Jaana Suvisaari

National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland, Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland

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Publications (182)1095.34 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Full-information factor analysis of ordinal data was employed to determine the factorial structure of the responses of 31,822 adult Swedish women to the 20 "positive" psychotic experience items of the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE) questionnaire. Five separable but correlated trait dimensions were found, reflecting Paranoia, Grandiosity, Magical Thinking, Delusions, and Hallucinations. High scores on any dimension were associated with a higher probability of questionnaire-assessed lifetime major depressive episodes or generalized anxiety disorder, though Grandiosity was so only to a very small degree. Our results closely match previous findings among adolescents and young women, and demonstrate that psychotic experiences cannot be considered a single trait. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    03/2014; 23(1):62-68. DOI:10.1002/mpr.1427
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological and genetic data support the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share genetic risk factors. In our previous genome-wide association study, meta-analysis and follow-up (totaling as many as 18 206 cases and 42 536 controls), we identified four loci showing genome-wide significant association with schizophrenia. Here we consider a mixed schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (psychosis) phenotype (addition of 7469 bipolar disorder cases, 1535 schizophrenia cases, 333 other psychosis cases, 808 unaffected family members and 46 160 controls). Combined analysis reveals a novel variant at 16p11.2 showing genome-wide significant association (rs4583255[T]; odds ratio=1.08; P=6.6 × 10(-11)). The new variant is located within a 593-kb region that substantially increases risk of psychosis when duplicated. In line with the association of the duplication with reduced body mass index (BMI), rs4583255[T] is also associated with lower BMI (P=0.0039 in the public GIANT consortium data set; P=0.00047 in 22 651 additional Icelanders).Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 20 November 2012; doi:10.1038/mp.2012.157.
    Molecular Psychiatry 01/2014; 19:108-114. DOI:10.1038/mp.2012.157 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eating disorders are common psychiatric disorders in women at childbearing age. Previous research suggests that eating disorders are associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies, and increased risk of induced abortions and miscarriages. The purpose of this study was to assess how eating disorders are related to reproductive health outcomes in a representative patient population. Female patients (N = 2,257) treated at the eating disorder clinic of Helsinki University Central Hospital during 1995-2010 were compared with matched controls identified from the Central Population Register (N = 9,028). Patients had been diagnosed (ICD-10) with anorexia nervosa (AN), atypical AN, bulimia nervosa (BN), atypical BN, or binge eating disorder (BED, according to DSM-IV research criteria). Register-based data on number of children, pregnancies, childbirths, induced abortions, miscarriages, and infertility treatments were used to measure reproductive health outcomes. Patients were more likely to be childless than controls [odds ratio (OR) 1.86; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.62-2.13, p < .001]. Pregnancy and childbirth rates were lower among patients than among controls. BN was associated with increased risk of induced abortion compared to controls (OR 1.85; 95% CI 1.43-2.38, p < .001), whereas BED was associated with elevated risk of miscarriage (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.52-6.66, p = .002). Reproductive health outcomes are compromised in women with a history of eating disorders across all eating disorder types. Our findings emphasize the importance of reproductive health counseling and monitoring among women with eating disorders. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2013).
    International Journal of Eating Disorders 12/2013; 46(8). DOI:10.1002/eat.22179 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the course and outcome of schizophrenia in two groups: (i) hospitalised patients (HP) (n = 5980) who were identified based on their first hospital admission for schizophrenia and (ii) outpatient-treated patients (OTP) who received disability pension because of schizophrenia but who had no hospital admissions for schizophrenia or other psychotic disorder before having been granted a disability pension for schizophrenia (n = 1220). Outcomes were compared using data on mortality, psychiatric hospital utilisation, relapse rate and occupational functioning. A nationwide register-based 5-year follow-up study of all first-onset schizophrenia cases between 1998 and 2003 in Finland. The data were linked with the register information of hospital admissions, disability pensions and National Causes of Death Registers. When outcome of treatment was evaluated using mortality rate, relapses, hospital treatment and involuntary admissions as outcome measures, results indicated that OTP group had got along better with their illnesses than HP group. The mortality rates, number of psychiatric treatment days and relapse rate during the 5-year follow up were significantly lower in OTP group. Within the OTP group, there was a notable subgroup of never HP (n = 737, 60.4%), who did not require any psychiatric hospitalisation during the 5-year follow up. Patients first identified as outpatients had better outcomes than patients first identified following a hospitalisation. Future studies are required to establish whether outpatient treatment is associated with more favourable prognosis, even after fully adjusting for severity of initial symptoms. The higher suicide mortality of hospital-treated patients suggests that hospital treatment of first-onset patients does not protect from suicide.
    International Journal of Clinical Practice 11/2013; 67(11):1105-12. DOI:10.1111/ijcp.12226 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
    Nature Genetics 10/2013; DOI:10.1038/ng.2742 · 29.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genes that are differentially expressed between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls may have key roles in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. We analyzed two large-scale genome-wide expression studies, which examined changes in gene expression in schizophrenia patients and their matched controls. We found calcium/calmodulin (CAM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CAMKK2) is significantly downregulated in individuals with schizophrenia in both studies. To seek the potential genetic variants that may regulate the expression of CAMKK2, we investigated the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within CAMKK2 and the expression level of CAMKK2. We found one SNP, rs1063843, which is located in intron 17 of CAMKK2, is strongly associated with the expression level of CAMKK2 in human brains (P = 1.1 x 10(-6)) and lymphoblastoid cell lines (the lowest P = 8.4 x 10(-6)). We further investigated the association between rs1063843 and schizophrenia in multiple independent populations (a total of 130 623 subjects) and found rs1063843 is significantly associated with schizophrenia (P = 5.17 x 10(-5)). Interestingly, we found the T allele of rs1063843, which is associated with lower expression level of CAMKK2, has a higher frequency in individuals with schizophrenia in all of the tested samples, suggesting rs1063843 may be a causal variant. We also found that rs1063843 is associated with cognitive function and personality in humans. In addition, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis revealed that CAMKK2 participates in a highly interconnected PPI network formed by top schizophrenia genes, which further supports the potential role of CAMKK2 in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Taken together, these converging lines of evidence strongly suggest that CAMKK2 may have pivotal roles in schizophrenia susceptibility.
    Molecular Psychiatry 08/2013; 19(7). DOI:10.1038/mp.2013.103 · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevated mortality risk in anorexia nervosa has been established, but less is known about the outcomes of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. In this follow-up study we determined mortality in adults (N=2450, 95% women) admitted to the eating disorder clinic of the Helsinki University Central Hospital in the period 1995-2010. Most of the patients (80.7%) were outpatients. For each patient four controls were selected and matched for age, sex and place of residence. The matching was taken into account by modelling end-point events using Cox's proportional hazard model. The hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality was 6.51 (95% CI 3.46-12.26) in broad anorexia nervosa (AN), 2.97 (95% CI 1.90-4.65) in broad bulimia nervosa (BN), and 1.77 (95% CI 0.60-5.27) in binge eating disorder (BED). Mortality risk in broad AN was highest during the first years after admission but declined thereafter, while in broad BN the mortality risk started to rise two years after the first admission. The HR for suicide was elevated both in broad AN (HR 5.07; 95% CI 1.37-18.84) and in broad BN (HR 6.07; 95% CI 2.47-14.89). Results show that eating disorders are associated with increased mortality risk even when specialised treatment is available.
    08/2013; 210(3). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2013.07.042
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    ABSTRACT: Our aim was to assess the impact of the most commonly used typical and atypical antipsychotics on mortality of patients with first-onset schizophrenia. We conducted a nationwide, register-based, five-year follow-up study of all patients presenting with first-onset of schizophrenia between 1998 and 2003. Details of reimbursed medicines were obtained from the register of Social Insurance Institution. After adjusting for age, gender, comorbid physical diseases and patient group, the use of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs), especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality in patients with schizophrenia, while clozapine associated with lower suicide risk. First generation antipsychotics (FGAs), specifically levomepromazine, thioridazine or clorprothixene, were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. The FGAs, particularly clorprothixene, were associated with decreased suicide mortality. An increased likelihood for cardiovascular deaths was found among users of levomepromazine. In antidepressants, the use of mirtazapine associated with increased risk of suicide. Differences exist between FGAs' and SGAs' use in relation to mortality. These differences remain even when the patient's physical illness are taken into account when prescribing antipsychotic medication.
    Schizophrenia Research 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2013.07.043 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Implicating particular genes in the generation of complex brain and behavior phenotypes requires multiple lines of evidence. The rarity of most high-impact genetic variants typically precludes the possibility of accruing statistical evidence that they are associated with a given trait. We found that the enrichment of a rare chromosome 22q11.22 deletion in a recently expanded Northern Finnish sub-isolate enabled the detection of association between TOP3B and both schizophrenia and cognitive impairment. Biochemical analysis of TOP3β revealed that this topoisomerase was a component of cytosolic messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) and was catalytically active on RNA. The recruitment of TOP3β to mRNPs was independent of RNA cis-elements and was coupled to the co-recruitment of FMRP, the disease gene product in fragile X mental retardation syndrome. Our results indicate a previously unknown role for TOP3β in mRNA metabolism and suggest that it is involved in neurodevelopmental disorders.
    Nature Neuroscience 08/2013; DOI:10.1038/nn.3484 · 14.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Congenital muscular dystrophies with hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) are a heterogeneous group of disorders often associated with brain and eye defects in addition to muscular dystrophy. Causative variants in 14 genes thought to be involved in the glycosylation of α-DG have been identified thus far. Allelic mutations in these genes might also cause milder limb-girdle muscular dystrophy phenotypes. Using a combination of exome and Sanger sequencing in eight unrelated individuals, we present evidence that mutations in guanosine diphosphate mannose (GDP-mannose) pyrophosphorylase B (GMPPB) can result in muscular dystrophy variants with hypoglycosylated α-DG. GMPPB catalyzes the formation of GDP-mannose from GTP and mannose-1-phosphate. GDP-mannose is required for O-mannosylation of proteins, including α-DG, and it is the substrate of cytosolic mannosyltransferases. We found reduced α-DG glycosylation in the muscle biopsies of affected individuals and in available fibroblasts. Overexpression of wild-type GMPPB in fibroblasts from an affected individual partially restored glycosylation of α-DG. Whereas wild-type GMPPB localized to the cytoplasm, five of the identified missense mutations caused formation of aggregates in the cytoplasm or near membrane protrusions. Additionally, knockdown of the GMPPB ortholog in zebrafish caused structural muscle defects with decreased motility, eye abnormalities, and reduced glycosylation of α-DG. Together, these data indicate that GMPPB mutations are responsible for congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophies with hypoglycosylation of α-DG.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 06/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2013.05.009 · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: This study investigated the epidemiology of eating disorders in a population-based sample of young adults. Method: A mental health questionnaire was sent to a nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 1863 Finns aged 20-35 years. All screen-positives and a random sample of screen-negatives were invited to participate in a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) interview. Case records from all lifetime mental health treatments were also obtained and were used to complement the diagnostic assessment. Results: The lifetime prevalence of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, eating disorder not otherwise specified and any eating disorder among women were 2.1%, 2.3%, 2.0% and 6.0%, respectively, while there was only one man with an eating disorder. Unlike other mental disorders, they are associated with high education. Of women diagnosed with lifetime eating disorder, 67.9% had at least one comorbid Axis I psychiatric disorder, most commonly depressive disorder. While 79.3% of women with lifetime eating disorder had had a treatment contact, only one third of persons with current eating disorder had a current treatment contact. Women whose eating disorder had remitted still experienced more psychological distress and had lower psychosocial functioning that women without lifetime Axis I disorders. Conclusion: Eating disorders are the fourth largest group of mental disorders among young women. They tend to be comorbid, often remain untreated and are associated with residual symptoms after the remission of eating disorder symptoms.
    Nordic journal of psychiatry 06/2013; 68(3). DOI:10.3109/08039488.2013.797021 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    Jaana Suvisaari, Outi Mantere
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    ABSTRACT: Recent research suggests that inflammation and immunity may have a role in the etiology of psychotic disorders. There is evidence of proinflammatory activation of the innate immune system and an activation of the T-cells of the adaptive immune system in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Studies of antipsychotic-naïve patients with first-episode psychosis have found that inflammation is present already at this stage. Some of these abnormalities resolve after the initiation of treatment, suggesting that they are state markers of acute psychosis, but other abnormalities persist. There is also evidence for prenatal infections being involved in the etiology of schizophrenia. Several hypotheses link inflammation and immunity with psychotic disorders. In this review, we focus on hypotheses related to prenatal development, disturbed regulation of neurogenesis, microglial activation, autoimmunity and microbial environment, and consider the potential confounding effects related to stress, childhood adversities, lifestyle and medical comorbidity as well as some methodological limitations. We also review the current evidence for the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory medication in the treatment of psychotic disorders.
    05/2013; DOI:10.2174/18715265112129990032
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    ABSTRACT: AIM: Adolescents with severe disruptive behaviour have an elevated risk for adult psychosis. We investigated whether the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes (SIPS) is a useful psychosis risk-screening tool for adolescents with disruptive behaviour. METHOD: Fifty-three adolescents residing in a reform school due to severe behavioural problems were interviewed with SIPS to ascertain clinical high-risk (CHR) state. CHR status was compared to self-reported psychiatric problems, and to registry data on hospital treatments for mental health disorders during a 5-year follow-up time. RESULTS: CHR was associated with self-reported internalizing problems and thought problems. It failed to predict psychoses but was associated with hospital treatment for mood and conduct disorders. CONCLUSION: The SIPS interview has limited power for predicting psychosis among adolescents with severe behavioural problems. However, SIPS appears to be useful for screening and predicting other psychiatric problems.
    Early Intervention in Psychiatry 04/2013; DOI:10.1111/eip.12045 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both low birthweight and high birthweight have been associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia and cognitive impairments in the general population. We assessed the association between birthweight and cognitive performance in persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives. Method We investigated a population-based family sample comprising persons with schizophrenia (n = 142) and their unaffected first-degree relatives (n = 277). Both patients and relatives were interviewed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Clinician Version (SCID-CV) and a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered. Information on birthweight was obtained from obstetric records. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to investigate the effect of birthweight, as a continuous variable, on cognitive functioning, adjusting for within-family correlation and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Both low birthweight and high birthweight were associated with lower performance in visuospatial reasoning, processing speed, set-shifting and verbal and visual working memory among persons with schizophrenia and their unaffected first-degree relatives compared to individuals with birthweight in the intermediate range. The group × birthweight interactions were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Both low birthweight and high birthweight are associated with deficits in cognition later in life. Schizophrenia does not seem to modify the relationship between birthweight and cognition in families with schizophrenia.
    Psychological Medicine 01/2013; DOI:10.1017/S0033291713000032 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Jaana Suvisaari, Matej Oresic
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolomics is utilized for comprehensive investigations on the structure, function and interactions of low molecular weight metabolites. The method provides a momentary overall picture of metabolism in the organ system. Investigations into metabolic disturbances aim at understanding the etiology of the disease, studying the effects of therapy, as well as identifying biological marker substances applicable to the prediction of the course of the disease and treatment response. Among psychotic disorders, schizophrenia is in particular associated with significant changes in the metabolism of glucose, amino acids, lipids and energy. Of these changes only some are related to the disease process itself, while some are explained by the effect of drug therapy and habits of life.
    Duodecim; lääketieteellinen aikakauskirja 01/2013; 129(21):2237-44.
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
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    ABSTRACT: Objective We investigated mortality and its determinants in people with psychotic disorder.MethodsA nationally representative two-stage cluster sample of 8028 persons aged 30 years or older from Finland was selected for a comprehensive health survey conducted from 2000 to 2001. Participants were screened for psychotic disorder, and screen-positive persons were invited for a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. The diagnostic assessment of DSM-IV psychotic disorders was based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, case records from mental health treatments, or both. Mortality was followed up until September 2009 and analyzed using Cox proportional hazards model.ResultsPeople with schizophrenia (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.93-4.77) and other nonaffective psychoses (HR = 1.84; 95% CI = 1.17-2.91) had elevated mortality risk, whereas people with affective psychoses did not (HR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.24-1.55). Antipsychotic medication use was associated with increased mortality (HR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.86-2.96). There was an interaction between antipsychotic medication use and the presence of a psychotic disorder: antipsychotic medication use was only associated with elevated mortality in persons who were using antipsychotics and did not have primary psychotic disorder. In persons with psychotic disorder, mortality was predicted by smoking and Type 2 diabetes at baseline survey.Conclusions Schizophrenia and nonaffective psychoses are associated with increased mortality risk, whereas affective psychoses are not. Antipsychotic medication use increases mortality risk in older people without primary psychotic disorder, but not in individuals with schizophrenia. Smoking and Type 2 diabetes are important predictors of elevated mortality risk in persons with psychotic disorder.
