[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
The objective of this study is to assess the risk of viral rebound in postpartum women on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Using data from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC), women with HIV-RNA 50 copies/ml or less at delivery in 2006-2011, who started life-long cART during pregnancy (n = 321) or conceived on cART (n = 618), were matched by age, duration on cART and time period, with at least one control (non-postpartum). The cumulative probability of viral rebound (HIV-RNA >200 copies/ml) was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis; adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) for the 0-3 and 3-12 months postdelivery (cases)/pseudo-delivery (controls) were calculated in Cox proportional hazards models.
In postpartum women who conceived on cART, 5.9% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.0-7.7] experienced viral rebound by 3 months, and 2.2% (1.4-3.0%) of their controls. The risk of viral rebound was higher in postpartum women than in controls during the first 3 months [aHR 2.63 (1.58-4.39)] but not during the 3-12 months postdelivery/pseudo-delivery. In postpartum women who started cART during pregnancy, 27% (22-32%) experienced viral rebound by 3 months, and 3.0% (1.6-4.4%) of their controls. The risk of viral rebound was higher in postpartum women than in controls during both postdelivery/pseudo-delivery periods [<3 months: aHR 6.63 (3.58-12.29); 3-12 months: aHR 4.05 (2.03-8.09)].
In women on suppressive cART, the risk of viral rebound is increased following delivery, especially in the first 3 months, which may be related to reduced adherence, indicating the need for additional adherence support for postpartum women.
AIDS 11/2015; 29(17):2269-2278. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000826 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
To describe the spectrum of renal tubular disease (RTD) in HIV-positive patients and its association with exposure to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Review of 265 consecutive renal biopsies from HIV-positive patients attending eight clinics in the United Kingdom between 2000 and 2012.
We described the clinical characteristics of patients with RTD and compared current/recent exposure (at the time of, or up to 3 months prior to the date of biopsy) to potentially nephrotoxic ART [tenofovir (TDF), atazanavir (ATV), indinavir (IDV) and lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)]. We also analysed the incidence of RTD in the UK CHIC cohort. Kruskall-Wallis, analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate between-group differences.
Of the 60 RTD cases, 54 (90%) were included in the analyses. RTD comprised of three distinct patterns: acute tubular injury (ATI, n = 22), tubulo-interstitial nephritis (TIN, n = 20) and interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IFTA, n = 12). Compared with TIN and IFTA, ATI cases were less likely to be of black ethnicity (10 vs. 42-55%; P = 0.006), more likely to be on ART (100 vs. 55-68%; P = 0.001), with HIV-RNA below 200 copies/ml (100 vs. 54-58%; P < 0.001), and more likely to have current/recent exposure to TDF (P < 0.001). We did not find evidence for an association between exposure to TDF, ATV/r or LPV/r and either TIN or IFTA.
RTD was present in approximately 20% of renal biopsies and comprised three distinct injury patterns with considerable clinical overlap. ATI was associated with TDF exposure, although the overall incidence of biopsy-defined ATI was low.
AIDS (London, England) 09/2015; 29(14):1831-6. DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000736 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation, initiation at a CD4 count less than 500 cells per μL, and initiation at a CD4 count less than 350 cells per μL.
The Lancet HIV 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(15)00108-3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The association between combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and cancer risk, especially regimens containing protease inhibitors (PIs) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), is unclear.
Participants were followed from the latest of D:A:D study entry or January 1, 2004, until the earliest of a first cancer diagnosis, February 1, 2012, death, or 6 months after the last visit. Multivariable Poisson regression models assessed associations between cumulative (per year) use of either any cART or PI/NNRTI, and the incidence of any cancer, non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), AIDS-defining cancers (ADC), and the most frequently occurring ADC (Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma) and NADC (lung, invasive anal, head/neck cancers, and Hodgkin lymphoma).
A total of 41,762 persons contributed 241,556 person-years (PY). A total of 1832 cancers were diagnosed [incidence rate: 0.76/100 PY (95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 0.79)], 718 ADC [0.30/100 PY (0.28-0.32)], and 1114 NADC [0.46/100 PY (0.43-0.49)]. Longer exposure to cART was associated with a lower ADC risk [adjusted rate ratio: 0.88/year (0.85-0.92)] but a higher NADC risk [1.02/year (1.00-1.03)]. Both PI and NNRTI use were associated with a lower ADC risk [PI: 0.96/year (0.92-1.00); NNRTI: 0.86/year (0.81-0.91)]. PI use was associated with a higher NADC risk [1.03/year (1.01-1.05)]. Although this was largely driven by an association with anal cancer [1.08/year (1.04-1.13)], the association remained after excluding anal cancers from the end point [1.02/year (1.01-1.04)]. No association was seen between NNRTI use and NADC [1.00/year (0.98-1.02)].
