[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) are high-density lipoprotein-associated (HDL-associated) proteins mechanistically linked to inflammation, oxidant stress, and atherosclerosis. MPO is a source of ROS during inflammation and can oxidize apolipoprotein A1 (APOA1) of HDL, impairing its atheroprotective functions. In contrast, PON1 fosters systemic antioxidant effects and promotes some of the atheroprotective properties attributed to HDL. Here, we demonstrate that MPO, PON1, and HDL bind to one another, forming a ternary complex, wherein PON1 partially inhibits MPO activity, while MPO inactivates PON1. MPO oxidizes PON1 on tyrosine 71 (Tyr71), a modified residue found in human atheroma that is critical for HDL binding and PON1 function. Acute inflammation model studies with transgenic and knockout mice for either PON1 or MPO confirmed that MPO and PON1 reciprocally modulate each other's function in vivo. Further structure and function studies identified critical contact sites between APOA1 within HDL, PON1, and MPO, and proteomics studies of HDL recovered from acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subjects revealed enhanced chlorotyrosine content, site-specific PON1 methionine oxidation, and reduced PON1 activity. HDL thus serves as a scaffold upon which MPO and PON1 interact during inflammation, whereupon PON1 binding partially inhibits MPO activity, and MPO promotes site-specific oxidative modification and impairment of PON1 and APOA1 function.
The Journal of clinical investigation 08/2013; · 15.39 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies in animals have shown a mechanistic link between intestinal microbial metabolism of the choline moiety in dietary phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) and coronary artery disease through the production of a proatherosclerotic metabolite, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We investigated the relationship among intestinal microbiota-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine, TMAO levels, and adverse cardiovascular events in humans.
We quantified plasma and urinary levels of TMAO and plasma choline and betaine levels by means of liquid chromatography and online tandem mass spectrometry after a phosphatidylcholine challenge (ingestion of two hard-boiled eggs and deuterium [d9]-labeled phosphatidylcholine) in healthy participants before and after the suppression of intestinal microbiota with oral broad-spectrum antibiotics. We further examined the relationship between fasting plasma levels of TMAO and incident major adverse cardiovascular events (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) during 3 years of follow-up in 4007 patients undergoing elective coronary angiography.
Time-dependent increases in levels of both TMAO and its d9 isotopologue, as well as other choline metabolites, were detected after the phosphatidylcholine challenge. Plasma levels of TMAO were markedly suppressed after the administration of antibiotics and then reappeared after withdrawal of antibiotics. Increased plasma levels of TMAO were associated with an increased risk of a major adverse cardiovascular event (hazard ratio for highest vs. lowest TMAO quartile, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.96 to 3.28; P<0.001). An elevated TMAO level predicted an increased risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after adjustment for traditional risk factors (P<0.001), as well as in lower-risk subgroups.
The production of TMAO from dietary phosphatidylcholine is dependent on metabolism by the intestinal microbiota. Increased TMAO levels are associated with an increased risk of incident major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
New England Journal of Medicine 04/2013; 368(17):1575-84. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intestinal microbiota metabolism of choline and phosphatidylcholine produces trimethylamine (TMA), which is further metabolized to a proatherogenic species, trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO). We demonstrate here that metabolism by intestinal microbiota of dietary l-carnitine, a trimethylamine abundant in red meat, also produces TMAO and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. Omnivorous human subjects produced more TMAO than did vegans or vegetarians following ingestion of l-carnitine through a microbiota-dependent mechanism. The presence of specific bacterial taxa in human feces was associated with both plasma TMAO concentration and dietary status. Plasma l-carnitine levels in subjects undergoing cardiac evaluation (n = 2,595) predicted increased risks for both prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD) and incident major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke or death), but only among subjects with concurrently high TMAO levels. Chronic dietary l-carnitine supplementation in mice altered cecal microbial composition, markedly enhanced synthesis of TMA and TMAO, and increased atherosclerosis, but this did not occur if intestinal microbiota was concurrently suppressed. In mice with an intact intestinal microbiota, dietary supplementation with TMAO or either carnitine or choline reduced in vivo reverse cholesterol transport. Intestinal microbiota may thus contribute to the well-established link between high levels of red meat consumption and CVD risk.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidized fatty acids formed via lipid peroxidation are implicated in pathological processes such as inflammation and atherosclerosis. A number of methods may be used to detect specific oxidized fatty acids containing a single or multiple combinations of epoxide, hydroxyl, ketone and hydroperoxide moieties on varying carbon chain lengths from C8 up to C30. Some of these methods are nonspecific and their use in biological systems is fraught with difficulty. Measures of specific-oxidized fatty acid derivatives help in identifying oxidation pathways in pathological processes. We used liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) as efficient, selective and sensitive methods for identifying and analyzing multiple specific fatty acid peroxidation products in human plasma and other biological matrices. We then distilled the essential components of a number of these analyses to provide an efficient protocol by which fatty acid oxidation products and their parent compounds can be determined. In this protocol, addition of synthetic internal standard to the sample, followed by base hydrolysis at elevated temperature, and liquid-liquid phase sample extraction with lighter than water solvents facilitates isolation of the oxidized fatty acid species. These species can be identified and accurately quantified using stable isotope dilution and multiple reaction monitoring. Use of a coupled multiplexed gradient HPLC system on the front end enables high-throughput chromatography and more efficient use of mass spectrometer time.
