[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This Position Paper is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the diagnosis and management of iatrogenic perforation occurring during diagnostic or therapeutic digestive endoscopic procedures. Main recommendations 1 ESGE recommends that each center implements a written policy regarding the management of iatrogenic perforation, including the definition of procedures that carry a high risk of this complication. This policy should be shared with the radiologists and surgeons at each center. 2 In the case of an endoscopically identified perforation, ESGE recommends that the endoscopist reports: its size and location with a picture; endoscopic treatment that might have been possible; whether carbon dioxide or air was used for insufflation; and the standard report information. 3 ESGE recommends that symptoms or signs suggestive of iatrogenic perforation after an endoscopic procedure should be carefully evaluated and documented, possibly with a computed tomography (CT) scan, in order to prevent any diagnostic delay. 4 ESGE recommends that endoscopic closure should be considered depending on the type of perforation, its size, and the endoscopist expertise available at the center. A switch to carbon dioxide insufflation, the diversion of luminal content, and decompression of tension pneumoperitoneum or tension pneumothorax should also be done. 5 After closure of an iatrogenic perforation using an endoscopic method, ESGE recommends that further management should be based on the estimated success of the endoscopic closure and on the general clinical condition of the patient. In the case of no or failed endoscopic closure of the iatrogenic perforation, and in patients whose clinical condition is deteriorating, hospitalization and surgical consultation are recommended.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of multiple (5-100) colorectal adenomas suggests an inherited predisposition, but the genetic aetiology of this phenotype is undetermined if patients test negative for Mendelian polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We investigated whether 18 common colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could help to explain some cases with multiple adenomas who phenocopied FAP or MAP, but had no pathogenic APC or MUTYH variant. No multiple adenoma case had an outlying number of CRC SNP risk alleles, but multiple adenoma patients did have a significantly higher number of risk alleles than population controls (P=5.7 × 10(-7)). The association was stronger in those with ≥10 adenomas. The CRC SNPs accounted for 4.3% of the variation in multiple adenoma risk, with three SNPs (rs6983267, rs10795668, rs3802842) explaining 3.0% of the variation. In FAP patients, the CRC risk score did not differ significantly from the controls, as we expected given the overwhelming effect of pathogenic germline APC variants on the phenotype of these cases. More unexpectedly, we found no evidence that the CRC SNPs act as modifier genes for the number of colorectal adenomas in FAP patients. In conclusion, common colorectal tumour risk alleles contribute to the development of multiple adenomas in patients without pathogenic germline APC or MUTYH variants. This phenotype may have 'polygenic' or monogenic origins. The risk of CRC in relatives of multiple adenoma cases is probably much lower for cases with polygenic disease, and this should be taken into account when counselling such patients.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.74.
European journal of human genetics: EJHG 05/2014; · 3.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Serrated polyposis is a condition of the colon characterised by multiple serrated polyps. This review aims to provide a practical guide to the day-to-day management of serrated polyposis including diagnosis, endoscopic identification of serrated polyps, surveillance, the role of endoscopic and surgical management and screening of family members.
The literature was searched using Pubmed and Medline databases for the terms "serrated polyp, serrated polyposis, hyperplastic polyposis". English language abstracts were read and the full article was retrieved if relevant to the review. Expert opinion from the authors was also sort.
Advances in our knowledge of the molecular pathways involved in serrated polyposis and an improved clinical picture of the disease from retrospective studies have led to better understanding of its pathogenesis and natural history. However there are still areas not answered by the literature, and hence empirical management or expert opinion has to be followed.
