Zhongcong Xie

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (73)293.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Sevoflurane, the commonly used inhalation anesthetic in children, has been shown to enhance cytosolic calcium levels and induce cognitive impairment in young mice. However, the downstream consequences of the sevoflurane-induced elevation in cytosolic calcium levels and the upstream mechanisms of the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment remain largely to be determined. Hippocalcin is one of the neuronal calcium sensor proteins, and also binds to postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95). We therefore set out to determine the effects of sevoflurane on the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in vitro and in vivo. Hippocampus neurons from mice and 6-day-old mice were treated with 4.1 % sevoflurane for 6 h or 3 % sevoflurane 2 h daily for 3 days, respectively. We then measured the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, and assessed whether BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, and memantine, a partial antagonist of the NMDA receptor, could inhibit the sevoflurane's effects. We found that sevoflurane decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in the neurons; and decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus of mice immediately after the anesthesia, but only the PSD-95 levels three weeks after the anesthesia. BAPTA inhibited the sevoflurane's effects in the neurons. Memantine attenuated the sevoflurane-induced reductions in the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, as well as the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in mice. These data suggested that sevoflurane decreased the levels of hippocalcin and PSD-95, which could serve as one of bridge mechanisms between the sevoflurane-induced elevation of cytosolic calcium levels and the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment.
    Molecular neurobiology. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Pain might be associated with cognitive impairment in humans. However, the characterization of such effects in a preclinical model and the investigation of the underlying mechanisms remain largely to be determined. We therefore sought to establish a system to determine the effect of pain on cognitive function in mice.
    Anesthesia and analgesia. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Children with multiple exposures to anesthesia and surgery may have an increased risk of developing cognitive impairment. Sevoflurane is a commonly used anesthetic in children. Tau phosphorylation contributes to cognitive dysfunction. The authors therefore assessed the effects of sevoflurane on Tau phosphorylation and the underlying mechanisms in young mice. Six-day-old wild-type and Tau knockout mice were exposed to sevoflurane. The authors determined the effects of sevoflurane anesthesia on Tau phosphorylation, levels of the kinases and phosphatase related to Tau phosphorylation, interleukin-6 and postsynaptic density protein-95 in hippocampus, and cognitive function in both young wild-type and Tau knockout mice. Anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane 2 h daily for 3 days induced Tau phosphorylation (257 vs. 100%, P = 0.0025, n = 6) and enhanced activation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β, which is the kinase related to Tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of postnatal day-8 wild-type mice. The sevoflurane anesthesia decreased hippocampus postsynaptic density protein-95 levels and induced cognitive impairment in the postnatal day-31 mice. Glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor lithium inhibited the sevoflurane-induced glycogen synthase kinase 3β activation, Tau phosphorylation, increased levels of interleukin-6, and cognitive impairment in the wild-type young mice. Finally, the sevoflurane anesthesia did not induce an increase in interleukin-6 levels, reduction in postsynaptic density protein-95 levels in hippocampus, or cognitive impairment in Tau knockout young mice. These data suggested that sevoflurane induced Tau phosphorylation, glycogen synthase kinase 3β activation, increase in interleukin-6 and reduction in postsynaptic density protein-95 levels in hippocampus of young mice, and cognitive impairment in the mice. Future studies will dissect the cascade relation of these effects.
    Anesthesiology 04/2014; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. At the present time, however, AD still lacks effective treatments. Our recent studies showed that chronic treatment with anesthetic propofol attenuated brain caspase-3 activation and improved cognitive function in aged mice. Accumulation of beta-amyloid protein (Abeta) is a major component of the neuropathogenesis of AD dementia and cognitive impairment. We therefore set out to determine the effects of chronic treatment with propofol on Abeta levels in brain tissues of aged mice. Propofol (50 mg/kg) was administrated to aged (18 month-old) wild-type mice once a week for 8 weeks. The brain tissues of mice were harvested one day after the final propofol treatment. The harvested brain tissues were then subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot analysis. Here we report that the propofol treatment reduced Abeta (Abeta40 and Abeta42) levels in the brain tissues of the aged mice. Moreover, the propofol treatment decreased the levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme (the enzyme for Abeta generation), and increased the levels of neprilysin (the enzyme for Abeta degradation) in the brain tissues of the aged mice. These results suggested that the chronic treatment with propofol might reduce brain Abeta levels potentially via decreasing brain levels of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme, thus decreasing Abeta generation; and via increasing brain neprilysin levels, thus increasing Abeta degradation. These preliminary findings from our pilot studies have established a system and postulated a new hypothesis for future research.
