Jaana Suvisaari

University of Tampere, Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (179)1066.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We compared the course and outcome of schizophrenia in two groups: (i) hospitalised patients (HP) (n = 5980) who were identified based on their first hospital admission for schizophrenia and (ii) outpatient-treated patients (OTP) who received disability pension because of schizophrenia but who had no hospital admissions for schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder before having been granted a disability pension for schizophrenia (n = 1220). Outcomes were compared using data on mortality, psychiatric hospital utilisation, relapse rate and occupational functioning. A nationwide register-based 5-year follow-up study of all first-onset schizophrenia cases between 1998 and 2003 in Finland. The data were linked with the register information of hospital admissions, disability pensions and National Causes of Death Registers. When outcome of treatment was evaluated using mortality rate, relapses, hospital treatment and involuntary admissions as outcome measures, results indicated that OTP group had got along better with their illnesses than HP group. The mortality rates, number of psychiatric treatment days and relapse rate during the 5-year follow up were significantly lower in OTP group. Within the OTP group, there was a notable subgroup of never HP (n = 737, 60.4%), who did not require any psychiatric hospitalisation during the 5-year follow up. Patients first identified as outpatients had better outcomes than patients first identified following a hospitalisation. Future studies are required to establish whether outpatient treatment is associated with more favourable prognosis, even after fully adjusting for severity of initial symptoms. The higher suicide mortality of hospital-treated patients suggests that hospital treatment of first-onset patients does not protect from suicide.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 11/2013; 67(11):1105-12. · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
    Nature Genetics 10/2013; · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders in women at childbearing age. Previous research suggests that eating disorders are associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies, and increased risk of induced abortions and miscarriages. The purpose of this study was to assess how eating disorders are related to reproductive health outcomes in a representative patient population. Female patients (N = 2,257) treated at the eating disorder clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1995-2010 were compared with matched controls identified from the Central Population Register (N = 9,028). Patients had been diagnosed (ICD-10) with anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, bulimia nervosa (BN), atypical BN, or binge eating disorder (BED, according to DSM-IV research criteria). Register-based data on number of children, pregnancies, childbirths, induced abortions, miscarriages, and infertility treatments were used to measure reproductive health outcomes. Patients were more likely to be childless than controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.13, p < .001]. Pregnancy and childbirth rates were lower among patients than among controls. BN was associated with increased risk of induced abortion compared to controls (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.43-2.38, p < .001), whereas BED was associated with elevated risk of miscarriage (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.52-6.66, p = .002). Reproductive health outcomes are compromised in women with a history of eating disorders across all eating disorder types. Our findings emphasize the importance of reproductive health counseling and monitoring among women with eating disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2013).
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 09/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    Molecular Psychiatry 08/2013; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated mortality risk in anorexia nervosa has been established, but less is known about the outcomes of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. In this follow-up study we determined mortality in adults (N=2450, 95% women) admitted to the eating disorder clinic of the Helsinki University Central Hospital in the period 1995-2010. Most of the patients (80.7%) were outpatients. For each patient four controls were selected and matched for age, sex and place of residence. The matching was taken into account by modelling end-point events using Cox's proportional hazard model. The hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 6.51 (95% CI 3.46-12.26) in broad anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.97 (95% CI 1.90-4.65) in broad bulimia nervosa (BN), and 1.77 (95% CI 0.60-5.27) in binge eating disorder (BED). Mortality risk in broad AN was highest during the first years after admission but declined thereafter, while in broad BN the mortality risk started to rise two years after the first admission. The HR for suicide was elevated both in broad AN (HR 5.07; 95% CI 1.37-18.84) and in broad BN (HR 6.07; 95% CI 2.47-14.89). Results show that eating disorders are associated with increased mortality risk even when specialised treatment is available.