Free radical biology & medicine 03/2013; · 5.42 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional risk factors fail to explain the increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in ESRD. Cyanate, a reactive electrophilic species in equilibrium with urea, posttranslationally modifies proteins through a process called carbamylation, which promotes atherosclerosis. The plasma level of protein-bound homocitrulline (PBHCit), which results from carbamylation, predicts major adverse cardiac events in patients with normal renal function, but whether this relationship is similar in ESRD is unknown. We quantified serum PBHCit in a cohort of 347 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis with 5 years of follow-up. Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed a significant association between elevated PBHCit and death (log-rank P<0.01). After adjustment for patient characteristics, laboratory values, and comorbid conditions, the risk for death among patients with PBHCit values in the highest tertile was more than double the risk among patients with values in the middle tertile (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.9) or the lowest tertile (adjusted HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.5-3.7). Including PBHCit significantly improved the multivariable model, with a net reclassification index of 14% (P<0.01). In summary, seurm PBHCit, a footprint of protein carbamylation, predicts increased cardiovascular risk in patients with ESRD, supporting a mechanistic link among uremia, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 02/2013; · 8.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) has been shown to play a role in the depletion of lipid oxidation products, but this has so far not been studied in humans. In this study, we investigated processes and parameters relevant to lipid oxidation in carriers of functional LCAT mutations. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 4 carriers of 2 mutant LCAT alleles, 63 heterozygotes, and 63 family controls, we measured activities of LCAT, paraoxonase 1, and platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase; levels of lysophosphatidylcholine molecular species, arachidonic and linoleic acids, and their oxidized derivatives; immunodetectable oxidized phospholipids on apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing and apo(a)-containing lipoproteins; IgM and IgG autoantibodies to malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein and IgG and IgM apoB-immune complexes; and the antioxidant capacity of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In individuals with LCAT mutations, plasma LCAT activity, HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, arachidonic acid, and its oxidized derivatives, oxidized phospholipids on apo(a)-containing lipoproteins, HDL-associated platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, and the antioxidative capacity of HDL were gene-dose-dependently decreased. Oxidized phospholipids on apoB-containing lipoproteins was increased in heterozygotes (17%; P<0.001) but not in carriers of 2 defective LCAT alleles. CONCLUSIONS: Carriers of LCAT mutations present with significant reductions in LCAT activity, HDL cholesterol, apoA-I, platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, and antioxidative potential of HDL, but this is not associated with parameters of increased lipid peroxidation; we did not observe significant changes in the oxidation products of arachidonic acid and linoleic acid, immunoreactive oxidized phospholipids on apo(a)-containing lipoproteins, and IgM and IgG autoantibodies against malondialdehyde-low-density lipoprotein. These data indicate that plasma LCAT activity, HDL-associated platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase activity, and HDL cholesterol may not influence the levels of plasma lipid oxidation products.
Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2012; · 6.34 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hyperammonemia and sarcopenia (loss of skeletal muscle) are consistent abnormalities in cirrhosis and portosystemic shunting. We have shown that muscle ubiquitin-proteasome components are not increased with hyperammonemia despite sarcopenia. This suggests that an alternative mechanism of proteolysis contributes to sarcopenia in cirrhosis. We hypothesized that autophagy could be this alternative pathway since we observed increases in classic autophagy markers, increased LC3 lipidation, beclin-1 expression, and p62 degradation in immunoblots of skeletal muscle protein in cirrhotic patients. We observed similar changes in these autophagy markers in the portacaval anastamosis (PCA) rat model. To determine the mechanistic relationship between hyperammonemia and autophagy, we exposed murine C(2)C(12) myotubes to ammonium acetate. Significant increases in LC3 lipidation, beclin-1 expression, and p62 degradation occurred by 1 h, whereas autophagy gene expression (LC3, Atg5, Atg7, beclin-1) increased at 24 h. C(2)C(12) cells stably expressing GFP-LC3 or GFP-mCherry-LC3 constructs showed increased formation of mature autophagosomes supported by electron microscopic studies. Hyperammonemia also increased autophagic flux in mice, as quantified by an in vivo autophagometer. Because hyperammonemia induces nitration of proteins in astrocytes, we quantified global muscle protein nitration in cirrhotic patients, in the PCA rat, and in C(2)C(12) cells treated with ammonium acetate. Increased protein nitration was observed in all of these systems. Furthermore, colocalization of nitrated proteins with GFP-LC3-positive puncta in hyperammonemic C(2)C(12) cells suggested that autophagy is involved in degradation of nitrated proteins. These observations show that increased skeletal muscle autophagy in cirrhosis is mediated by hyperammonemia and may contribute to sarcopenia of cirrhosis.
AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 08/2012; 303(8):E983-93. · 4.51 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pentoxifylline (PTX) improved the histological features of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in a recent randomized placebo-controlled trial. However, the underlying mechanism responsible for the beneficial effects of PTX in NASH remains unidentified. A key role of lipid oxidation in the pathogenesis and progression of NASH has been established. PTX is known to decrease free-radical-mediated oxidative stress and inhibit lipid oxidation. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PTX on levels of lipid oxidation products in patients with NASH. Levels of multiple structurally specific oxidized fatty acids including hydroxy-octadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxo-octadecadienoic acids (oxoODEs), and hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) were quantified by mass spectrometry in plasma obtained at baseline and at study completion in patients who completed 1 year of therapy with PTX or placebo in a randomized controlled trial. Therapy with PTX resulted in significant decreases in 9-HODE and 13-oxoODE, oxidized lipid products of linoleic acid (LA) linked to histological severity in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Similarly, PTX therapy was associated with significant decreases in 8-HETE, 9-HETE, and 11-HETE compared to placebo. Statistically significant correlations were demonstrated between the decrease in HODEs and oxoODEs and improved histological scores of fibrosis and between the decrease in HETEs and improved lobular inflammation. Conclusion: Therapy with PTX compared to placebo was associated with a significant reduction of oxidized fatty acids. This novel evidence supports that the beneficial effects of PTX in patients with NASH are likely partly mediated through decreasing lipid oxidation, largely free-radical-mediated lipid oxidation. Additionally, this is the first report on the link between decreased oxidized lipid products and improved histological disease in the setting of a therapeutic trial in NASH. (HEPATOLOGY 2012).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness among the elderly in developed countries. Although pathogenic factors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation and genetics are thought to contribute to the development of AMD, little is known about the relationships and priorities between these factors. Here, we show that chronic photo-oxidative stress is an environmental factor involved in AMD pathogenesis. We first demonstrated that exposure to light induced phospholipid oxidation in the mouse retina, which was more prominent in aged animals. The induced oxidized phospholipids led to an increase in the expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, which then resulted in macrophage accumulation, an inflammatory process. Antioxidant treatment prevented light-induced phospholipid oxidation and the subsequent increase of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (also known as C-C motif chemokine 2; CCL2), which are the beginnings of the light-induced changes. Subretinal application of oxidized phospholipids induced choroidal neovascularization, a characteristic feature of wet-type AMD, which was inhibited by blocking monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. These findings strongly suggest that a sequential cascade from photic stress to inflammatory processes through phospholipid oxidation has an important role in AMD pathogenesis. Finally, we succeeded in mimicking human AMD in mice with low-level, long-term photic stress, in which characteristic pathological changes, including choroidal neovascularization formation, were observed. Therefore, we propose a consecutive pathogenic