[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased osteoclast activity is a pivotal finding in osteoporosis. This increase is mediated via the mevalonate-to-cholesterol pathway, which is involved in producing the intermediates required for osteoclast activity. D-003, a mixture of high molecular weight sugarcane wax acids, has been shown to inhibit cholesterol synthesis prior to mevalonate production, resulting in a reduction of bone loss and resorption in ovariectomized rats. Moreover, previous studies have demonstrated that short-term D-003 treatment reduces urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline/creatinine in postmenopausal women.
We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to investigate the effects of D-003 (10 mg/day) treatment for 3 years on bone mineral density (BMD) in 83 postmenopausal women with low BMD.
Over 3 years, D-003 treatment increased lumbar spine BMD (5.1%, p < 0.01) and improved osteoporosis-related quality of life scores as compared with placebo-treated controls. D-003 was also well tolerated; the frequency of adverse events in the bone, joints, or muscle with D-003 treatment (p < 0.05) was lower than in the placebo group.
D-003 treatment (10 mg/day) for 3 years increased lumbar spine BMD and produced clinical improvements in postmenopausal women with low BMD. Further studies, however, will be required to confirm these results.
The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 06/2011; 26(2):168-78.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin, is recommended to lower the vascular risk in patients with intermittent claudication. Policosanol has increased walking distances in these patients, probably because of its antiplatelet effects, but the effect of shorter treatment has not been studied. This double-blind study compared the effects of policosanol 10 mg/d and aspirin 100 mg/d for 10 weeks on walking distances in claudicants. Thirty-nine patients were randomized to policosanol or aspirin. Walking distances on a treadmill were assessed before and after treatment. Policosanol significantly increased the initial and absolute claudication distances, while aspirin changed neither variable. Policosanol, not aspirin, significantly lowered serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol while raising high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. In conclusion, treatments of policosanol, not aspirin, for 10 weeks significantly increased walking distances, but modestly, in contrast with previous results. Therefore, the duration of treatments at the doses tested was too short for meaningful effects on the treadmill test.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Aging is associated with increased lipid peroxidation (LP). D-003, a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax, has been found to inhibit LP in experimental models and in healthy subjects.Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of D-003 on LP markers and the lipid profile of older individuals.Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted at the Plaza Veterans' House, Havana City, Cuba. Male and female patients aged ≥60 years with total cholesterol values of <6.1 mmol/L were eligible for inclusion in the study. After a 3-week lead-in and baseline assessment period, patients were randomized to receive PO D-003 5 mg/d, D-003 10 mg/d, or placebo for 8 weeks. The effect on copper-induced LP of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles was the primary variable, and the effects on plasma total antioxidant status (TAS), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, plasma antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) activities, and the lipid profile were secondary variables. A clinical examination was performed at each visit (baseline, weeks 4 and 8). A clinical examination, LP, and blood tests (lipid profile, hematologic, and blood biochemistry safety indicators) were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. Compliance and adverse events (AEs) were assessed at weeks 4 and 8. A 2-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant for comparisons of both continuous and categoric variables.Results: Fifty-four patients aged ≥60 years were assessed for inclusion in the study, and 51 patients (40 women, 11 men; mean [SD] age, 67  years) were included in the study. The lag phase of conjugated diene formation increased significantly and in a dose-dependent manner in the group treated with D-003 5 mg (24.7%; P < 0.01) and in the group treated with D-003 10 mg (29.3%; P < 0.01) compared with placebo. The maximal rate of conjugated diene propagation decreased significantly in the D-003 5- and 10-mg groups −22.7% and −25.8%, respectively; both, P < 0.05) compared with placebo. TAS increased significantly (17.7% and 23.0%, respectively; both, P < 0.01) in both active treatment groups compared with placebo. Plasma MDA concentration decreased significantly in the D-003 10-mg group (−28.6%; P < 0.05) but not in the D-003 5-mg group, compared with placebo. These changes were also significant compared with baseline. Antioxidant enzyme activities did not change in the active treatment groups compared with placebo or baseline. In the D-003 5- and 10-mg groups, significant decreases were found in LDL cholesterol concentration (−15.8% and −23.8%, respectively; both, P < 0.001) and total cholesterol concentration (−13.0% and −16.8%, both, P < 0.05) compared with placebo. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration increased significantly in the D-003 5-mg group (5.7%; P < 0.05) and the D-003 10-mg group (18.2%; P < 0.001) compared with placebo. Changes in the lipid profile were also significant compared with baseline. In the placebo group, no variable changed significantly compared with baseline. D-003 was well tolerated at both dose levels, and no patient withdrew from the study. There were a total of 3 AEs reported: insomnia and acidity in 2 patients receiving placebo; and heartburn in 1 patient receiving D-003 5 mg.Conclusions: D-003 5 and 10 mg/d administered to these older individuals (aged ≥60 years) for 8 weeks inhibited LP of LDL and increased TAS in a dose-dependent manner, while plasma MDA concentration decreased in the patients receiving D-003 10 mg/d only. D-003 was well tolerated at both doses
Current Therapeutic Research 02/2008; · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased platelet aggregation contributes to vascular risk. D-003, a mixture of high molecular weight sugarcane wax acids, has shown antiplatelet effects in experimental models and healthy volunteers. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of titrated doses of D-003 (5-20 mg/d) on platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic patients. After a 4-week baseline phase, 56 patients were randomised to D-003 5 mg/d or placebo. The doses were doubled every 15 days if arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation was not inhibited at least by 15%. AA (0.75 and 1.5 mmol/L) and collagen (1 microg/mL)-induced platelet aggregation, laboratory and physical safety indicators were assessed at baseline and every 15 days thereafter, when adverse events (AE) were also reported. No significant change of platelet aggregation was found in the placebo group. After 15, 30 and 45 on therapy, D-003 reduced platelet aggregation induced with both AA 0.75 mmol/L (18.1%, 19.0% and 30.3%, respectively) and AA 1.5 mmol/L (17.0%, 16.3% and 22.5%, respectively), and also collagen-induced platelet aggregation (26.6%, 20.8% and 29.4%) (p < 0.01 at days 15 and 30 versus placebo, p < 0.0001 at study completion). The mean inhibition of platelet aggregation with D-003 at day 15, at which all patients had received the lowest dose, was over 15%. Nineteen out of 28 D-003 randomised patients (67.9%) required dose titration to achieve such goal. At trial completion, the mean estimated dose was 11.6 mg/d. D-003 lowered low-density lipoprotein (22.0 %), total cholesterol (14.7%) and raised high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (10.9%) (p < 0.0001 versus placebo). Six patients (2 placebo, 4 D-003) withdrew from the trial, none due to AE. D-003 did not modify the safety indicators with respect to placebo. Four patients (2 placebo, 2 D-003-treated) reported AE: pruritus and increased blood pressure (2 placebo) and rash and polyphagla (2 D-003). In conclusion, D-003 (5-20 mg/d) given as doses titrated every 15 days (5-20 mg/d) inhibited AA- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic patients and was well tolerated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a mixture of long-chain primary aliphatic alcoholspurified from sugar cane wax that has cholesterol lowering and antiplatelet effects. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) have triglyceride lowering and antiplatelet effects. Combination treatment with policosanol and omega-3 FA (Ω23FA) has been associated with significant inhibition of platelet aggregation in rabbits compared with either drug alone.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of combination treatment with Ω3FA (1 g/d) and policosanol (Ω3FA+Poli) compared with Ω3FA (1 g/d) plus placebo (Ω3FA+Pla) on platelet aggregation in human patients with hypercholesterolemia.
This randomized, double-blind, clinical study at the Surgical Medical Research Center (Havana City, Cuba) recruited outpatients from lipid clinics, with some atherosclerotic risk factors. Outpatients of both sexes aged 20 to 75 years with serum total cholesterol (TC) levels ≥5 and <6 mmol/L were eligible to enroll. They were included in the study at the end of a 4-week diet stabilization period if their platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) was ≥50% and serum TC level remained ≥5 mmol/L. Patients were then evenly randomized to receive Ω3FA (1 g/d) + placebo or Ω3FA (1 g/d) + policosanol (10 mg/d) to be taken PO with the evening meal for 21 days. Treatment was assigned according to a randomization code using balanced blocks and a 1:1 allocation ratio. Inhibition of platelet aggregation to AA was the primary efficacy variable, while effects on platelet aggregation to collagen and epinephrine and on lipid profile were secondary variables. Drug compliance and adverse events (AEs) were monitored. Tolerability was assessed using physical examinations and laboratory test results.