    Psychiatry research. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess the impact of the most commonly used typical and atypical antipsychotics on mortality of patients with first-onset schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide, register-based, five-year follow-up study of all patients presenting with first-onset of schizophrenia between 1998 and 2003. Details of reimbursed medicines were obtained from the register of Social Insurance Institution. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbid physical diseases and patient group, the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality in patients with schizophrenia, while clozapine associated with lower suicide risk. First generation antipsychotics (FGAs), specifically levomepromazine, thioridazine or clorprothixene, were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. The FGAs, particularly clorprothixene, were associated with decreased suicide mortality. An increased likelihood for cardiovascular deaths was found among users of levomepromazine. In antidepressants, the use of mirtazapine associated with increased risk of suicide. Differences exist between FGAs' and SGAs' use in relation to mortality. These differences remain even when the patient's physical illness are taken into account when prescribing antipsychotic medication.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2013; · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implicating particular genes in the generation of complex brain and behavior phenotypes requires multiple lines of evidence. The rarity of most high-impact genetic variants typically precludes the possibility of accruing statistical evidence that they are associated with a given trait. We found that the enrichment of a rare chromosome 22q11.22 deletion in a recently expanded Northern Finnish sub-isolate enabled the detection of association between TOP3B and both schizophrenia and cognitive impairment. Biochemical analysis of TOP3β revealed that this topoisomerase was a component of cytosolic messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) and was catalytically active on RNA. The recruitment of TOP3β to mRNPs was independent of RNA cis-elements and was coupled to the co-recruitment of FMRP, the disease gene product in fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Our results indicate a previously unknown role for TOP3β in mRNA metabolism and suggest that it is involved in neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Nature Neuroscience 08/2013; · 14.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. Method: A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. Results: The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Conclusion: Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.
    Nordic journal of psychiatry 06/2013; 68(3). · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    Jaana Suvisaari, Outi Mantere
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that inflammation and immunity may have a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. There is evidence of proinflammatory activation of the innate immune system and an activation of the T-cells of the adaptive immune system in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis have found that inflammation is present already at this stage. Some of these abnormalities resolve after the initiation of treatment, suggesting that they are state markers of acute psychosis, but other abnormalities persist. There is also evidence for prenatal infections being involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several hypotheses link inflammation and immunity with psychotic disorders. In this review, we focus on hypotheses related to prenatal development, disturbed regulation of neurogenesis, microglial activation, autoimmunity and microbial environment, and consider the potential confounding effects related to stress, childhood adversities, lifestyle and medical comorbidity as well as some methodological limitations. We also review the current evidence for the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of psychotic disorders.
    Infectious disorders drug targets. 05/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Adolescents with severe disruptive behaviour have an elevated risk for adult psychosis. We investigated whether the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is a useful psychosis risk-screening tool for adolescents with disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Fifty-three adolescents residing in a reform school due to severe behavioural problems were interviewed with SIPS to ascertain clinical high-risk (CHR) state. CHR status was compared to self-reported psychiatric problems, and to registry data on hospital treatments for mental health disorders during a 5-year follow-up time. RESULTS: CHR was associated with self-reported internalizing problems and thought problems. It failed to predict psychoses but was associated with hospital treatment for mood and conduct disorders. CONCLUSION: The SIPS interview has limited power for predicting psychosis among adolescents with severe behavioural problems. However, SIPS appears to be useful for screening and predicting other psychiatric problems.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 04/2013; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both low birthweight and high birthweight have been associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia and cognitive impairments in the general population. We assessed the association between birthweight and cognitive performance in persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Method We investigated a population-based family sample comprising persons with schizophrenia (n = 142) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 277). Both patients and relatives were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV) and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered. Information on birthweight was obtained from obstetric records. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to investigate the effect of birthweight, as a continuous variable, on cognitive functioning, adjusting for within-family correlation and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Both low birthweight and high birthweight were associated with lower performance in visuospatial reasoning, processing speed, set-shifting and verbal and visual working memory among persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives compared to individuals with birthweight in the intermediate range. The group × birthweight interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both low birthweight and high birthweight are associated with deficits in cognition later in life. Schizophrenia does not seem to modify the relationship between birthweight and cognition in families with schizophrenia.
    Psychological Medicine 01/2013; · 5.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
    Nat Genet. 01/2013; advance online publication(10):1150-1159.
  • Jaana Suvisaari, Matej Oresic
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolomics is utilized for comprehensive investigations on the structure, function and interactions of low molecular weight metabolites. The method provides a momentary overall picture of metabolism in the organ system. Investigations into metabolic disturbances aim at understanding the etiology of the disease, studying the effects of therapy, as well as identifying biological marker substances applicable to the prediction of the course of the disease and treatment response. Among psychotic disorders, schizophrenia is in particular associated with significant changes in the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, lipids and energy. Of these changes only some are related to the disease process itself, while some are explained by the effect of drug therapy and habits of life.
    Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2013; 129(21):2237-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We investigated mortality and its determinants in people with psychotic disorder.MethodsA nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 8028 persons aged 30 years or older from Finland was selected for a comprehensive health survey conducted from 2000 to 2001. Participants were screened for psychotic disorder, and screen-positive persons were invited for a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV psychotic disorders was based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, case records from mental health treatments, or both. Mortality was followed up until September 2009 and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model.ResultsPeople with schizophrenia (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93-4.77) and other nonaffective psychoses (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.17-2.91) had elevated mortality risk, whereas people with affective psychoses did not (HR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.24-1.55). Antipsychotic medication use was associated with increased mortality (HR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.86-2.96). There was an interaction between antipsychotic medication use and the presence of a psychotic disorder: antipsychotic medication use was only associated with elevated mortality in persons who were using antipsychotics and did not have primary psychotic disorder. In persons with psychotic disorder, mortality was predicted by smoking and Type 2 diabetes at baseline survey.Conclusions Schizophrenia and nonaffective psychoses are associated with increased mortality risk, whereas affective psychoses are not. Antipsychotic medication use increases mortality risk in older people without primary psychotic disorder, but not in individuals with schizophrenia. Smoking and Type 2 diabetes are important predictors of elevated mortality risk in persons with psychotic disorder.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2012; · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Delinquent adolescents are a known high-risk group for later criminality. Cognitive deficits correlate with adult criminality, and specific cognitive deficits might predict later criminality in the high-risk adolescents. Aims: This study aimed to explore the neuropsychological performance and predictors of adult criminal offending in adolescents with severe behavioural problems. Methods: Fifty-three adolescents (33 boys and 20 girls), aged 15-18 years, residing in a reform school due to serious conduct problems, were examined for neuropsychological profile and psychiatric symptoms. Results were compared with a same-age general population control sample, and used for predicting criminality 5 years after the baseline testing. Results: The reform school adolescents' neuropsychological performance was weak on many tasks, and especially on the verbal domain. Five years after the baseline testing, half of the reform school adolescents had obtained a criminal record. Males were overrepresented in both any criminality (75% vs. 10%) and in violent crime (50% vs. 5%). When cognitive variables, psychiatric symptoms and background factors were used as predictors for later offending, low verbal intellectual ability turned out to be the most significant predictor of a criminal record and especially a record of violent crime. Conclusions: Neurocognitive deficits, especially in the verbal and attention domains, are common among delinquent adolescents. Among males, verbal deficits are the best predictors for later criminal offending and violence. Clinical implications: Assessing verbal abilities among adolescent population with conduct problems might prove useful as a screening method for inclusion in specific therapies for aggression management.
    Nordic journal of psychiatry 11/2012; · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have detected differences in the prevalence, symptomatology and genetic risk variants of schizophrenia between a north-eastern Finnish genetic isolate and the rest of Finland. This study compared a population-based isolate sample (145 persons with schizophrenia, 304 first-degree relatives and 32 controls) with a rest of Finland sample (73 persons with schizophrenia, 100 first-degree relatives and 80 controls) in cognitive functioning. Persons from the isolate outperformed persons in the rest of Finland sample in verbal learning, verbal ability and cognitive flexibility in the schizophrenia groups and in verbal learning, speeded processing and attentional control in the relatives groups. The differences between the subsamples remained significant after taking into account an intragenic Reelin STR allele, previously associated with cognitive impairments and almost absent from the isolate, in addition to disorder characteristics and familial loading. In control groups, we observed no differences between the isolate and the rest of Finland. In conclusion, cognitive impairments were milder in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives within than outside the isolate. An absence of differences between the control samples suggests that the differences in schizophrenia families may relate to genetic background, possibly to partly distinct variants affecting the liability inside and outside the isolate.
    Psychiatry research. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This large nationwide study describes the prevalence and predictors of long-term antipsychotic polypharmacy among patients with schizophrenia. Methods A register-based longitudinal study of all people in Finland, who had at least one hospitalization due to schizophrenia during the years 2000–2007 and who were alive on March 1, 2007. Entry to the cohort was defined from the first hospitalization for schizophrenia during the years 2000–2007, and the date of assessment of antipsychotic polypharmacy was March 1, 2007. We studied separately chronic (N = 8,037) and recent onset (N = 8,046) schizophrenia patients. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as overlapping of two or more filled prescriptions of antipsychotics for over 60 days. Results In a total 16,083 patients with schizophrenia the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 46.2 % (N = 7,436, mean age 47.5 years, male 55 %). The longer the duration of schizophrenia, the more common the antipsychotic polypharmacy. Long index hospitalization and being male significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy among all schizophrenia patients. Especially, in chronic schizophrenia patients, the previous use of benzodiazepine like agents was associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy, but the use of antidepressants associated with less frequent antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusions Antipsychotic polypharmacy was widely prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and it was associated with long hospitalizations and long duration of illness. Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk and antidepressant use with decreased risk of antipsychotic polypharmacy when the effect of other clinical and socioeconomic factors was adjusted. Research is needed of risks and benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy and augmentation of antipsychotic with other psychoactive drugs.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 09/2012; 48(4). · 2.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Longitudinal cohort studies have implicated an association between both low and high birth weight and increased schizophrenia risk. In this study, we investigated the effect of birth weight on the symptom severity of psychotic disorders including schizophrenia in a Finnish schizophrenia family study sample. We used a multivariate GEE regression model to investigate the association of birth weight and symptom severity in 282 subjects with a primary psychotic disorder, 178 of whom had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. The scales for the assessment of positive and negative syndromes (SAPS and SANS) were used as a measure of symptom severity. Sex, place of birth and year of birth were adjusted for in the model. Both low and high birth weight were associated with more severe symptoms with respect to bizarre behaviour, affective flattening and attentional impairment. In addition, low birth weight was associated with more severe symptoms with respect to positive formal thought. Our findings suggest that both low and high birth weight can influence the symptom severity of psychotic disorders. Our results implicate an association between both low and high birth weight and disorganized and negative symptoms.