pathway involving photic stress, oxidation of phospholipids and chronic inflammation, leading to angiogenesis. These findings add to the current understanding of AMD pathology and suggest protection from oxidative stress or suppression of the subsequent inflammation as new potential therapeutic targets for AMD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabolomics studies hold promise for the discovery of pathways linked to disease processes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the leading cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Here we used a metabolomics approach to generate unbiased small-molecule metabolic profiles in plasma that predict risk for CVD. Three metabolites of the dietary lipid phosphatidylcholine--choline, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and betaine--were identified and then shown to predict risk for CVD in an independent large clinical cohort. Dietary supplementation of mice with choline, TMAO or betaine promoted upregulation of multiple macrophage scavenger receptors linked to atherosclerosis, and supplementation with choline or TMAO promoted atherosclerosis. Studies using germ-free mice confirmed a critical role for dietary choline and gut flora in TMAO production, augmented macrophage cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Suppression of intestinal microflora in atherosclerosis-prone mice inhibited dietary-choline-enhanced atherosclerosis. Genetic variations controlling expression of flavin monooxygenases, an enzymatic source of TMAO, segregated with atherosclerosis in hyperlipidaemic mice. Discovery of a relationship between gut-flora-dependent metabolism of dietary phosphatidylcholine and CVD pathogenesis provides opportunities for the development of new diagnostic tests and therapeutic approaches for atherosclerotic heart disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Observational clinical and ex vivo studies have established a strong association between atrial fibrillation and inflammation. However, whether inflammation is the cause or the consequence of atrial fibrillation and which specific inflammatory mediators may increase the atria's susceptibility to fibrillation remain elusive. Here we provide experimental and clinical evidence for the mechanistic involvement of myeloperoxidase (MPO), a heme enzyme abundantly expressed by neutrophils, in the pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. MPO-deficient mice pretreated with angiotensin II (AngII) to provoke leukocyte activation showed lower atrial tissue abundance of the MPO product 3-chlorotyrosine, reduced activity of matrix metalloproteinases and blunted atrial fibrosis as compared to wild-type mice. Upon right atrial electrophysiological stimulation, MPO-deficient mice were protected from atrial fibrillation, which was reversed when MPO was restored. Humans with atrial fibrillation had higher plasma concentrations of MPO and a larger MPO burden in right atrial tissue as compared to individuals devoid of atrial fibrillation. In the atria, MPO colocalized with markedly increased formation of 3-chlorotyrosine. Our data demonstrate that MPO is a crucial prerequisite for structural remodeling of the myocardium, leading to an increased vulnerability to atrial fibrillation.
Nature medicine 03/2010; 16(4):470-4. · 27.14 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. The relationship between PON1 genotypes and functional activity with systemic measures of oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in humans has not been systematically investigated.
To investigate the relationship of genetic and biochemical determinants of PON1 activity with systemic measures of oxidative stress and CVD risk in humans.
The association between systemic PON1 activity measures and a functional polymorphism (Q192R) resulting in high PON1 activity with prevalent CVD and future major adverse cardiac events (myocardial infarction, stroke, or death) was evaluated in 1399 sequential consenting patients undergoing diagnostic coronary angiography between September 2002 and November 2003 at the Cleveland Clinic. Patients were followed up until December 2006. Systemic levels of multiple structurally defined fatty acid oxidation products were also measured by mass spectrometry in 150 age-, sex-, and race-matched patients and compared with regard to PON1 genotype and activity.
Relationship between a functional PON1 polymorphism and PON1 activity with global indices of systemic oxidative stress and risk of CVD.
The PON1 genotype demonstrated significant dose-dependent associations (QQ192 > QR192 > RR192) with decreased levels of serum PON1 activity and with increased levels of systemic indices of oxidative stress. Compared with participants with either the PON1 RR192 or QR192 genotype, participants with the QQ192 genotype demonstrated an increased risk of all-cause mortality (43/681 deaths [6.75%] in RR192 and QR192 and 62/584 deaths [11.1%] in QQ192; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.32-3.18) and of major adverse cardiac events (88/681 events [13.6%] in RR192 and QR192 and 102/584 events [18.0%] in QQ192; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.09-2.03; P = .01). The incidence of major adverse cardiac events was significantly lower in participants in the highest PON1 activity quartile (23/315 [7.3%]) and 235/324 [7.7%] for paraoxonase and arylesterase, respectively) compared with those in the lowest activity quartile (78/311 [25.1%] and 75/319 [23.5%]; P < .001 for paraoxonase and arylesterase, respectively). The adjusted hazard ratios for major adverse cardiac events between the highest and lowest PON1 activity quartiles were, for paraoxonase, 3.4 (95% CI, 2.1-5.5; P < .001) and for arylesterase, 2.9 (95% CI, 1.8-4.7; P < .001) and remained independent in multivariate analysis.