Improvements in our understanding of serrated polyposis together with improvements in endoscopic equipment and technique have enabled the endoscopist to be at the forefront of managing this condition from diagnosis to endoscopic surveillance and control of the polyps. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Measuring quality is a current need of medical services either to assess their cost-effectiveness or to identify discrepancies requiring refinement. With the advent of bowel cancer screening and increasing patient awareness of bowel symptoms, there has been an unprecedented increase in demand for colonoscopy. Consequently, there is an expanding open-discussion on missed rates of cancer or precancerous polyps during diagnostic/screening colonoscopy and on the rate of adverse events related to therapeutic colonoscopy. Delivering a quality colonoscopy service is therefore a healthcare priority. Colonoscopy is a multi-step process and therefore assessment of all aspects of the procedure must be addressed. Quality in colonoscopy refers to a combination of many patient-centered technical and non-technical skills and knowledge aiming to patient's safety and satisfaction through a continuous effort for improvement. The benefits of this endless process are hiding behind small details which can eventually make the difference in colonoscopy. Identifying specific quality metrics help to define and shape an optimal service and forms a secure basis of improvement. Τhis paper does not aim to give technical details on how to perform colonoscopy but to summarize what to measure and when, in accordance with the current identified quality indicators and standards for colonoscopy.
World journal of gastrointestinal endoscopy. 10/2013; 5(10):468-75.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diverticular disease (DD) and colonic cancer share common epidemiological characteristics, similar aetiological dietary factors and may present with bleeding.(1) The incidence of both disease entities has increased in parallel over the course of the last century. Additionally, DD of the colon is rare in developing populations where there is also a low incidence of colonic cancer.The association of DD and colonic cancer is unclear and not evidence based, although certain retrospective studies suggest a causal relationship between DD and left sided colorectal cancer.(2) This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A simple endoscopic classification to accurately predict deep submucosal invasive (SM-d) carcinoma would be clinically useful.
To develop and assess the validity of the NBI international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) classification for the characterization of SM-d carcinoma.
The study was conducted in 4 phases: (1) evaluation of endoscopic differentiation by NBI-experienced colonoscopists; (2) extension of the NICE classification to incorporate SM-d (type 3) by using a modified Delphi method; (3) prospective validation of the individual criteria by inexperienced participants, by using high-definition still images without magnification of known histology; and (4) prospective validation of the individual criteria and overall classification by inexperienced participants after training.
Japanese academic unit.
Performance characteristics of the NICE criteria (phase 3) and overall classification (phase 4) for SM-d carcinoma; sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and accuracy.
We expanded the NICE classification for the endoscopic diagnosis of SM-d carcinoma (type 3) and established the predictive validity of its individual components. The negative predictive values of the individual criteria for diagnosis of SM-d carcinoma were 76.2% (color), 88.5% (vessels), and 79.1% (surface pattern). When any 1 of the 3 SM-d criteria was present, the sensitivity was 94.9%, and the negative predictive value was 95.9%. The overall sensitivity and negative predictive value of a global, high-confidence prediction of SM-d carcinoma was 92%. Interobserver agreement for an overall SM-d carcinoma prediction was substantial (kappa 0.70).
Single Japanese center, use of still images without prospective clinical evaluation.
The NICE classification is a valid tool for predicting SM-d carcinomas in colorectal tumors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignant polyps are now being encountered more frequently because of increased colorectal cancer screening. Endoscopy offers a minimally invasive option for treating some malignant polyps thus reducing surgical morbidity and mortality. This chapter reviews the endoscopic assessment of colorectal polypoid lesions and risk stratification using gross polyp morphology (Paris classification), lesion surface appearance (Kudo pit pattern and mucosal microvessel appearance, via high-magnification chromoendoscopy and narrow-band imaging), and by the lesion's lifting characteristics (“nonlifting sign”). In combination, these features allow an assessment of the potential for malignancy as well as the likely depth of submucosal invasion, so as to guide appropriate management. We also consider possible adjunct assessment modalities, such as endoscopic ultrasound, and discuss postpolypectomy histologic classification, including Haggitt staging for pedunculated lesions and Kikuchi staging for sessile lesions or laterally spreading tumors. Finally, we describe endoscopic resection techniques for removal of malignant polyps, including endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection, and compare these with surgical management options.
Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy 04/2013; 15(2):106–112.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim: This Guideline is an official statement of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). It addresses the choice amongst regimens available for cleansing the colon in preparation for colonoscopy. Methods: This Guideline is based on a targeted literature search to evaluate the evidence supporting the use of bowel preparation for colonoscopy. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was adopted to define the strength of recommendation and the quality of evidence. Results: The main recommendations are as follows. (1) The ESGE recommends a low-fiber diet on the day preceding colonoscopy (weak recommendation, moderate quality evidence). (2) The ESGE recommends a split regimen of 4 L of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution (or a same-day regimen in the case of afternoon colonoscopy) for routine bowel preparation. A split regimen (or same-day regimen in the case of afternoon colonoscopy) of 2 L PEG plus ascorbate or of sodium picosulphate plus magnesium citrate may be valid alternatives, in particular for elective outpatient colonoscopy (strong recommendation, high quality evidence). In patients with renal failure, PEG is the only recommended bowel preparation. The delay between the last dose of bowel preparation and colonoscopy should be minimized and no longer than 4 hours (strong recommendation, moderate quality evidence). (3) The ESGE advises against the routine use of sodium phosphate for bowel preparation because of safety concerns (strong recommendation, low quality evidence).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal cancer mortality and morbidity principally by the detection and removal of colon polyps. It is important to retrieve resected polyps to be able to ascertain their histologic characteristics. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cause of polyp retrieval failure. DESIGN: Bowel cancer screening colonoscopy data were collected prospectively. SETTING: The Bowel Cancer Screening Program in the National Health Service. PATIENTS: Screening participants were referred to our screening center after a positive fecal occult blood test result. INTERVENTION: A total of 4383 polyps were endoscopically removed from 1495 patients from October 2006 to February 2011. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The number, size, shape, and location of polyps; polyp removal method; quality of bowel preparation; total examination time; and insertion and withdrawal times in collected data were examined retrospectively. RESULTS: The polyp retrieval rate was 93.9%, and the failure rate was 6.1%, thus 267 polyps were not retrieved. In univariate analysis, factors affecting polyp retrieval failure were small polyp size, sessile polyps, and cold snare polypectomy (P < .001). Polyp retrieval was less successful in the proximal colon (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, polyp size and method of removal were independent risk factors for polyp retrieval failure (P < .001). LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study. CONCLUSION: Small polyp size and cold snare removal were found to be significantly associated with polyp retrieval failure. It was difficult to retrieve small, sessile, and proximal colon polyps. Optical diagnosis could be an efficacious option as a surrogate for histologic diagnosis for these lesions in the near future.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficult and unstable endoscopic access to large sessile/flat colon polyps in the sigmoid colon may prevent successful and complete EMR.
We report our experience with the use of an endoscopic cuff, a new endoscopic accessory, to improve endoscopic access during endoscopic therapy and scar assessment.
Single-center, retrospective, feasibility case series.
Tertiary referral academic endoscopy unit.
Nonconsecutive patients referred for endoscopic resection of large flat/sessile sigmoid colon polyps or surveillance of postpolypectomy scars in the sigmoid colon.
When conventional methods to achieve stable access and visualization were unsuccessful, the endoscopic cuff was used to retract sigmoid colon folds.
Safety, procedural success, and complications.
Five patients (mean age 62 years, 3 male/2 female) underwent endoscopic cuff-assisted EMR polypectomy, and 7 patients (mean age 62 years, 2 male/5 female) underwent post-EMR scar surveillance with an endoscopic cuff-assisted flexible sigmoidoscopy. All sessile/flat polyps (mean size 29 mm) or post-EMR scar sites (mean size 15 mm) were located at acute bends in the sigmoid colon. With the endoscopic cuff placed around the tip of the colonoscope, endoscopic access improved significantly by flattening/depressing colon folds close to the lesion/scar. The entire polyp/scar surface was revealed, facilitating a complete polyp excision and a meticulous scar assessment. No immediate or delayed adverse events were seen.
Single-center, nonrandomized case series.
An endoscopic cuff appears to be a safe and easily used accessory to facilitate colonoscopic access for complex polypectomy and scar assessment in the sigmoid colon.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine which patients might benefit most from retrograde viewing during colonoscopy through subset analysis of randomized, controlled trial data.