    Psychiatry research. 09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Low birth weight (LBW) and hypoxia are among the environmental factors most reliably associated with schizophrenia; however, the nature of this relationship is unclear and both gene-environment interaction and gene-environment covariation models have been proposed as explanations. High-risk (HR) designs that explore whether obstetric complications differentially predict outcomes in offspring at low risk (LR) vs HR for schizophrenia, while accounting for differences in rates of maternal risk factors, may shed light on this question. This study used prospectively obtained data to examine relationships between LBW and hypoxia on school outcome at age 15-16 years in a Finnish sample of 1070 offspring at LR for schizophrenia and 373 offspring at HR for schizophrenia, based on parental psychiatric history. Controlling for offspring sex, maternal smoking, social support, parity, age, and number of prenatal care visits, HR offspring performed worse than LR offspring across academic, nonacademic, and physical education domains. LBW predicted poorer academic and physical education performance in HR offspring, but not in LR offspring, and this association was similar for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Hypoxia predicted poorer physical education score across risk groups. Rates of LBW and hypoxia were similar for LR and HR offspring and for offspring of fathers vs mothers with schizophrenia. Results support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility to schizophrenia confers augmented vulnerability of the developing brain to the effects of obstetric complications, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms.
    Schizophrenia Bulletin 09/2012; · 8.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polypharmacy is widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia, although it is believed to have major adverse effects on the well-being of patients. To investigate if the use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants, or multiple concomitant antipsychotics is associated with increased mortality among patients with schizophrenia. Registry-based case linkage study. Academic research. We linked national databases of mortality and medication prescriptions among a complete nationwide cohort of 2588 patients hospitalized in Finland for the first time with a diagnosis of schizophrenia between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2007. Hazard ratios (HRs) were computed for all-cause mortality during the use of antipsychotics, antidepressants, or benzodiazepines in outpatient care, adjusting for the effects of sociodemographic and clinical variables, geographic location, and current and past pharmacological treatments. Compared with antipsychotic monotherapy, concomitant use of 2 or more antipsychotics was not associated with increased mortality (HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.51-1.44). Similarly, antidepressant use was not associated with a higher risk for mortality (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.28-1.16) and was associated with markedly decreased suicide deaths (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.03-0.77). However, benzodiazepine use was associated with a substantial increase in mortality (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.13-3.22), and this was attributable to suicidal deaths (HR, 3.83; 95% CI, 1.45-10.12) and to nonsuicidal deaths (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.86-2.97). In total, 826 of 904 patients (91.4%) who used benzodiazepines had purchased prescriptions that contained more than 28 defined daily doses, violating treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepine use was associated with a marked increase in mortality among patients with schizophrenia, whereas the use of an antidepressant or several concomitant antipsychotics was not. Antidepressant use was associated with decreased suicide deaths. The literature indicates that long-term use of benzodiazepines among patients with schizophrenia is more prevalent in other countries (eg, the United States) compared with Finland, which suggests that benzodiazepine use may contribute to mortality among this patient population worldwide.
    Archives of general psychiatry 05/2012; 69(5):476-83. · 12.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

7k Citations
1,066.73 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • University of Tampere
      Tammerfors, Province of Western Finland, Finland
    • Institute for Molecular Medicine, Finland
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2008–2014
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      • Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (MHSA)
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2007–2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM)
      • • Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2013
    • Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Tennessee
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2013
    • University of Oulu
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Oulu, Oulu, Finland
  • 2012
    • University of California, Los Angeles
      • Department of Psychology
      Los Angeles, CA, United States
  • 2011
    • Kela - The Social Insurance Institution of Finland
      • Research Department
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2011
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland