Hiroaki Ohi

Showa University, Shinagawa, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (18)56.52 Total impact

  • Tomohisa Yasuhara, Hiroaki Ohi
    Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 01/2015; 135(1):77-8. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.14-00215-F · 0.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increase in the number of universities in Japan in spite of a decrease in the number of enrollees is causing a decline in the academic ability of undergraduates. The diversification of selection methods also contributes to the deterioration of the situation. Some students and teachers in high schools still hold the prejudice that only chemistry is important in the entrance examination for schools of pharmacy. To study pharmaceutical sciences, biology is as important as chemistry, and the number of students who have difficulty in obtaining biology course credits is increasing. Logical thinking based on the established knowledge in basic sciences is necessary for a successful clinical clerkship. However, students are inexperienced in logical thinking using the knowledge learned in their classes. This is why practice is needed during the basic pharmaceutical course. We made it compulsory for all second- and third-year students to take practical courses in physics, chemistry, and biology. In addition, a program in which a tutor conducted individual practice for students was carried out. A change in students' sense of purpose in learning was achieved by changing the method and environment of learning.
    Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 12/2010; 130(12):1643-6. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.130.1643 · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • Yakugaku zasshi journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 12/2010; 130(12):1641-2. DOI:10.1248/yakushi.130.1641 · 0.31 Impact Factor
  • 01/2009; 35(10):743-750. DOI:10.5649/jjphcs.35.743
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    ABSTRACT: We previously purified a cytochrome P450 (P450) from liver microsomes of adult female Xenopus laevis. In this study, we screened a cDNA library of Xenopus liver to isolate the cDNA clone coding for this P450. The 5′-end of the resultant cDNA was truncated at the N-terminal region and extended by method of rapid amplification of eDNA end to give the complete coding sequence. Amino acid sequence showed this clone to be 36% to 55% identical to members of the CYP2 family and less than 31% identical to members of other gene famines, and to belong to the CYP2Q subfamily. This gene is expressed constitutively in the livers of adult male and female frogs, and is significantly induced by dexamethasone administration.
    International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2008; 45(4):689 - 697. DOI:10.1080/15216549800203092 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In crotaline venoms, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEIs, also known as bradykinin potentiating peptides (BPPs)], are products of a gene coding for an ACEI/BPP-C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor. In the genes from Bothrops jararaca and Gloydius blomhoffii, ACEI/BPP sequences are repeated. Sequencing of a cDNA clone from venom glands of Crotalus durissus collilineatus showed that two ACEIs/BPPs are located together at the N-terminus, but without repeats. An additional sequence for CNP was unexpectedly found at the C-terminus. Homologous genes for the ACEI/BPP-CNP precursor suggest that most crotaline venoms contain both ACEIs/BPPs and CNP. The sequence of ACEIs/BPPs is separated from the CNP sequence by a long spacer sequence. Previously, there was no evidence that this spacer actually coded any expressed peptides. Aird and Kaiser (1986, unpublished) previously isolated and sequenced a peptide of 11 residues (TPPAGPDVGPR) from Crotalus viridis viridis venom. In the present study, analysis of the cDNA clone from C. d. collilineatus revealed a nearly identical sequence in the ACEI/BPP-CNP spacer. Fractionation of the crude venom by reverse phase HPLC (C(18)), and analysis of the fractions by mass spectrometry (MS) indicated a component of 1020.5 Da. Amino acid sequencing by MS/MS confirmed that C. d. collilineatus venom contains the peptide TPPAGPDGGPR. Its high proline content and paired proline residues are typical of venom hypotensive peptides, although it lacks the usual N-terminal pyroglutamate. It has no demonstrable hypotensive activity when injected intravenously in rats; however, its occurrence in the venoms of dissimilar species suggests that its presence is not accidental. Evidence suggests that these novel toxins probably activate anaphylatoxin C3a receptors.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C Toxicology & Pharmacology 11/2006; 144(2):107-21. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2006.04.006 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Snake venom is known to contain an abundance of enzyme isoforms, and various disorders associated with envenomation have been ascribed partially to their diversified functions. Crude venom of Bothrops jararaca was subjected to conventional two-dimensional SDS-PAGE, followed by immunoblot analysis using an antiserum raised against KN-BJ 2, a serine proteinase previously isolated from this venom. A number of immunoreactive proteins with comparable molecular masses and different pIs emerged, implying the venom contains yet-unknown serine proteinases. A B. jararaca venom gland cDNA library was subsequently screened with a labeled KN-BJ 2 cDNA as a probe. Among a number of positive cDNA clones, three--HS112, HS114, and HS120--were selected and sequenced. These clones each had an open reading frame of 759-774 bp, and their deduced amino acid sequences illustrated considerable similarities to that of KN-BJ 2 as well as to those of serine proteinases of different origins. However, no apparent match to any of the deposited sequences was found in the current GenBank/EMBL databases, indicating that each of these cDNA clones encodes a serine proteinase distinct from the known enzymes. Analyses of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of these cDNA clones support the accelerated evolution hypothesis proposed for snake venom enzymes.
