuous cell line (MTC-SK) and two long-term cultures (GER, STAH) derived from three sporadic cases of human medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTCs) were studied. Specific neuroendocrine markers (NSE, chromogranins, calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide) were identified by electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry. In situ hybridochemistry and Northern blot analysis confirmed endocrine activity. Cytogenetic studies of the cell line MTC-SK revealed three consistent marker chromosomes, t(3;10), 11p+, and 22p+. Cells of long-term cultures GER and STAH exhibited a consistent translocation t(2;18), a trisomy 7, and two consistent marker chromosomes der3 and 5p+, respectively. Recently, we have isolated 12 stable clones of this MTC-SK cell line, which showed two different growth patterns. Quantitative measurement of mitotic activity flow cytometry and semiquantitative analysis of AgNOR-, Ki67-, and Cyclin/PCNA-(immuno)reactivity showed different DNA composition and duplication rates, indicating at least two subpopulations. Some of our clones developed a new consistent marker (i.e., an unbalanced translocation between mar11p+ and 1q). However, no correlations between chromosome findings, growth rate, and neuroendocrine markers were observed.
    Henry Ford Hospital medical journal 02/1992; 40(3-4):299-302.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Tumor cells of a human medullary thyroid carcinoma were isolated and propagated in tissue culture. Several cell lines with different morphology developed from the primary culture, among others a fibroblast-like growing cell line (MTC-F) and a cell line growing as a suspension of single cells and spherical cell clusters (MTC-SK). The MTC-SK cell line was serially propagated for 90 passages, over 3 years. When examined at different times throughout the in vitro period, MTC-SK exhibited properties characteristic of medullary thyroid carcinomas: the cells maintained their epithelioid morphology; endocrine granules were demonstrated in the cytoplasm by electron microscopy; in situ hybridization confirmed the production of calcitonin- and bombesin-mRNA (gastrin releasing peptide); the cells revealed positive immunoreactivity with antibodies to calcitonin, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and bombesin. The in vitro properties of the MTC-SK cells corresponded to the results obtained from the tissue of origin. Cytogenetic studies of the MTC-F cell line revealed a supernumerary metacentric chromosome (20?). In the MTC-SK cell line the predominant findings were terminal chromosomal rearrangements most frequently concerning chromosome 11p, i.e., the locus of the calcitonin and calcitonin gene-related peptide genes and the H-ras oncogene, and a characteristic instability of the centromeric region of chromosome 16 and somatic pairing of the homologous chromosomes 16.
    Cancer Research 08/1990; 50(13):4160-6. · 8.65 Impact Factor
  • A BEHMEL, R PFRAGNER
    Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics - CANCER GENET CYTOGENET. 01/1989; 38(2):191-191.