    Translational neurodegeneration. 04/2014; 3(1):8.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective The neuropathogenesis of postoperative delirium remains unknown. Low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and high CSF Tau levels are associated with Alzheimer's disease. We, therefore, assessed whether lower preoperative CSF Aβ/Tau ratio was associated with higher incidence and greater severity of postoperative delirium.Methods One hundred and fifty-three participants (71 ± 5 years, 53% men) who had total hip/knee replacement under spinal anesthesia were enrolled. CSF was obtained during initiation of spinal anesthesia. The incidence and severity of postoperative delirium were determined by Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) and Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) on postoperative day 1 and 2. Aβ40, Aβ42, and Tau levels in the CSF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these variables were determined, adjusting for age and gender.ResultsParticipants in the lowest quartile of preoperative CSF Aβ40/Tau and Aβ42/Tau ratio had higher incidence (32% vs. 17%, P = 0.0482) and greater symptom severity of postoperative delirium (Aβ40/Tau ratio: 4 vs. 3, P = 0.034; Aβ42/Tau ratio: 4 vs. 3, P = 0.062, the median of the highest MDAS score) as compared to the combination of the rest of the quartiles. The preoperative CSF Aβ40/Tau or Aβ42/Tau ratio was inversely associated with MDAS score (Aβ40/Tau ratio: −0.12 ± 0.05, P = 0.014, adj. −0.12 ± 0.05, P = 0.018; Aβ42/Tau ratio: −0.65 ± 0.26, P = 0.013, adj. −0.62 ± 0.27, P = 0.022).InterpretationLower CSF Aβ/Tau ratio could be associated with postoperative delirium, pending confirmation of our preliminary results in further studies. These findings suggest potential roles of Aβ and/or Tau in postoperative delirium neuropathogenesis.
    Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology. 04/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: There is a need to seek new treatment(s) for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A recent study showed that AD patients may have decreased levels of functional GABA receptors. Propofol, a commonly used anesthetic, is a GABA receptor agonist. We therefore set out to perform a proof of concept study to determine whether chronic treatment with propofol (50 mg/kg/week) can improve cognitive function in both aged wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. Propofol was administrated to the WT and AD Tg mice once a week for 8 or 12 weeks, respectively. Morris water maze was used to assess the cognitive function of the mice following the propofol treatment. Activation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8 was investigated using western blot analysis at the end of the propofol treatment. In the mechanistic studies, effects of propofol, amyloid-β protein (Aβ), and GABA receptor antagonist flumazenil on caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore were assessed in H4 human neuroglioma and mouse neuroblastoma cells by western blot analysis and flow cytometry. Here we showed that the propofol treatment improved cognitive function and attenuated brain caspase-3 and caspase-9 activation in both aged WT and AD Tg mice. Propofol attenuated Aβ-induced caspase-3 activation and opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the cells, and flumazenil inhibited the propofol's effects. These results suggested that propofol might improve cognitive function via attenuating the Aβ-induced mitochondria dysfunction and caspase activation, which explored the potential that anesthetic propofol could improve cognitive function in elderly and AD patients.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anesthesia with multiple exposures of commonly used inhalation anesthetic sevoflurane induces neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment in young mice, but anesthesia with a single exposure to sevoflurane does not. AKT/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) signaling pathway is involved in neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficits. However, whether sevoflurane can induce a dual effect (increase versus decrease) on the activation of AKT/GSK3beta signaling pathway remains to be determined. We therefore set out to assess the effects of sevoflurane on AKT/GSK3beta signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro. Six day-old wild-type mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane two hours daily for one or three days. In the in vitro studies, H4 human neuroglioma cells were treated with 4% sevoflurane for two or six hours. We then determined the effects of different sevoflurane treatments on the levels of phosphorylated (P)-GSK3beta(ser9) and P-AKT(ser473) by using Western blot analysis. Here we show that anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane two hours daily for one day increased the levels of P-GSK3beta(ser9) and P-AKT(ser473), but the anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane daily for three days decreased them in the mice. The treatment with 4% sevoflurane for two hours increased, but the treatment with 4% sevoflurane for six hours decreased, the levels of P-GSK3beta(ser9) and P-AKT(ser473) in the H4 human neuroglioma cells. Anesthetic sevoflurane might induce a dual effect (increase versus decrease) on the activation of the AKT/GSK3beta signaling pathway. These studies have established a system to perform further studies to determine the effects of sevoflurane on brain function.
    Medical gas research. 03/2014; 4(1):5.
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    ABSTRACT: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain β-amyloid (Aβ) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The Aβ accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α. γ-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated Aβ accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.
    Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:3766. · 2.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Commonly used anesthetic isoflurane has been reported to promote Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathogenesis by inducing caspase-3 activation. However, the up-stream mechanisms of isoflurane's effects remain largely to be determined. Specifically, there is a lack of a good model/system to elucidate the underlying mechanism of the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation. We therefore set out to assess and compare the effects of isoflurane on caspase-3 activation in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and in primary neurons from wild-type (WT) and AD transgenic (Tg) mice. The NPCs and neurons were obtained, cultured and then treated with either 2% isoflurane or under control condition for 6 h. The NPCs or neurons were harvested at the end of the treatment and were subjected to Western blot analysis. Here we showed for the first time that the isoflurane treatment induced caspase-3 activation in neurons, but not in NPCs, from either WT or AD Tg mice. Consistently, the isoflurane treatment increased cytosol levels of cytochrome c, a potential up-stream mechanism of isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in the mice neurons, but not NPCs. Finally, the isoflurane treatment induced a greater casapse-3 activation in the neurons, but not the NPCs, from AD Tg mice as compared to the WT mice. These data demonstrated that investigation and comparison of isoflurane's effects between mice NPCs and neurons would serve as a model/system to determine the underlying mechanism by which isoflurane induces caspase-3 activation. These findings would promote more research to investigate the effects of anesthetics on AD neuropathogenesis and the underlying mechanisms.
    Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:14. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Delirium is a common and morbid condition in elderly hospitalized patients. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood but inflammation has been implicated based on a clinical association with systemic infection and surgery and preclinical data showing that systemic inflammation adversely affects hippocampus-dependent memory. However, clinical manifestations and imaging studies point to abnormalities not in the hippocampus but in cortical circuits. We therefore tested the hypothesis that systemic inflammation impairs prefrontal cortex function by assessing attention and executive function in aged animals. Aged (24-month-old) Fischer-344 rats received a single intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg/kg) or saline and were tested on the attentional set-shifting task (AST), an index of integrity of the prefrontal cortex, on days 1-3 post-injection. Plasma and frontal cortex concentrations of the cytokine TNFα and the chemokine CCL2 were measured by ELISA in separate groups of identically treated, age-matched rats. LPS selectively impaired reversal learning and attentional shifts without affecting discrimination learning in the AST, indicating a deficit in attention and cognitive flexibility but not learning globally. LPS increased plasma TNFα and CCL2 acutely but this resolved within 24-48 h. TNFα in the frontal cortex did not change whereas CCL2 increased nearly threefold 2 h after LPS but normalized by the time behavioral testing started 24 h later. Together, our data indicate that systemic inflammation selectively impairs attention and executive function in aged rodents and that the cognitive deficit is independent of concurrent changes in frontal cortical TNFα and CCL2. Because inattention is a prominent feature of clinical delirium, our data support a role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of this clinical syndrome and suggest this animal model could be useful for studying that relationship further.
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:107. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent Aβ accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e96752. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Scholarly activity is expected of program directors of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited residency training programs. Anesthesiology residency programs are cited more often than surgical programs for deficiencies in academic productivity. We hypothesized that this may in part reflect differences in scholarly activity between program directors of anesthesiology and surgical trainings programs. To test the hypothesis, we examined the career track record of current program directors of ACGME-accredited anesthesiology and surgical residency programs at the same institutions using PubMed citations and funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as metrics of scholarly activity. Between November 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011, we obtained data from publicly available Web sites on program directors at 127 institutions that had ACGME-accredited programs in both anesthesiology and surgery. Information gathered on each individual included year of board certification, year first appointed program director, academic rank, history of NIH grant funding, and number of PubMed citations. We also calculated the h-index for a randomly selected subset of 25 institution-matched program directors. There were no differences between the groups in number of years since board certification (P = 0.42), academic rank (P = 0.38), or years as a program director (P = 0.22). However, program directors in anesthesiology had less prior or current NIH funding (P = 0.002), fewer total and education-related PubMed citations (both P < 0.001), and a lower h-index (P = 0.001) than surgery program directors. Multivariate analysis revealed that the publication rate for anesthesiology program directors was 43% (95% confidence interval, 0.31-0.58) that of the corresponding program directors of surgical residency programs, holding other variables constant. Program directors of anesthesiology residency programs have considerably less scholarly activity in terms of peer-reviewed publications and federal research funding than directors of surgical residency programs. As such, this study provides further evidence for a systemic weakness in the scholarly fabric of academic anesthesiology.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 11/2013; · 3.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with impairments in daily functioning, and increased morbidity and mortality. However, the causes and neuropathogenesis of POCD remain largely unknown. Uncontrolled pain often occurs postoperatively. We therefore set out to determine the effects of surgical incision-induced nociception on the cognitive function and its underlying mechanisms in 3- and 9-month-old mice. The mice had surgical incision in the hindpaw and then were tested for nociceptive threshold, learning, and memory. Brain levels of NMDA receptor and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) were also assessed. We found that surgical incision-induced nociception in mice led to a decreased freezing time in the tone test (which assesses the hippocampus-independent learning and memory function), but not the context test, of Fear Conditioning System at 3 and 7 d, but not 30 d post incision in 9-month-old, but not 3-month-old mice. Consistently, the surgical incision selectively decreased synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels in the medial prefrontal cortex, and increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and CDK5 in the cortex, but not hippocampus, of the mice. Finally, eutectic mixture of local anesthetics and CDK5 inhibitor, roscovitine, attenuated the surgical incision-induced reduction in the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B levels and learning impairment. These results suggested that surgical incision-induced nociception reduced the synaptic NMDA receptor 2B level in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice, which might lead to hippocampus-independent learning impairment, contributing to POCD. These findings call for further investigation to determine the role of surgical incision-induced nociception in POCD.