    Toxicon 08/2005; 46(1):72-83. DOI:10.1016/j.toxicon.2005.03.011 · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In order to obtain cDNA clones coding for CYP4 proteins in frog Xenopus laevis, degenerate primers were designed utilizing the conserved sequences of known CYP4s and were used to amplify partial cDNA fragments from liver mRNA. Five new CYP genes were identified. Three of these genes, XL-1, -2 and -3, were assigned to the CYP4T subfamily found previously in fish and amphibians. The other two genes, XL-4 and XL-5, were quite similar to CYP4F and CYP4V subfamilies, respectively. Subsequently, two full-length cDNA clones corresponding to XL-4 and XL-5 were isolated and characterized. The resultant cDNAs, designated as CYP4F42 and CYP4V4, had open reading frames encoding proteins of 528 and 520 residues, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the expression of CYP4F42 was limited to the liver, kidney, intestine and brain. In contrast, CYP4V4 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously.
    Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 07/2004; 138(2):129-36. DOI:10.1016/j.cbpc.2004.02.014 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bothrops protease A (BPA) is a serine peptidase isolated from the venom of Bothrops jararaca. Unlike many venom enzymes, it is stable at pHs between 3 and 9 and resists heating at 86 degrees C for 10 min. Mature snake venom serine peptidases of the chymotrypsin family are in general glycoproteins composed of around 232 amino acids and their molecular masses vary between 25 and 40 kDa. BPA is a glycosylated protein that migrates on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) as a single band of 67 kDa. In order to find out whether BPA has the typical serine peptidase primary structure or if it is composed of a longer amino acid sequence, we cloned a cDNA encoding BPA. Its deduced amino acid sequence showed that BPA is composed of 234 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 25,409 Da implying that approximately 62% of its molecular mass assessed by SDS-PAGE is due to carbohydrate moieties. Eight putative N-glycosylation and two putative O-glycosylation sites were found in BPA amino acid sequence. Deglycosylation experiments indicated that all 10 potential glycosylation sites in BPA are utilized. Complete N- and O-deglycosylation was only achieved under denaturing conditions and generated main products of 25 and 55 kDa, respectively, which were enzymatically inactive. N-deglycosylation under non-denaturing conditions was only partial and gave a main product of 50 kDa and fragments ranging from 25 to approximately 10 kDa. Kinetic parameters K(m) and V(max) of partially N-deglycosylated BPA upon substrate Bz-Arg-pNA were similar to the native form. However, when partially N-deglycosylated BPA was submitted to pH 3 and pH 10, it appeared to be unstable as it underwent hydrolysis, as shown by the presence of two main products of 30 and 12 kDa while the 50 kDa protein band disappeared. These changes also had effects on V(max) upon Bz-Arg-pNA which dropped to approximately 45%, while K(m) values remained unchanged. Fluorescence emission spectroscopy indicated that in partially N-deglycosylated BPA, tryptophan residues are more exposed to a polar environment than in the fully glycosylated protein. Taken together, these studies indicate that glycosylation has a stabilizing effect on BPA.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 12/2003; 1652(1):1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.bbapap.2003.08.001 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) family of transcription factors. Although this receptor has been known to mediate the toxic effects of environmental pollutants, its physiological functions remain elusive. Here, we describe the isolation and expression pattern of the Xenopus AHR gene. The predicted amino acid sequence contained regions characteristic of other vertebrate AHRs. However, in line with previously described fish AHR genes, no distinct Q-rich domain was found. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that Xenopus AHR was clustered within the AHR1 clade. As in the case of mammalian AHR genes, the Xenopus AHR gene was expressed in all the adult tissues tested. Xenopus AHR was also expressed during early development, in parallel with expression of the CYP1A7 gene, which is thought to be regulated by AHR. These results suggest that while frogs are relatively tolerant to TCDD toxicity, the AHR of frogs has characteristics similar to those of other vertebrate AHRs.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2003; 307(3):595-9. DOI:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)01244-0 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caveolin-3 is the muscle-specific isoform of the caveolin protein family, which is a major component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations found in most cell types. Caveolins play important roles in the formation of caveola membranes, acting as scaffolding proteins to organize and concentrate lipid-modified signaling molecules, and modulate a signaling pathway. For instance, caveolin-3 interacts with neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and inhibits its catalytic activity. Recently, specific mutations in the caveolin-3 gene, including the Pro104Leu missense mutation, have been shown to cause an autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD1C), which is characterized by the deficiency of caveolin-3 in the sarcolemma. However, the molecular mechanism by which these mutations cause the deficiency of caveolin-3 and muscle cell degeneration remains elusive. Here we generated transgenic mice expressing the Pro104Leu mutant caveolin-3. They showed severe myopathy accompanied by the deficiency of caveolin-3 in the sarcolemma, indicating a dominant negative effect of mutant caveolin-3. Interestingly, we also found a great increase of nNOS activity in their skeletal muscle, which, we propose, may play a role in muscle fiber degeneration in caveolin-3 deficiency.