Sixty-four subjects were initially enrolled. Fifty-four patients (30 women, 24 men; mean [SD] age, 58.4  years, [range, 40-70 years]) met the inclusion criteria and were randomized to treatment; 2 groups of 27. After 21 days, platelet aggregation to AA was significantly inhibited in the 2 groups. Ω3FA+Poli inhibited platelet aggregation to all agonists by ≥20%. Platelet aggregation to AA 1.0 and 1.5 mM was inhibited with combination treatment (39.6% and 33.9%, respectively; both P < 0.001 vs baseline; P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively, vs Ω3FA+Pla) and with Ω3FA+Pla (11.0% and 13.3%; both, P < 0.001). Combination treatment was more effective in inhibiting platelet aggregation to AA 1.0 and 1.5 mM in 28.6% (P < 0.001) and 20.6% (P < 0.01), respectively. Platelet aggregation to collagen 1 μg/mL was significantly inhibited with combination treatment and with Ω3FA+Pla compared with baseline (43.2% and 15.1%, respectively; both, P < 0.001), but the effects of combination treatment were significantly greater (P < 0.01). Platelet aggregation to epinephrine 0.1 mM was inhibited with Ω3FA+Poli and Ω3FA+Pla (34.8% and 20.1%; both, P < 0.001), with similar results for both groups. Bleeding time did not change significantly for either group and Ω3FA+Pla did not significantly change the lipid profile. Combination treatment did significantly reduce levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (17.4%; P < 0.001 vs baseline, P < 0.05 vs Ω3FA+Pla) and TC (10.1%; P < 0.001 vs baseline, P < 0.05 vs Ω3FA+Pla), increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (18.0%; P < 0.001 vs baseline), but did not significantly change triglyceride levels. Three patients (2 from the Ω3FA+Poli group and 1 from the Ω3FA+Pla group) withdrew from the trial, though none were due to AEs. Two patients receiving combination treatment reported mild AEs (headache). All treatments were well tolerated.
In these patients, policosanol (10 mg/d) administered concomitantly with Ω3FA (1 g/d) enhanced the inhibition of platelet aggregation to AA and collagen, but not to epinephrine, compared with Ω3FA+Pla, without significantly affecting bleeding time. Concomitant treatment was also associated with reduced levels of LDL-C and TC and raised HDL-C levels. All treatments were well tolerated.
Current Therapeutic Research 05/2006; 67(3):174-92. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biphosphonates, which are antiresorptive agents used to treat osteoporosis, inhibit the mevalonate pathway, preventing protein prenylation and inhibiting osteoclast activity. Statins decrease cholesterol biosynthesis by blocking the mevalonate pathway and have been reported to have beneficial effects on bone. D-003 is a mixture of high molecular weight acids purified from sugarcane wax that inhibits cholesterol biosynthesis before mevalonate production. D-003 prevents bone loss and resorption in rats with osteoporosis induced with ovariectomy or corticoids. Biochemical markers of bone turnover are used to monitor the short-term efficacy of antiosteoporotic therapy. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to investigate the short-term effects of D-003 (10 mg/day) on biochemical markers of bone turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). After 4 weeks on a low-fat diet, 34 women were randomized to D-003 (10 mg/day) or placebo for 6 months. Pre- and post-treatment samples were analyzed for urinary excretion of deoxypyridinoline (DPD)/creatinine (Cr), a marker of bone resorption, and serum bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), a marker of bone formation. The effects on lipid profile and safety indicators, as well as adverse events (AE), were investigated. D-003 (10 mg/day) lowered urinary excretion of tDPD/Cr versus baseline (20.6%) (p < 0.001) and placebo (33.7%) (p < 0.01), but did not modify serum BSAP. D-003 decreased low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (32.8%), total cholesterol (TC) (16.4%) and the TC/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio (34.7%), increased HDL-C (30.3%) (p < 0.001) and did not modify triglycerides. The effects on these variables were significant as early as 3 months after treatment initiation. D-003 was well tolerated. Three patients (one in the placebo group and two in the D-003 group) withdrew from the study. Two of these withdrawals were due to AE: abdominal pain (placebo) and heartburn (D-003). Five patients (four in the placebo group [22.2%] and one in the D-003 group [6.3%]) reported mild AE. In conclusion, D-003 (10 mg/day) reduced urinary excretion of tDPD/Cr, a bone resorption marker and did not change serum BSAP, a bone formation marker, while it lowered cholesterol in study patients. These preliminary results suggest that D-003 could be useful in treating postmenopausal women with low BMD. However, the potential value of D-003 in treating or preventing osteoporosis deserves further clinical investigation.
International journal of clinical pharmacology research 01/2005; 25(4):175-86.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a mixture of high-molecular-weight aliphatic primary alcohols isolated from sugarcane wax with cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil can protect against coronary disease. An antiarrhythmic mechanism is emerging as the most convincing explanation for omega-3 FA cardiovascular protection, but triglyceride (TG)-lowering effects and inhibition of platelet function could play a role. In view of the effects of policosanol and omega-3 FA on lipid profile and platelet function, potential benefits of combined therapy were expected.
To investigate whether combined therapy with policosanol and omega-3 FA would offer some benefit, compared with policosanol or omega-3 FA alone, on serum lipid profile and platelet aggregation in rabbits.