The Third Eye® Retroscope® Randomized Clinical Evaluation (TERRACE) was a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial designed to evaluate the efficacy of a retrograde-viewing auxiliary imaging device that is used during colonoscopy to provide a second video image which allows viewing of areas on the proximal aspect of haustral folds and flexures that are difficult to see with the colonoscope's forward view. We performed a post-hoc analysis of the TERRACE data to determine whether certain subsets of the patient population would gain more benefit than others from use of the device. Subjects were patients scheduled for colonoscopy for screening, surveillance or diagnostic workup, and each underwent same-day tandem examinations with standard colonoscopy (SC) and Third Eye colonoscopy (TEC), randomized to SC followed by TEC or vice versa.
Indication for colonoscopy was screening in 176/345 subjects (51.0%), surveillance after previous polypectomy in 87 (25.2%) and diagnostic workup in 82 (23.8%). In 4 subjects no indication was specified. Previously reported overall results had shown a net additional adenoma detection rate (ADR) with TEC of 23.2% compared to SC. Relative risk (RR) of missing adenomas with SC vs TEC as the initial procedure was 1.92 (P = 0.029). Post-hoc subset analysis shows additional ADRs for TEC compared to SC were 4.4% for screening, 35.7% for surveillance, 55.4% for diagnostic and 40.7% for surveillance and diagnostic combined. The RR of missing adenomas with SC vs TEC was 1.11 (P = 0.815) for screening, 3.15 (P = 0.014) for surveillance, 8.64 (P = 0.039) for diagnostic and 3.34 (P = 0.003) for surveillance and diagnostic combined. Although a multivariate Poisson regression suggested gender as a possibly significant factor, subset analysis showed that the difference between genders was not statistically significant. Age, bowel prep quality and withdrawal time did not significantly affect the RR of missing adenomas with SC vs TEC. Mean sizes of adenomas detected with TEC and SC were similar at 0.59 cm and 0.56 cm, respectively (P = NS).
TEC allows detection of significantly more adenomas compared to SC in patients undergoing surveillance or diagnostic workup, but not in screening patients (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01044732).
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2012; 18(26):3400-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ulcerative colitis surveillance, chromoendoscopy improves dysplasia detection 3 – 5-fold compared with white light endoscopy (WLE). The aim of this study was to investigate whether narrow band imaging (NBI) can improve dysplasia detection compared with WLE.
This was a randomized, parallel-group trial. A total of 220 patients were needed to be recruited to detect a threefold increase in dysplasia detection. In all, 112 patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis were randomized to colonoscopic extubation with NBI (56) or WLE (56) (1:1 ratio) at two tertiary endoscopy units in the United Kingdom. Targeted biopsies of suspicious areas and quadrantic random biopsies every 10 cm were taken in both groups. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with at least one area of dysplasia detected. In a prespecified mid-point analysis, the criteria for trial discontinuation were met and the trial was stopped and analyzed at this point.
There was no difference in the primary outcome between the two groups, with 5 patients having at least one dysplastic lesion in each group (odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.27 – 3.67, P = 1.00). This remained unchanged when adjusted for other variables (OR 0.69, 95 % CI 0.16 – 2.96, P = 0.62). Overall, dysplasia detection was 9 % in each arm. Yield of dysplasia from random nontargeted biopsies was 1 / 2,707 (0.04 % ).
Overall, in this multicenter parallel-group trial, there was no difference in dysplasia detection when using NBI compared with high-definition WLE colonoscopy. Random background biopsies were ineffective in detecting dysplasia.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology 05/2012; 107(6):885-90. · 7.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Almost all colorectal polyps ≤ 5 mm are benign, yet current practice requires costly pathologic analysis. We aimed to develop and evaluate the validity of a simple narrow-band imaging (NBI)-based classification system for differentiating hyperplastic from adenomatous polyps.
