ABSTRACT: Important information about the basic reparative process of tympanic membrane (TM) healing is shown, which can be incorporated for further clinical understanding. This provides a basis for the exploration of stem cell treatment for TM perforations and holds promise for future improvements.
This study aimed to analyse the healing of TM perforation by using stem cells and the stiffness of the membrane was tested in an acute and long-term study.
Sprague-Dawley rats were used in a model of TM perforation. The perforation was performed with a laser system. Stem cells were applied and the healing time and morphological analysis were performed with light and transmission electron microscope. Stiffness was examined by moiré interferometry.
The stiffness of the perforated and healed TM was restored after just 2 weeks. In the chronic perforation model, mesenchymal stem cells enhanced the healing.
Acta Oto-Laryngologica 05/2008; 128(4):352-9. · 1.08 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The short-term healing scar that forms after experimental laser myringotomy will revert to a normal lamina propria in the long run. The mechanical stiffness will stay normal.
Recent studies have shown severe structural changes in the fibrous layer in the early course after experimental laser myringotomy, whereas the scar quickly restored the strength of the tympanic membrane (TM). A reorganization of the fiber layer is expected to occur.
Potassium titanyl phosphate laser myringotomy was made on one side of the TM in Sprague-Dawley rats. The ear of the other side was untouched and used for control. After half a year of observation, the stiffness and strength of the healed TMs were measured with moiré interferometry and examined with otomicroscopy and light and electron microscopy.
The interferometry readings showed a slightly reduced strength in the myringotomized and healed TMs. After half a year, still there were immense structural changes including increased thickness over a wide area of the pars tensa with increased amounts of fibers. An obvious reorganization of the fiber layer was lacking.
Laser myringotomy causes profound, long-standing, or permanent structural changes in the lamina propria of the pars tensa, whereas the strength of the TM may become slightly reduced.
Ontology & Neurotology 09/2007; 28(5):685-91. · 1.90 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The incidence of otitis media in children between the age of 2 and 6 years is well documented. Repeated attacks may cause acute and chronic perforations. The surgical treatment for repairing chronic perforation is quite uncomfortable for the patients of this age group because of the invasiveness of this treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term influence of embryonic stem cells on acute perforations and the effect of gelatin as a vehicle for applied stem cells. The possibility of teratogenic effects of the stem cells was also observed.
Bilateral laser myringotomy was performed in 17 adult Sprague-Dawley rats, divided into two groups. Gelatin, a substance suitable as vehicle for bioactive material was used bilaterally around the perforation in group A, to serve as a scaffold for repairing tissue. The stem cells were used in the right tympanic membrane perforation leaving the left tympanic membrane as a control. The animals in group B received the same treatment except for the use of gelatin and in addition received an immuno-suppressive agent. After half a year of observation the mechanical stiffness of the tympanic membrane was measured by moiré interferometry for group B and the morphological study was performed by light microscopy for both groups A and B and electron microscopy for group A.
Stem cell treated ears did not show any enhanced healing of the perforation although a marked thickening of the lamina propria was observed compared with control group. After half a year the strength and the stiffness of the tympanic membrane was almost the same for both treated and untreated ears. No evidence of teratoma was found after half a year.
This study suggests that the stem cells stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue and fibers in the lamina propria, possibly mediated by secreted substances, although the stiffness properties do not seem to be altered. The use of gelatin does not seem to enhance the healing process of the tympanic membrane perforation.
International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology 08/2007; 71(7):1129-37. · 1.17 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The mechanical and structural properties of the tympanic membrane change after a perforation has healed.
In previous studies, efforts have been made to enhance the healing process of tympanic membrane perforations. The strength of the healed perforation has been tested with moiré interferometry in gerbils, but in no other species.
A laser myringotomy was made on 10 Sprague-Dawley rats and 10 CBA mice, and assessments were made after 2 or 4 weeks with moiré interferometry and light and electron microscopy.
The mean peak displacement at pressure loads of +350 daPa and of -350 daPa did not differ significantly in the healed perforations as compared with the untouched tympanic membranes. Morphologic assays showed fivefold increased thickness at the site of the perforation due to invaded fibroblasts and extracellular matrix.
Moiré interferometry was successfully performed in the rat ears, whereas in mouse ears the method was not easily applicable due to technical difficulties. The stress-strain curve of the rat tympanic membrane displays an S-shape. The strength of the spontaneously healed tympanic membrane after myringotomy was not significantly impaired. The site of the perforation became significantly thickened at 2 and 4 weeks post-myringotomy. This information is of clinical importance, because recently closed perforations will be challenged by pressure gradient in everyday life.
Ontology & Neurotology 12/2005; 26(6):1100-6. · 1.90 Impact Factor