Male rabbits were randomly distributed in four groups (n = 9 per group). A control group received vehicle, one group was treated with policosanol 5 mg/kg and one with omega-3 FA (eicosapentaenoic acid; EPA [47.0%], docosahexaenoic acid; DHEA [41%]) 250 mg/kg, and the fourth received policosanol 5 mg/kg + omega-3 FA 250 mg/kg. Treatments were orally administered for 60 days. Bodyweight, food consumption and animal behaviour were performed at baseline and study completion.
Policosanol significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) [42.7%; p < 0.01] and total cholesterol (TC) [29.4%; p < 0.05], increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) [15.4%; p < 0.05], but left TG levels unchanged. Omega-3 FA significantly lowered TG (47.1%; p < 0.05), but left TC, LDL-C and HDL-C unchanged. Combined therapy decreased LDL-C (38.7%; p < 0.05). Changes in TC, LDL-C and HDL-C obtained with combined therapy were greater (p < 0.05) than those with omega-3 FA, but similar to those with policosanol, whereas the opposite applied to TG reduction. No significant changes in lipid profile were observed in the control group. Policosanol and omega-3 FA significantly (p < 0.05) but moderately inhibited platelet aggregation induced with arachidonic acid (13.3% and 12.4%, respectively); combined therapy achieved greater inhibition (23.9%; p < 0.05). All groups showed similar food consumption and bodyweight gain. No toxic signs were observed in any animal.
Concurrent therapy with policosanol 5 m/kg and omega-3 FA 250 mg/kg lowered LDL-C, TC and TG and increased HDL-C. All treatments inhibited platelet aggregation, but better effects were observed with policosanol + omega-3 FA compared with either treatment alone. Combined therapy was well tolerated. These results suggest that treatment with policosanol + omega-3 FA could be useful for regulating lipid profile and inhibiting platelet aggregation, but conclusive demonstration of such effects requires further experimental and clinical studies.
Drugs in R & D 01/2005; 6(1):11-9. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The main goal of hypercholesterolemia management for coronary prevention is to reduce serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. D-003 is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic acids purified from sugarcane wax, while policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug purified from the same source, consisting in a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols. No previous comparative study of both drugs in humans has been reported. This randomized, double-blind study compares the efficacy and tolerability of D-003 and policosanol (5 and 10 mg/day) in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. After a baseline period, 100 patients were randomized to D-003 or policosanol both at 5 mg/day and 10 mg/day, for 8 weeks. D-003 and policosanol 5 mg/day reduced (p < 0.0001) LDL-C by 26.9% and 20.9%, respectively. These reductions increased with 10 mg/day (35.1% for D-003, 25.1% for policosanol. The reductions of LDL-C achieved with D-003 5 mg/day and 10 mg/day were greater (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively) than with policosanol. The frequency of patients treated with D-003 (5 mg/day) reaching LDL-C reductions > or = 15% (22/25, 88%) was greater (p < 0.01) than with policosanol (5 mg/day) (19/25, 76%), and the same was true for D-003 10 mg/day (25/25, 100%) and policosanol (22/25, 88%; p < 0.01). D-003 and policosanol (5 mg/day) also lowered (p < 0.001) total cholesterol (TC) (16.2% and 13.5%, respectively), and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 15.3% (D-003) and 6.7% (policosanol). At 10 mg/day, D-003 and policosanol reduced (p < 0.001) TC (21.3% and 16.0%, respectively), while HDL-C was increased by 17.3% and 9.8%, respectively, D-003 being more effective than policosanol. Treatments did not affect triglycerides. Both drugs were well tolerated, with D-003 tolerated as well as policosanol. Three patients discontinued the study, none due to adverse events (AEs). Seven patients (three from the D-003 group and four from the policosanol group) experienced mild AEs. In conclusion, D-003 (5 and 10 mg/day) administered to patients with type II hypercholesterolemia was more effective than policosanol in lowering LDL-C and TC, and in increasing HDL-C. D-003 could be useful for treating type II hypercholesterolemia, but this subject deserves further clinical research.
Drugs under experimental and clinical research 01/2005; 31 Suppl:31-44.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic primary alcohols purified from sugar-cane wax. The mixture has cholesterol-lowering efficacy, its specific effects being to reduce serum total (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and to increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The effects of policosanol on triglycerides (TG) are modest and inconsistent. Omega-3 fatty acids (FA) from fish oil protect against coronary disease, mainly through antiarrhythmic and antiplatelet effects. Omega-3 FA also have lipid-modifying effects, mostly relating to TG reduction. Thus, potential benefits could be expected from combined therapy with omega-3 FA and policosanol.
To investigate whether combined therapy with omega-3 FA + policosanol offers benefits compared with omega-3 FA + placebo with respect to the lipid profile of patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia.
This randomised, double-blind study was conducted in 90 patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia. After 5 weeks on a cholesterol-lowering diet, patients were randomised to omega-3 FA + placebo, omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 mg/day or omega-3 FA + policosanol 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. Omega-3 FA was supplied as 1g capsules (two per day); placebo and policosanol were provided in tablet form. Physical signs and laboratory markers were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks on therapy. Drug compliance and adverse experiences (AEs) were assessed at weeks 4 and 8. The primary efficacy variable was LDL-C reduction; other lipid profile markers were secondary variables.
After 8 weeks, omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 and 10 mg/day, but not omega-3 FA + placebo, significantly reduced LDL-C by 21.1% and 24.4%, respectively (both p < 0.0001). Omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 mg/day also significantly lowered TC (12.7%; p < 0.01) and TG (13.6%; p < 0.05), and significantly increased HDL-C (+14.4%; p < 0.001). Omega-3 FA + policosanol 10 mg/day significantly decreased TC (15.3%; p < 0.001) and TG (14.7%; p < 0.01), and significantly increased HDL-C (+15.5%; p < 0.0001). Omega-3 FA + placebo significantly reduced TG (14.2%; p < 0.05) but had no significant effect on other lipid profile variables. The proportion of randomised patients in the omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 or 10 mg/day groups that achieved LDL-C targets or reductions 15% was significantly greater than in the omega-3 FA + placebo group (p < 0.001). Combined therapy with omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 or 10 mg/day resulted in significantly greater changes in LDL-C, TC and HDL-C than treatment with omega-3 FA + placebo, but did not modify the TG response compared with the omega-3 FA + placebo group. Four patients (two in the omega-3 FA + placebo group and two in the omega-3 FA + policosanol 10 mg/day group) withdrew from the study; none of these withdrawals was due to AEs. Two patients reported mild AEs, namely nausea/headache (one in the omega-3 FA + placebo group) and heartburn (one in the omega-3 FA + policosanol 5 mg/day group).
Policosanol 5 or 10 mg/day administered concomitantly with omega-3 FA 1 g/day improved LDL-C, TC and HDL-C, maintained the reduction in TG attributable to omega-3 FA monotherapy, and was well tolerated. Treatment with omega-3 FA + policosanol could be useful for regulating lipid profile in patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia, but further studies involving larger sample sizes are needed before definitive conclusions can be drawn.
Drugs in R & D 01/2005; 6(4):207-19. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-003 is a mixture of high molecular weight aliphatic primary acids purified from sugar cane wax with antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering effects. Previous studies showed that D-003 (10-20 mg/day) administered for a short time inhibits platelet aggregation, 14 days being the longest duration investigated. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of D-003 (5 and 10 mg/day) for 30 days on platelet aggregation in normocholesterolemic subjects. This report shows the effects of D-003 on platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) (1.5 mM), collagen (2 microg/ml) and adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP (2 microM) assessed at baseline and at treatment completion. Fifty-four subjects were randomized to placebo or D-003 (5 or 10 mg/day) for 30 days. Platelet aggregation to AA, collagen and ADP were assessed. D-003 at the lowest dose (5 mg/day) significantly but modestly inhibited (p < 0.01) platelet aggregation to AA (5.0%) and (p < 0.01) to collagen (7.5%). D-003 at 10 mg/day inhibited (p < 0.001) platelet aggregation to AA and collagen (p < 0.01) by 20.3% and 14.7%, respectively. ADP-induced aggregation, however, was unchanged. D-003 at 10 mg/day, but not at 5 mg/day, lowered (p < 0.01) plasma fibrinogen. D-003 (5 and 10 mg/day) reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) by 17.7% and 26.4%, respectively, and total cholesterol (TC) by 14.5% and 18.5%, while at 10 mg/day, but not at 5 mg/day, it increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by 9.6%. Triglycerides, however, were unchanged with D-003. No disturbances in safety indicators were induced with D-003. One subject (D-003 5 mg/day) discontinued the study and four patients (three taking D-003 and one taking placebo) reported adverse effects (AE) (headache in two patients taking D-003 and one patient taking placebo, and polyphagia in one patient taking D-003). In conclusion, D-003 (5-10 mg/day) for 30 days inhibited platelet aggregation to AA and collagen but not to ADP Therefore, the antiplatelet effect was present with the longer treatment, even at a dose of 5 mg/day. The cholesterol-lowering effects of D-003 were consistent with those expected for such a short treatment. In addition, D-003 at 10 mg/day significantly lowered plasma fibrinogen. The treatment was well tolerated.
International journal of clinical pharmacology research 01/2005; 25(1):29-39.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present study shows the results of nine clinical studies investigating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of policosanol in a total of 1479 older patients from both sexes suffering type II hypercholesterolemia. The studies were prospective, randomized, double blinded, with parallel groups receiving policosanol versus placebo or statins administered at starting doses (simvastatin 10 mg/d, pravastatin 10 mg/d, fluvastatin 20 mg/d, atorvastatin 10 mg/d). The doses of policosanol were those comprised within its therapeutic range (5-20 mg/d), administered in two dosage schemes: as the same dose over the study or doses increased at predefined periods. Data were analyzed as per Intention to Treat. The efficacy profile of policosanol showed a significant decrease of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and the ratios of LDL-C to low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TC to HDL-C, and a significant increase of HDL-C levels, effects on triglycerides being modest. The efficacy was dose and treatment duration-related, being generally similar to that of the comparison statins, except for atorvastatin which was more effective than policosanol for lowering both LDL-C and TC levels. Policosanol, however, was more effective for increasing HDL-C as compared with statins. Policosanol showed pleitoropic effects more beneficial than statins regarding to the inhibition of platelet aggregation and LDL susceptibility to lipid peroxidation, as well as for reducing endothelemia levels. Policosanol was very safe and well tolerated, and no drug-related adverse events were found. The safety and tolerability profile of policosanol was better than that of comparison statins. The placebo-controlled studies of 6 and 12 months of active treatement conducted in populations at high atherosclerotic risk showed that the frequency of serious adverse events in policosanol-treated patients was lower than in mathced placebo, which indicates the beneficial clinical effects of the treatment on elderly patients.
Revista CENIC. Ciencias Biológicas. 01/2005; 36:-.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a drug derived from sugar cane wax that has cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet properties. Randomized, controlled studies are the gold standard for demonstrating drug efficacy, safety, and tolerability, but postmarketing surveillance studies are encouraged for corroborating drug effects. A valid proof of the safety of a drug is a well-documented, good tolerability profile in older individuals, since this population is more prone to drug-related adverse events (AEs).
This study investigated the tolerability of policosanol in the elderly population by monitoring the incidence and nature of AEs occurring in older Cuban patients treated with policosanol in routine clinical practice.
All patients aged > or =60 years treated with policosanol at 7 major medical centers from January 2000 to May 2003 were included. Policosanol (5, 10, or 20 mg/d) was prescribed to patients eligible to receive cholesterol-lowering and/or antiplatelet drugs, with the dosage recommended according to their individual atherosclerotic risk. Patients had follow-up visits approximately every 6 months. Data on AEs and other relevant information, including changes in policosanol treatment, concomitant medications, and discontinuations, were recorded on individual case-report forms.
This study included 2252 patients (1306 women, 946 men): 647 (28.7%), 244 (10.8%), and 173 (7.7%) patients had coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral artery disease, respectively. A total of 1485 patients had hypercholesterolemia (65.9%), 1322 (58.7%) had hypertension, and 323 (14.3%) had diabetes mellitus. Of the enrolled patients, 1123 (49.9%), 644 (28.6%), and 485 (21.5%) received policosanol 5, 10, and 20 mg/d, respectively. Treatment duration varied: 2169 (96.3%), 1861 (82.6%), 1116 (49.6%), and 412 (18.3%) patients were treated for 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Thirty-one patients (1.4%) experienced serious AEs, 18 of them fatal. Death was most often due to vascular events: myocardial infarction (4 patients), sudden cardiac arrest (1), ventricular arrhythmia (2), ischemic stroke (1), lung thromboembolism (1), cancer (5), pneumonia (1), peritonitis (1), lung edema (1), and dehydration (1). Another 13 patients (0.6%) were hospitalized, and 61 (2.7%) reported moderate or mild AEs. Overall, 21 patients (0.9%) discontinued prematurely from the study, 18 of them due to a fatal serious AE.
Long-term tolerability of policosanol in elderly patients at high vascular risk was very good, as assessed under conditions of routine clinical practice. These results are consistent with those obtained in randomized, double-blind clinical studies of older patients treated with policosanol.