The study was conducted in 4 phases: (1) evaluation of accuracy and reliability of histologic prediction by NBI-experienced colonoscopists; (2) development of a classification based on color, vessels, and surface pattern criteria, using a modified Delphi method; (3) validation of the component criteria by people not experienced in endoscopy or NBI analysis (25 medical students, 19 gastroenterology fellows) using 118 high-definition colorectal polyp images of known histology; and (4) validation of the classification system by NBI-trained gastroenterology fellows, using still images. We performed a pilot evaluation during real-time colonoscopy.
We developed a classification system for the endoscopic diagnosis of colorectal polyp histology and established its predictive validity. When all 3 criteria were used, the specificity ranged from 94.9% to 100% and the combined sensitivity ranged from 8.5% to 61.0%. The specificities of the individual criteria were lower although the sensitivities were higher. During real-time colonoscopy, endoscopists made diagnoses with high confidence for 75% of consecutive small colorectal polyps, with 89% accuracy, 98% sensitivity, and 95% negative predictive values.
We developed and established the validity of an NBI classification system that can be used to diagnose colorectal polyps. In preliminary real-time evaluation, the system allowed endoscopic diagnoses of colorectal polyp histology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Incomplete piecemeal EMR of large, sessile/flat colon polyps results in polyp recurrence, with massive submucosal scarring making subsequent attempts at endoscopic resection problematic.
We report our experience with a new endoscopic mucosal ablation (EMA) technique that can be used to complement the eradication of recurrent fibrotic colon polyps.
Single-center, retrospective case series.
Tertiary-care referral academic endoscopy unit.
This study involved consecutive patients referred for endoscopic excision of recurrent benign colon polyps with severe submucosal fibrosis (>30% of the entire lesion).
Application of high-power argon plasma coagulation (APC), preceded by injection of a submucosal fluid cushion (normal saline/diluted adrenaline and/or sodium hyaluronate solution) to protect the muscle layer, was performed to augment further piecemeal EMR and polyp eradication.
Technical safety and success, complication and recurrence rates.
Fourteen patients (mean age 73 years; 9 men, 5 women) with 15 recurrent colon adenomas (mean polyp size 30 mm, 9 proximal/6 distal) were included. EMA with a mean APC power setting of 55 W was applied. Complete polyp eradication was achieved in 9 of 11 patients (82%) at first or second completed follow-up. One patient needed laparoscopic colectomy because of cancer, and 1 underwent transanal endoscopic microsurgery for benign massive recurrence. The other 3 patients with small, easily treatable recurrence (≤3 mm) were followed by 1-year-surveillance. No perforations and no postpolypectomy syndrome were reported.
Single-center, nonrandomized case series with short duration follow-up.
EMA appears to be a safe and easily applicable technique to assist the complete eradication of recurrent fibrotic colon polyps.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite its ubiquitous use over the past 4 decades, there is no structured, formal method with which to assess polypectomy.
To develop and validate a new method with which to assess competency in polypectomy.
Polypectomy underwent task deconstruction, and a structured checklist and global assessment scale were developed (direct observation of polypectomy skills [DOPyS]). Sixty bowel cancer screening polypectomy videos were randomly chosen for analysis and were scored independently by 7 expert assessors by using DOPyS. Each parameter and the global rating were scored from 1 to 4 (scores ≥3 = competency). The scores were analyzed by using generalizability theory (G theory).
Fifty-nine of the 60 videos were assessable and scored. The majority of the assessors agreed across the pass/fail divide for the global assessment scale in 58 of 59 (98%) polyps. For G-theory analysis, 47 of the 60 videos were analyzed. G-theory analysis suggested that DOPyS is a reliable assessment tool, provided that it is used by 2 assessors to score 5 polypectomy videos all performed by 1 endoscopist. DOPyS scores obtained in this format would reflect the endoscopist's competence.
Small sample and polyp size.
This study is the first attempt to develop and validate a tool designed specifically for the assessment of technical skills in performing polypectomy. G-theory analysis suggests that DOPyS could reliably reflect an endoscopist's competence in performing polypectomy provided a requisite number of assessors and cases were used.