    Human Molecular Genetics 03/2001; DOI:10.1093/hmg/10.3.173 · 6.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A cDNA clone, 1.8 kb long, was isolated from a venom gland cDNA library of Agkistrodon blomhoffi that encodes a large plurifunctional precursor composed of 263 amino-acid residues. Nucleotide sequence analysis of this clone revealed that sequences which code for blomhotin and a novel peptide Leu3-blomhotin are located in the N-terminal region of the precursor polypeptide, followed by four tandemly aligned sequences which code for three types of bradykinin-potentiating peptide. In the C-terminal region, the sequence for the C-type natriuretic peptide was located along with a preceding processing signal. The deduced amino-acid sequences for the four bradykinin-potentiating peptides coincided exactly with previously known sequences for potentiator B, potentiator C and potentiator E. The actual Leu3-blomhotin peptide was subsequently isolated from the venom of A. blomhoffi and characterized. Leu3-blomhotin possesses contractile activity in isolated rat stomach fundus smooth muscle in the same manner as blomhotin. Furthermore, it was shown that blomhotin and Leu3-blomhotin retained activity to inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme.
    European Journal of Biochemistry 08/2000; 267(13):4075-80. DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01443.x · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two N-terminally truncated forms of the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) were isolated from the venom of habu snake, Trimeresurus flavoviridis, and their structures were determined by EMI-MS spectrometry and amino acid sequencing. Tf-CNP(6-22), the shorter peptide retaining the 17-membered ring structure formed by an intra-molecular disulfide bridge, has a vasorelaxant activity in rat aortic strips and a diuretic potency in anesthetized rats. Tf-CNP(3-22), the other 20 amino acid residues peptide, also comprised the 17- membered ring with a short N-terminal extension of 3 amino acid residues. Tf-CNP(6-22), the ring, is the shortest naturally occurring CNP peptide identified so far, and as potent as Tf-CNP(1-22), the supposedly intact CNP of 22 amino acid residues.
    Peptides 06/2000; 21(5):609-15. DOI:10.1016/S0196-9781(00)00203-5 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver microsomes of Xenopus laevis were investigated for specific cytochrome P450s (CYPs) that would be inducible in response to the administration of either 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) or beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), potent inducers for mammalian CYP1A. When probed with antibodies raised against rat CYP1A1, a 54-kDa protein was detected after administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, there was no immunoreactive protein in microsomes from untreated frogs. In order to obtain structural information about this CYP1A-like protein, a liver cDNA library of 3MC-treated frog was constructed and screened using a fragment of rat CYP1A2 cDNA under low stringency conditions. We have isolated two cDNA clones (MC1 and MC2) with inherent features of the CYP1A subfamily. The sequence determination revealed that both of them coded for polypeptides composed of 526 amino acid residues, which differed from each other by 30 amino acids. A comparison with other mammalian CYP enzymes demonstrated that both of the sequences share 55 to 63% identity with the sequences of CYP1A family members. Northern blot analysis and RT-PCR results further demonstrated that two discrete transcripts corresponding to clones MC1 and MC2 are indeed inducible in the frog liver by treatment with 3MC or BNF. The names CYP1A6 and CYP1A7 were given to clones MC1 and MC2, respectively.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 12/1999; 371(1):24-8. DOI:10.1006/abbi.1999.1425 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cloning of cDNAs encoding bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs)–C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) precursor or its homologue was performed for cDNA libraries of Bothrops jararaca (South American snake), Trimeresurus flavoviridis, Trimeresurus gramineus and Agkistrodon halys blomhoffi (Asian snakes), all belonging to Crotalinae subfamily. Each cDNA library was constructed from the venom glands of a single snake to preclude ambiguity by intraspecies variation in venom components. Thirteen positive clones derived from B. jararaca were divided into two types depending on restriction sites. Differences in the nucleotide sequence arise at three locations and two of them accompanied amino acid conversions. Despite the differences, both types of cDNA clones encode the BPP–CNP precursor of 256 amino acid residues. Sequence analysis demonstrated that cDNA clones from three Asian snakes encode homologues of the BPP–CNP precursor from B. jararaca. In a precursor polypeptide, a signal sequence (∼25 aa) at the N-terminus is followed by sequences of BPP or the analogue (5–13 aa) with flanking spacer sequences (indefinite number of aa), an intervening linker sequence (∼100 aa) with unidentified function, and a CNP sequence (22 aa) with a preceding processing signal sequence (10 aa). cDNA clones from A. halys blomhoffi encode two distinct peptides in place of BPP, and T. flavoviridis and T. gramineus were shown to have considerably different sequences in the BPP domain from those known as BPP sequences. The present results provide evidence for a wide distribution of the orthologous gene expressing a series of bioactive peptides among Crotalinae subfamily.
    Immunopharmacology 11/1999; DOI:10.1016/S0162-3109(99)00119-8
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    ABSTRACT: A new cytochrome P450 (P450) has been purified to near homogeneity from Xenopus laevis liver microsomes. Two steps of column chromatographies (n-octylamino Sepharose 4B and Mono Q) and fast protein liquid chromatofocusing were performed consecutively, and the final preparation containing 19 nmol P450/mg protein gave a single band of 52 kDa on SDS-PAGE at an isoelectric point of 6.7. This enzyme had a common feature of microsomal P450s in NH2-terminal region, and some of the internal sequences were similar to the corresponding sequences of reported P450s. The purified Xenopus P450 cross-reacted with antibodies against CYP2B1, rat CYP2E1, and CYP2C13, but not with rat CYP1A1, CYP3A2, or CYP4A1. Upon reconstitution with rat NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and phospholipid, the Xenopus P450 catalyzed aniline hydroxylation and N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylation. Cytochrome b5 enhanced these reactions. This P450 did not catalyze the hydroxylation of either hexobarbital or testosterone. Thus, the catalytic activities of this P450 were comparable with those of mammalian CYP2E1. Expression of this P450 was observed in liver, kidney, lung, and testis, and the level was highest in kidney. Tissue specificity of expression was the same in both male and female frogs.
    Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 10/1997; 345(1):56-64. DOI:10.1006/abbi.1997.0229 · 3.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 1.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated from a Bothrops jararaca venom gland cDNA library that encodes a 256-aa precursor for bradykinin-potentiating peptides (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). The seven bradykinin-potentiating peptides are aligned tandemly after the hydrophobic signal peptide sequence, followed by a putative intervening sequence and a CNP at the C terminus. Northern blot analysis indicated the predominant expression of a 1.8-kb mRNA in the venom glands as well as in the spleen and the brain. Two lower intensity mRNA bands of 3.5 kb and 5.7 kb also hybridized to the cDNA clone. Radioimmunoassay for the CNP was performed using the antiserum against rat CNP. The presence of CNP immunoreactivity was detected in the low molecular weight fraction of the Bothrops jararaca venom.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/1997; 94(4):1189-93. · 9.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A 1.8-kb cDNA clone was isolated from a Bothrops jararaca venom gland cDNA library that encodes a 256-aa precursor for bradykinin-potentiating peptides (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and a C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). The seven bradykinin-potentiating peptides are aligned tandemly after the hydrophobic signal peptide sequence, followed by a putative intervening sequence and a CNP at the C terminus. Northern blot analysis indicated the predominant expression of a 1.8-kb mRNA in the venom glands as well as in the spleen and the brain. Two lower intensity mRNA bands of 3.5 kb and 5.7 kb also hybridized to the cDNA clone. Radioimmunoassay for the CNP was performed using the antiserum against rat CNP. The presence of CNP immunoreactivity was detected in the low molecular weight fraction of the Bothrops jararaca venom.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1997; 94(4):1189-1193. DOI:10.1073/pnas.94.4.1189 · 9.81 Impact Factor