The American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy 12/2004; 2(4):219-29. · 2.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug with concomitant antiplatelet effects. It is safe and well tolerated, even in populations with high consumption of concomitant drugs. These data suggest that adverse events (AE) due to drug-to-drug interactions (DDI) with policosanol are not relevant. Experimental data indicate that potential DDI between policosanol and drugs metabolized through the cytochrome P450 hepatic system are not expected, but pharmacodynamic DDI cannot be excluded. Several clinical studies have shown that policosanol decreased arterial pressure compared with placebo, and a pharmacological interaction with beta-blockers was experimentally proven. Therefore, clinical DDI between policosanol and beta-blockers can be expected. This study investigated whether policosanol reinforces the antihypertensive effects of beta-blockers and/or whether this combination impairs some safety indicators or induces specific AE in older patients. After 5 weeks on a diet-only baseline period, 205 older hypercholesterolemic patients taking beta-blockers were randomized to policosanol 5 mg/day or placebo for 3 years. After 1 year on therapy, policosanol significantly reduced (p < 0.00001 versus placebo) low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (20.9%), total cholesterol (TC) (19.3%) and triglycerides (TG) (25.7%), whereas it increased (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001 versus placebo) high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (4.1%). Treatment effects did not to wear off during the 3-year follow-up. At study completion, policosanol lowered (p < 0.00001 versus placebo) LDL-C (34.3%), TC (23.2%) and TG (21.2%) and raised (p < 0.00001 versus placebo) HDL-C (12.3%). Thirty-one patients (15.1%) discontinued the study, 22 in the placebo group (20.6%) and nine in the policosanol group (9.2%). Of these, 20 patients (16 in the placebo group and four in the policosanol group) withdrew from the study due to AE. The frequency of serious adverse events (SAE), mostly vascular, in policosanol patients (3/98, 3.1%) was lower than in the placebo group (15/107, 14.0%). No impairment of safety indicators was observed. Nevertheless, reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed in policosanol patients compared with those in the placebo group. The frequency of policosanol patients reporting mild or moderate AE (18/98, 18.4%) was also lower than in the placebo group (30/107, 28.0%). In conclusion, policosanol was well tolerated in elderly patients taking beta-block- ers and did not increase AE. Additional reduction of blood pressure and a lower frequency of SAE were observed in policosanol patients compared with those taking placebo. The cholesterol-lowering efficacy of policosanol was that expected. These results provide support that policosanol therapy added to hypercholesterolemic elderly individuals taking beta-blockers could provide additional benefits in lowering blood pressure; SAE were not more frequent in the policosanol group than in the placebo group and there was no increase in AE.
International journal of clinical pharmacology research 02/2004; 24(2-3):65-77.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-003 is a mixture of very high molecular weight aliphatic acids purified from sugar cane wax showing cholesterol-lowering and antiplatelet effects proven in experimental and clinical studies. Experimental evidence indicates that inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by D-003 is associated with a reduction of thromboxane B2 (TxB2) and an increase of prostacyclin (Pgl2) serum levels. This double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to investigate whether D-003 (20 mg/day) modifies serum levels of TxB2 and Pgl2 and inhibits platelet aggregation in human healthy volunteers. Thirty-one subjects were randomized to placebo or D-003 at 20 mg/day for 14 days. Serum levels of TxB2 and Pgl2 and platelet aggregation to arachidonic acid (AA) (1.75 mM) and collagen (1 microg/ml) were assessed. D-003 (20 mg/day) significantly reduced (p < 0.001) TxB2by 36.4% and increased Pgl2 serum levels by 31% compared with baseline, and these changes were different from placebo. As expected, D-003 significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) platelet aggregation to AA (81.9-65.6%) and to collagen (75.3-62.3%). No subject withdrew from the study. No drug-related disturbances were observed. We conclude that D-003 at 20 mg/day for 14 days significantly inhibited platelet aggregation to AA and collagen and reduced TxB2 and increased Pgl2 serum levels. These results are consistent with those observed in experimental models, indicating that the antiplatelet effect of D-003 is associated with the observed changes on the levels of AA metabolites. Further studies, however, should explore the mechanism involved in this action in greater depth.
International journal of clinical pharmacology research 02/2004; 24(2-3):55-63.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels, particularly low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), is beneficial for patients with borderline to mildly elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) levels (5.0–6.0 mmol/L). Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug made from purified sugar cane wax. The therapeutic range of policosanol is 5 to 20 mg/d.
Current Therapeutic Research 09/2003; 64(8):522-537. · 0.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-003 is a mixture of long-chain aliphatic primary acids isolated from sugar-cane wax and having cholesterol-lowering effects and a safety profile that have been proven in animals and in previous clinical studies in healthy volunteers. Lovastatin, the first member of the statin class, is an effective and well tolerated cholesterol-lowering drug. Some lovastatin-related adverse effects have been reported, and preclinical assessment has shown that the rabbit is the most sensitive species to lovastatin toxicity.
To compare the cholesterol-lowering effects and toxicity pattern of D-003 and lovastatin in normocholesterolaemic rabbits.
In order to study cholesterol-lowering effects, rabbits were randomly distributed into three groups (eight animals/group): one control group, only receiving the vehicle, and two groups treated with D-003 or lovastatin at 5 and 10 mg/kg/day, respectively. All treatments were orally administered for 30 days. To study toxicity, rabbits were distributed into four groups (six animals/group): one control group and three groups treated with D-003 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively, or lovastatin 100 mg/kg.