    Journal of Neuroscience 11/2013; 33(45):17737-48. · 6.91 Impact Factor
  • Zhongcong Xie
    Anesthesiology 09/2013; 119(3):501-3. · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent population studies suggest that children who receive anesthesia and surgery could be at an increased risk for developing learning disabilities. The underlying reason for this clinical observation is largely unknown. Whether undergoing anesthesia contributes to learning disability development, or if the need for anesthesia and surgery is a marker for other unidentified factors that contribute to the development of learning disabilities, remains to be determined. Neurogenesis, regulated by the Wnt-catenin signaling pathway, has been shown to be involved in learning and memory, and sevoflurane is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in children. We therefore set out to determine the effects of sevoflurane on neurogenesis and the Wnt-catenin signaling pathway in mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) using immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. Here we show for the first time that 4.1%, but not 2.0%, sevoflurane reduced mouse NPC proliferation, increased Glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) levels, and decreased levels of β-Catenin in mouse NPCs. The GSK-3β inhibitor Lithium attenuated the sevoflurane-induced reduction in mouse NPC proliferation. The data suggest that sevoflurane may reduce neurogenesis through the Wnt-catenin signaling pathway. These findings would promote further studies to investigate the effects of anesthesia on neurogenesis and function of learning and memory, as well as the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Ultimately these efforts would lead to safer anesthesia care and better postoperative outcomes in children.
    Current Molecular Medicine 08/2013; · 4.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: Determination of biomarker and neuropathogenesis of postoperative cognitive change (POCC) or postoperative cognitive dysfunction. BACKGROUND:: POCC is one of the most common postoperative complications in elderly patients. Whether preoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid protein (Aβ) to tau ratio, an Alzheimer disease biomarker, is a biomarker for risk of POCC remains unknown. We therefore set out to assess the association between preoperative CSF Aβ42 or Aβ40 to tau ratio and POCC. METHODS:: Patients who had total hip/knee replacement were enrolled. The CSF was obtained during the administration of spinal anesthesia. Cognitive tests were performed with these participants at 1 week before and at 1 week and 3 to 6 months after the surgery. Z scores of the changes from preoperative to postoperative on several key domains of the cognitive battery were determined. We then examined the association between preoperative CSF Aβ42/tau or Aβ40/tau ratio and the outcome measures described earlier, adjusting for age and sex. RESULTS:: Among the 136 participants (mean age = 71 ± 5 years; 55% men), preoperative CSF Aβ42/tau ratio was associated with postoperative Hopkins Verbal Learning Test Retention [Z score = 8.351; age, sex-adjusted (adj.) P = 0.003], and the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation (Z score = 1.242; adj. P = 0.007). Aβ40/tau ratio was associated with Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Total Recall (Z score = 1.045; adj. P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS:: Preoperative CSF Aβ/tau ratio is associated with postoperative changes in specific cognitive domains. The presence of the Alzheimer's disease biomarker, specifically the Aβ/tau ratio, may identify patients at higher risk for cognitive changes after surgery.