    Psychosomatic Medicine 12/2012; 75(1). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0b013e31827ad512 · 4.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Delinquent adolescents are a known high-risk group for later criminality. Cognitive deficits correlate with adult criminality, and specific cognitive deficits might predict later criminality in the high-risk adolescents. Aims: This study aimed to explore the neuropsychological performance and predictors of adult criminal offending in adolescents with severe behavioural problems. Methods: Fifty-three adolescents (33 boys and 20 girls), aged 15-18 years, residing in a reform school due to serious conduct problems, were examined for neuropsychological profile and psychiatric symptoms. Results were compared with a same-age general population control sample, and used for predicting criminality 5 years after the baseline testing. Results: The reform school adolescents' neuropsychological performance was weak on many tasks, and especially on the verbal domain. Five years after the baseline testing, half of the reform school adolescents had obtained a criminal record. Males were overrepresented in both any criminality (75% vs. 10%) and in violent crime (50% vs. 5%). When cognitive variables, psychiatric symptoms and background factors were used as predictors for later offending, low verbal intellectual ability turned out to be the most significant predictor of a criminal record and especially a record of violent crime. Conclusions: Neurocognitive deficits, especially in the verbal and attention domains, are common among delinquent adolescents. Among males, verbal deficits are the best predictors for later criminal offending and violence. Clinical implications: Assessing verbal abilities among adolescent population with conduct problems might prove useful as a screening method for inclusion in specific therapies for aggression management.
    Nordic journal of psychiatry 11/2012; 67(5). DOI:10.3109/08039488.2012.738245 · 0.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Earlier studies have detected differences in the prevalence, symptomatology and genetic risk variants of schizophrenia between a north-eastern Finnish genetic isolate and the rest of Finland. This study compared a population-based isolate sample (145 persons with schizophrenia, 304 first-degree relatives and 32 controls) with a rest of Finland sample (73 persons with schizophrenia, 100 first-degree relatives and 80 controls) in cognitive functioning. Persons from the isolate outperformed persons in the rest of Finland sample in verbal learning, verbal ability and cognitive flexibility in the schizophrenia groups and in verbal learning, speeded processing and attentional control in the relatives groups. The differences between the subsamples remained significant after taking into account an intragenic Reelin STR allele, previously associated with cognitive impairments and almost absent from the isolate, in addition to disorder characteristics and familial loading. In control groups, we observed no differences between the isolate and the rest of Finland. In conclusion, cognitive impairments were milder in schizophrenia patients and their first-degree relatives within than outside the isolate. An absence of differences between the control samples suggests that the differences in schizophrenia families may relate to genetic background, possibly to partly distinct variants affecting the liability inside and outside the isolate.
    10/2012; 208(2). DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.09.049
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    ABSTRACT: Objective This large nationwide study describes the prevalence and predictors of long-term antipsychotic polypharmacy among patients with schizophrenia. Methods A register-based longitudinal study of all people in Finland, who had at least one hospitalization due to schizophrenia during the years 2000–2007 and who were alive on March 1, 2007. Entry to the cohort was defined from the first hospitalization for schizophrenia during the years 2000–2007, and the date of assessment of antipsychotic polypharmacy was March 1, 2007. We studied separately chronic (N = 8,037) and recent onset (N = 8,046) schizophrenia patients. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was defined as overlapping of two or more filled prescriptions of antipsychotics for over 60 days. Results In a total 16,083 patients with schizophrenia the prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was 46.2 % (N = 7,436, mean age 47.5 years, male 55 %). The longer the duration of schizophrenia, the more common the antipsychotic polypharmacy. Long index hospitalization and being male significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy among all schizophrenia patients. Especially, in chronic schizophrenia patients, the previous use of benzodiazepine like agents was associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy, but the use of antidepressants associated with less frequent antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusions Antipsychotic polypharmacy was widely prevalent among patients with schizophrenia and it was associated with long hospitalizations and long duration of illness. Benzodiazepine use was associated with increased risk and antidepressant use with decreased risk of antipsychotic polypharmacy when the effect of other clinical and socioeconomic factors was adjusted. Research is needed of risks and benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy and augmentation of antipsychotic with other psychoactive drugs.
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 09/2012; 48(4). DOI:10.1007/s00127-012-0586-6 · 2.58 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,095.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2015
    • National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland
      • Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services (MHSA)
      Helsinki, Uusimaa, Finland
  • 2006–2014
    • University of Helsinki
      • • Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland (FIMM)
      • • Department of Mental Health and Alcohol Research
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2013
    • Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services, Tennessee
      Nashville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Helsinki University Central Hospital
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Helsinki, Province of Southern Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2011
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2010
    • University of Tampere
      Tammerfors, Pirkanmaa, Finland
    • University of Oulu
      • Department of Psychiatry
      Oulu, Oulu, Finland