After 30 days, D-003 5 mg/kg and lovastatin 10 mg/kg significantly (p < 0.05) and similarly lowered serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels versus baseline. D-003, but not lovastatin, increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) significantly (p < 0.05), whereas only lovastatin decreased (p < 0.05) triglycerides. Low doses of both drugs did not change safety indicators. D-003 (200 and 400 mg/kg) and lovastatin (100 mg/kg) administered for 10 days reduced TC and LDL-C levels significantly (p < 0.05). HDL-C values increased significantly (p < 0.05) with D-003, but were unchanged with lovastatin. Neither treatment affected triglycerides. No significant changes in lipid profile were observed in the control groups of the two series. Lovastatin 100 mg/kg impaired bodyweight gain and food consumption versus the controls, while D-003 did not. Lovastatin 100 mg/kg increased aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values (p < 0.05 versus baseline and controls) and liver weight (p < 0.05 versus controls). D-003 200 or 400 mg/kg did not affect AST, ALT or liver weight. Lovastatin 100 mg/kg, but not D-003 200 or 400 mg/kg, induced typical hepatocellular and renal tubular necrosis in the rabbits.
D-003 5 mg/kg/day administered orally for 30 days to normocholesterolaemic rabbits lowered LDL-C and TC, as did lovastatin 10 mg/kg. D-003 was more effective in increasing HDL-C, while lovastatin was more effective in lowering triglycerides. Administration of higher doses for 10 days did not show D-003-related toxicity, but did demonstrate the typical pattern of lovastatin-induced toxicity in rabbits.
Drugs in R & D 02/2003; 4(4):219-29. · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypercholesterolaemia is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Clinical studies have shown that lowering elevated serum total cholesterol (TC) levels, and particularly low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, reduces the frequency of coronary morbidity and deaths, whereas high serum levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) protect against CHD. Policosanol is a cholesterol-lowering drug purified from sugar cane wax with a therapeutic dosage range from 5-20 mg/day. Atorvastatin is an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which across its dosage range (10-80 mg/day) has shown significantly greater lipid-lowering effects than all previously marketed statins.
This study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and tolerability of policosanol with atorvastatin in older patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia.
This randomised, single-blind, parallel-group study was conducted in older patients (60-80 years) with type II hypercholesterolaemia. After 4 weeks on a cholesterol-lowering diet, 75 patients were randomised to policosanol or atorvastatin 10mg tablets taken once daily with the evening meal for 8 weeks. An interim and final check-up were performed at 4 and 8 weeks, respectively, after treatment was initiated.
At 4 (p < 0.0001) and 8 (p < 0.00001) weeks, policosanol 10 mg/day significantly lowered serum LDL-C levels by 17.5 and 23.1%, respectively compared with baseline; corresponding values for atorvastatin were 28.4 and 29.8%. At study completion, policosanol significantly (p < 0.0001) reduced serum TC (16.4%), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (25.5%) and TC/HDL-C ratio (19.3%), as well as (p < 0.001) triglyceride levels (15.4%). Atorvastatin significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased serum TC (22.6%), LDL-C/HDL-C (26.2%) and TC/HDL-C (19.8%) ratios, as well as (p < 0.001) triglyceride levels (15.5%). Atorvastatin was significantly more effective than policosanol in reducing LDL-C and TC, but similar in reducing both atherogenic ratios and triglyceride levels. Policosanol, but not atorvastatin, significantly (p < 0.05) increased serum HDL-C levels by 5.3%. Both treatments were well tolerated. At study completion, atorvastatin mildly, but significantly (p < 0.05) increased creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and creatinine, whereas policosanol significantly reduced AST and glucose (p < 0.01) and CPK (p < 0.05) levels. All individual values, however, remained within normal limits. Three atorvastatin but no policosanol patients withdrew from the study because of adverse events: muscle cramps (1 patient), gastritis (1 patient) and uncontrolled hypertension, abdominal pain and myalgia (1 patient). Overall, no policosanol and seven atorvastatin patients (18.9%) reported a total of nine mild or moderate adverse events during the study (p < 0.01).
This study shows that policosanol (10 mg/day) administered for 8 weeks was less effective than atorvastatin (10 mg/day) in reducing serum LDL-C and TC levels in older patients with type II hypercholesterolaemia. Policosanol, but not atorvastatin, however, significantly increased serum HDL-C levels, whereas both drugs similarly reduced atherogenic ratios and serum triglycerides. Policosanol was better tolerated than atorvastatin as revealed by patient withdrawal analysis and overall frequency of adverse events. Nevertheless, further studies must be conducted in larger sample sizes and using dose-titration methods to achieve target lipid levels in order to reach wider conclusions.