    Annals of surgery 05/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Accumulation of β-amyloid protein (Aβ) and tau protein is the main feature of Alzheimer disease neuropathogenesis. Anesthetic isoflurane, but not desflurane, may increase Aβ levels in vitro and in animals. Therefore, we set out to determine the effects of isoflurane and desflurane on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of Aβ and tau in humans. METHODS:: The participants were assigned into spinal anesthesia (N = 35), spinal plus desflurane anesthesia (N = 33), or spinal plus isoflurane anesthesia (N = 38) group by randomization using computer-generated lists. Pre- and postoperative human CSF samples were obtained through an inserted spinal catheter. The levels of Aβ (Aβ40 and Aβ42) and total tau in the CSF were determined. RESULTS:: Here, we show that isoflurane, but not desflurane, was associated with an increase in human CSF Aβ40 levels (from 10.90 to 12.413ng/ml) 243h after the surgery under anesthesia compared to spinal anesthesia (from 11.59 to 11.083ng/ml), P = 0.022. Desflurane, but not isoflurane, was associated with a decrease in Aβ42 levels 2 h after the surgery under anesthesia (from 0.39 to 0.35 ng/ml) compared to spinal anesthesia (from 0.43 to 0.44 ng/ml), P = 0.006. Isoflurane and desflurane did not significantly affect the tau levels in human CSF. CONCLUSIONS:: These studies have established a system to study the effects of anesthetics on human biomarkers associated with Alzheimer disease and cognitive dysfunction. These findings have suggested that isoflurane and desflurane may have different effects on human CSF Aβ levels.
    Anesthesiology 02/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Recent population studies have suggested that children with multiple exposures to anesthesia and surgery at an early age are at an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The authors therefore have established an animal model with single versus multiple exposures of anesthetic(s) in young versus adult mice, aiming to distinguish the role of different types of anesthesia in cognitive impairment. METHODS:: Six- and 60-day-old mice were exposed to various anesthesia regimens. The authors then determined the effects of the anesthesia on learning and memory function, levels of proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in brain tissues, and the amount of ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1-positive cells, the marker of microglia activation, in the hippocampus. RESULTS:: In this article, the authors show that anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane for 2 h daily for 3 days induced cognitive impairment and neuroinflammation (e.g., increased interleukin-6 levels, 151 ± 2.3% [mean ± SD] vs. 100 ± 9.0%, P = 0.035, n = 6) in young but not in adult mice. Anesthesia with 3% sevoflurane for 2 h daily for 1 day and 9% desflurane for 2 h daily for 3 days induced neither cognitive impairment nor neuroinflammation. Finally, an enriched environment and antiinflammatory treatment (ketorolac) ameliorated the sevoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. CONCLUSIONS:: Anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment may depend on developmental stage, anesthetic agent, and number of exposures. These findings also suggest the cellular basis and the potential prevention and treatment strategies for anesthesia-induced cognitive impairment, which may ultimately lead to safer anesthesia care and better postoperative outcomes for children.
    Anesthesiology 01/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Each year, over 75,000 pregnant women in the United States undergo anesthesia care. The authors set out to assess the effects of the anesthetic sevoflurane on neurotoxicity in pregnant mice and on learning and memory in fetal and offspring mice. METHODS:: Pregnant mice (gestational day 14) and mouse primary neurons were treated with 2.5% sevoflurane for 2 h and 4.1% sevoflurane for 6 h, respectively. Brain tissues of both fetal and offspring mice (P31) and the primary neurons were harvested and subjected to Western blot and immunohistochemistry to assess interleukin-6, the synaptic markers postsynaptic density-95 and synaptophysin, and caspase-3 levels. Separately, learning and memory function in the offspring mice was determined in the Morris water maze. RESULTS:: Sevoflurane anesthesia in pregnant mice induced caspase-3 activation, increased interleukin-6 levels (256 ± 50.98% [mean ± SD] vs. 100 ± 54.12%, P = 0.026), and reduced postsynaptic density-95 (61 ± 13.53% vs. 100 ± 10.08%, P = 0.036) and synaptophysin levels in fetal and offspring mice. The sevoflurane anesthesia impaired learning and memory in offspring mice at P31. Moreover, interleukin-6 antibody mitigated the sevoflurane-induced reduction in postsynaptic density-95 levels in the neurons. Finally, environmental enrichment attenuated the sevoflurane-induced increases in interleukin-6 levels, reductions of synapse markers, and learning and memory impairment. CONCLUSIONS:: These results suggest that sevoflurane may induce detrimental effects in fetal and offspring mice, which can be mitigated by environmental enrichment. These findings should promote more studies to determine the neurotoxicity of anesthesia in the developing brain.
    Anesthesiology 01/2013; · 5.16 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
293.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Anesthesia
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2004–2014
    • Massachusetts General Hospital
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2013
    • Partners HealthCare
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Capital Medical University
      Peping, Beijing, China
  • 2005–2012
    • Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2009
    • University of Pennsylvania
      • Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care
      Philadelphia, PA, United States
  • 2006–2007
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States