This study provides direct evidence for a mechanistic link between genetic determinants and activity of PON1 with systemic oxidative stress and prospective cardiovascular risk, indicating a potential mechanism for the atheroprotective function of PON1.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2008; 299(11):1265-76. · 29.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major protein constituent within high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has been associated with antiatherogenic protection by mechanisms that include reverse cholesterol transport and antiinflammatory functions. To evaluate the proposed protective function of apoA-I, proteins modified by nitrating oxidants were evaluated in the aortic tissue and plasma of mice lacking the low-density lipoprotein receptor and apobec (LA) and LA mice with genetic deletion of apoA-I (LA-apoA-I(-/-)). The levels of nitrated proteins in aortic tissue quantified by liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS) were 6-fold higher in the LA-apoA-I(-/-) as compared with the LA mice. The quantitative analyses were corroborated by immunohistochemical and high-resolution immunoelectron microscopic evaluation of the lesions, which revealed abundant staining for nitrated proteins in the aortic root lesions of LA-apoA-I(-/-) as compared with the LA mice. Proteomic approaches based on affinity enrichment and site-specific adduct mapping identified unique specific protein targets for nitration in the plasma of LA-apoA-I(-/-) that were not present in the plasma of LA mice. In particular the nitration of fibrinogen was shown to accelerate fibrin clot formation. Another consequence of the augmented levels of nitrated proteins was the induction of humoral responses documented by the increased circulating immunoglobulins that recognize nitrotyrosine in LA-apoA-I(-/-) as compared with the LA mice. These data collectively support a protective function of apoA-I diminishing the burden of nitrative oxidants in these mice models of atherosclerosis.
Circulation Research 09/2007; 101(4):368-76. · 11.86 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought to understand the importance of oxidative stress in explaining why the haptoglobin (Hp) genotype determines myocardial infarction (MI) size in diabetes mellitus (DM).
Two common alleles (1 and 2) exist at the Hp locus in humans. The Hp 2 allele is associated with increased MI size in individuals with DM. In vitro, the Hp 2 protein is associated with increased generation of oxidatively active iron, whereas the Hp 1 protein is associated with increased production of the antioxidant cytokine interleukin (IL)-10.
Myocardial infarction was produced by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (IR) in DM C57BL/6 mice carrying the Hp 1 or Hp 2 allele. Myocardial oxidative stress after IR was assessed using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Redox active iron and IL-10 were measured in the serum after IR.
Myocardial infarction size was significantly larger in Hp 2 mice as compared with Hp 1 mice (44.3 +/- 9.3% vs. 21.0 +/- 4.0%, p = 0.03), and these larger infarctions were associated with a significant increase in a panel of hydroxyl-eicosatetraenoic acids. Redox active iron was greater in Hp 2 mice (0.45 +/- 0.11 micromol/l vs. 0.14 +/- 0.05 micromol/l, p = 0.02), whereas IL-10 was greater in Hp 1 mice (85.8 +/- 12.9 pg/microl vs. 46.7 +/- 10.8 pg/microl, p = 0.04) after IR. Administration of an antioxidant (BXT-51072) to Hp 2 mice reduced myocardial injury after IR by more than 80% (p = 0.003), but no myocardial protection was provided by the antioxidant to Hp 1 mice.
The increased MI size in DM Hp 2 mice occurring after IR may be due to increased oxidative stress.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 02/2007; 49(1):82-7. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tyrosine nitration is a nitric oxide-derived post-translational modification of proteins. Elevated levels of specific plasma proteins modified by tyrosine nitration have been detected during acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including acute lung injury (ALI). In the present study we examined whether circulating immunoglobulins against nitrated proteins are present in the plasma of subjects with clinically documented ALI. Affinity chromatography using covalently linked 3-nitrotyrosine was employed to identify plasma proteins that bind to this unusual amino acid. Western blotting and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of in-gel digested protein bands revealed that the major proteins eluted from the affinity column were IgM and IgG. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on competition of horseradish peroxidase-derivatized 3-nitrotyrosine binding to plasma with unlabeled 3-nitrotyrosine was developed and validated. Using this ELISA, the levels of immunoglobulins that recognize 3-nitrotyrosine were significantly higher in the plasma of subjects with ALI compared with both normal control subjects and subjects with major trauma who did not develop ALI (0.36+/- 0.14 versus 0.03 +/- 0.05, and 0.25 +/- 0.15; P < 0.001 and P = 0.006, respectively). These data indicate that tyrosine-nitrated proteins induce the production of specific immunoglobulins during acute phase response and inflammation.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 02/2007; 36(2):152-7. · 4.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidative damage by reactive nitrogen species is linked to the pathogenesis of numerous inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis. 3-Nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr), a posttranslational modification of proteins generated by reactive nitrogen species, serves as a "molecular fingerprint" for protein modification by nitric oxide (NO)-derived oxidants. Studies demonstrate that systemic levels of protein-bound NO2Tyr serve as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risks and are modulated by statin therapy. Measurement of NO2Tyr in biological matrices may thus serve both as a quantitative index of nitrative stress in vivo and an important new prognostic marker of clinical relevance. Analytical methods for the accurate detection and quantification of trace levels of NO2Tyr in biological tissues and fluids are, thus, of considerable interest. Here, we describe a rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the quantification of NO2Tyr in biological matrices using readily available benchtop ion-trap mass spectrometry instrumentation (e.g., LCQDeca) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) interface. Through judicious use of stable isotopically labeled precursors as synthetic internal standards, the tandem mass spectrometric method described simultaneously adjusts for potential intrapreparative sample losses and monitors potential artifactual generation of NO2Tyr during processing. The described method permits rapid and reproducible quantification of NO2Tyr in biological and clinical specimens at the 100 fmol on column detection limit and should prove useful for studies defining the impact of reactive nitrogen species in cardiovascular disease and other inflammatory disorders.
Methods in Enzymology 02/2005; 396:245-66. · 2.00 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent studies we demonstrated that systemic levels of protein-bound nitrotyrosine (NO(2)Tyr) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), a protein that catalyzes generation of nitrating oxidants, serve as independent predictors of atherosclerotic risk, burden, and incident cardiac events. We now show both that apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the primary protein constituent of HDL, is a selective target for MPO-catalyzed nitration and chlorination in vivo and that MPO-catalyzed oxidation of HDL and apoA-I results in selective inhibition in ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Dramatic selective enrichment in NO(2)Tyr and chlorotyrosine (ClTyr) content within apoA-I recovered from serum and human atherosclerotic lesions is noted, and analysis of serum from sequential subjects demonstrates that the NO(2)Tyr and ClTyr contents of apoA-I are markedly higher in individuals with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Analysis of circulating HDL further reveals that higher NO(2)Tyr and ClTyr contents of the lipoprotein are each significantly associated with diminished ABCA1-dependent cholesterol efflux capacity of the lipoprotein. MPO as a likely mechanism for oxidative modification of apoA-I in vivo is apparently facilitated by MPO binding to apoA-I, as revealed by cross-immunoprecipitation studies in plasma, recovery of MPO within HDL-like particles isolated from human atheroma, and identification of a probable contact site between the apoA-I moiety of HDL and MPO. To our knowledge, the present results provide the first direct evidence for apoA-I as a selective target for MPO-catalyzed oxidative modification in human atheroma. They also suggest a potential mechanism for MPO-dependent generation of a proatherogenic dysfunctional form of HDL in vivo.
Journal of Clinical Investigation 09/2004; 114(4):529-41. · 12.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Growing evidence connects a cumulative formation of 3-nitrotyrosyl adducts in proteins as a marker for oxidative damage with the pathogenesis of various diseases and pathological conditions associated with oxidative stress. A physiological signaling role for protein nitration has also been suggested. Controlled "denitration" would be essential for such a contribution of protein nitration to cellular regulatory processes. Thus, we further characterized such a potentially controlled, reversible tyrosine nitration that occurs in respiring mitochondria during oxygen deprivation followed by reoxygenation, which we recently discovered. Mitochondria constitute cellular centers of protein nitration and are leading candidates for a "nitrative" regulation. Mitochondria are capable of completely eliminating 3-nitrotyrosyl adducts during 20 min of hypoxia-anoxia and undergoing a selective partial reduction after only 5 min. This denitration is independent of protein degradation but depends on the oxygen tension. Reoxygenation re-establishes protein tyrosine nitration patterns that are almost identical to the pattern that occurs before hypoxia-anoxia, with nitration levels that depend on the duration of hypoxia-anoxia. The identified mitochondrial targets of this process are critical for energy and antioxidant homeostasis and, therefore, cell and tissue viability. This cycle of protein nitration and denitration shows analogies to protein phosphorylation, and we demonstrate that the cycle meets most of the criteria for a cellular signaling mechanism. Taken together, our data reveal that protein tyrosine nitration in mitochondria can be controlled, is target-selective and rapid, and is dynamic enough to serve as a nitrative regulatory signaling process that likely affects cellular energy, redox homeostasis, and pathological conditions when these features become disturbed.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2004; 279(26):27257-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pleiotropic actions of hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) include antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions. We recently reported that statins induce reductions in plasma protein levels of nitrotyrosine (NO2Tyr), a modification generated by nitric oxide-derived oxidants. Whether alternative oxidative pathways are suppressed in vivo after statin administration has not yet been reported.
As an extension of our prior study, hypercholesterolemic subjects with no known coronary artery disease were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks of atorvastatin therapy (10 mg/d). Plasma levels of protein-bound chlorotyrosine, NO2Tyr, dityrosine, and orthotyrosine, specific molecular fingerprints for distinct oxidative pathways upregulated in atheroma, were determined by mass spectrometry. In parallel, alterations in lipoproteins and C-reactive protein were determined. Statin therapy caused significant reductions in chlorotyrosine, NO2Tyr, and dityrosine (30%, 25%, and 32%, respectively; P<0.02 each) that were similar in magnitude to reductions in total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B-100 (25% and 29%, P<0.001 each). Nonsignificant decreases in orthotyrosine and C-reactive protein levels were observed (9% and 11%, respectively; P>0.10 each). Statin-induced reductions in oxidation markers were independent of decreases in lipids and lipoproteins.
Statins promote potent systemic antioxidant effects through suppression of distinct oxidation pathways. The major pathways inhibited include formation of myeloperoxidase-derived and nitric oxide-derived oxidants, species implicated in atherogenesis. The present results suggest potential mechanisms that may contribute to the beneficial actions of statins. They also have important implications for monitoring the antiinflammatory and antioxidant actions of these agents.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Formation of nitric oxide-derived oxidants may serve as a mechanism linking inflammation to development of atherosclerosis. Nitrotyrosine, a specific marker for protein modification by nitric oxide-derived oxidants, is enriched in human atherosclerotic lesions and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) recovered from human atheroma.
To determine whether systemic levels of nitrotyrosine are associated with the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and are modulated by hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor (statin) therapy.Design, Setting, and
A case-control and interventional study at 2 urban tertiary-care referral centers; recruitment for each was from June 1, 2001, until January 1, 2002. For the case-control study, 100 case-patients with established CAD and 108 patients with no clinically evident CAD were recruited consecutively. In the interventional study, participants aged 21 years or older with hypercholesterolemia (LDL cholesterol > or =130 mg/dL [> or =3.5 mmol/L]) underwent nutrition and exercise counseling. Those whose levels did not decrease with 6 to 8 weeks were enrolled in the study (n = 35). For 12 weeks, they received 10 mg/d of oral atorvastatin therapy.
In the case-control study, the association between systemic levels of protein-bound nitrotyrosine, CAD risk, and presence of CAD. In the interventional study, the change in nitrotyrosine, lipoprotein, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.
Nitrotyrosine levels were significantly higher among patients with CAD (median 9.1 micromol/mol [interquartile range, 4.8-13.8 micromol/mol] tyrosine vs 5.2 micromol/mol [interquartile range, 2.2-8.4 micromol/mol]; P<.001). Patients in the upper quartile of nitrotyrosine (29%; P<.001) had a higher odds of CAD compared with those in the lowest quartile (unadjusted odds ratio, 6.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-14.0; P<.001). In multivariate models adjusting for Framingham Global Risk Score and CRP, upper quartiles of nitrotyrosine remained associated with CAD (odds ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-10.6; P<.001). Statin therapy reduced nitrotyrosine levels significantly (25%; P<.02) with a magnitude similar to reductions in total cholesterol levels (25%; P<.001) and LDL particle number (29%; P<.001) yet were independent of alterations in lipoproteins and inflammatory markers like CRP.
The findings from this preliminary study indicate that nitrotyrosine levels are associated with the presence of CAD and appear to be modulated by statin therapy. These results suggest a potential role for nitric oxide-derived oxidants as inflammatory mediators in CAD and may have implications for atherosclerosis risk assessment and monitoring of anti-inflammatory actions of statins.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 04/2003; 289(13):1675-80. · 29.98 Impact Factor