Cumulative use of PIs may be associated with a higher risk of anal cancer and possibly other NADC. Further investigation of biological mechanisms is warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is important to have methods available to estimate the number of people who have undiagnosed HIV and are in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
The method uses the concept that a predictable level of occurrence of AIDS or other HIV-related clinical symptoms which lead to presentation for care, and hence diagnosis of HIV, arises in undiagnosed people with a given CD4 count. The method requires surveillance data on numbers of new HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms, and the CD4 count at diagnosis. The CD4 count-specific rate at which HIV-related symptoms develop are estimated from cohort data. 95% confidence intervals can be constructed using a simple simulation method.
For example, if there were 13 HIV diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms made in one year with CD4 count at diagnosis between 150-199 cells/mm3, then since the CD4 count-specific rate of HIV-related symptoms is estimated as 0.216 per person-year, the estimated number of person years lived in people with undiagnosed HIV with CD4 count 150-199 cells/mm3 is 13/0.216 = 60 (95% confidence interval: 29-100), which is considered an estimate of the number of people living with undiagnosed HIV in this CD4 count stratum.
The method is straightforward to implement within a short period once a surveillance system of all new HIV diagnoses, collecting data on HIV-related symptoms at diagnosis, is in place and is most suitable for estimating the number of undiagnosed people with CD4 count <200 cells/mm3 due to the low rate of developing HIV-related symptoms at higher CD4 counts. A potential source of bias is under-diagnosis and under-reporting of diagnoses with HIV-related symptoms. Although this method has limitations as with all approaches, it is important for prompting increased efforts to identify undiagnosed people, particularly those with low CD4 count, and for informing levels of unmet need for ART.
PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0121992. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0121992 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to assess whether pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of liver enzyme elevation (LEE) and severe LEE in HIV-positive women on antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Two observational studies: the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC).
Combined data from UK CHIC and NSHPC were used to identify factors associated with LEE (grade 1-4) and severe LEE (grade 3-4). Women starting ART in 2000-2012 were included irrespective of pregnancy status. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess fixed and time-dependent covariates including pregnancy status, CD4 cell count, drug regimen and hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) coinfection.
One-quarter (25.7%, 982/3815) of women were pregnant during follow-up, 14.2% (n = 541) when starting ART. The rate of LEE was 14.5/100 person-years in and 6.0/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The rate of severe LEE was 3.9/100 person-years in and 0.6/100 person-years outside of pregnancy. The risk of LEE and severe LEE was increased during pregnancy [LEE: aHR 1.66 (1.31-2.09); severe LEE: aHR 3.57 (2.30-5.54)], including in secondary analyses excluding 541 women pregnant when starting ART. Other factors associated with LEE and severe LEE included lower CD4 cell count (<250 cells/μl), HBV/HCV coinfection and calendar year.
Although few women developed severe LEE, this study provides further evidence that pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of LEE and severe LEE, reinforcing the need for regular monitoring of liver biomarkers during pregnancy.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0, where it is permissible to download, share and reproduce the work in any medium, provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0.
AIDS (London, England) 02/2015; 29(7). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000620 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing among HIV-infected patients. Whether standard antiretroviral drug dosage is adequate in heavy individuals remains unresolved. We assessed the virological and immunological responses to initial efavirenz (EFV)-containing regimens in heavy compared to normal-weight HIV-infected patients.
DESIGN: Observational European cohort collaboration study.
METHODS: Eligible patients were antiretroviral-naïve with documented weight prior to EFV start and follow-up viral loads after treatment initiation. Cox regression analyses evaluated the association between weight and time to first undetectable viral load (<50 copies/ml) after treatment initiation, and time to viral load rebound (two consecutive viral load >50 copies/ml) after initial suppression over 5 years of follow-up. Recovery of CD4 cell count was evaluated 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation. Analyses were stratified by weight (kg) group (I - <55; II - >55, <80 (reference); III - >80, <85; IV - >85, <90; V - >90, <95; VI - >95).
RESULTS: The study included 19 968 patients, of whom 9.1, 68.3, 9.1, 5.8, 3.5, and 4.3% were in weight groups I-VI, respectively. Overall, 81.1% patients attained virological suppression, of whom 34.1% subsequently experienced viral load rebound. After multiple adjustments, no statistical difference was observed in time to undetectable viral load and virological rebound for heavier individuals compared to their normal-weight counterparts. Although heaviest individuals had significantly higher CD4 cell count at baseline, CD4 cell recovery at 6 and 12 months after EFV initiation was comparable to normal-weight individuals.
CONCLUSION: Virological and immunological responses to initial EFV-containing regimens were not impaired in heavy individuals, suggesting that the standard 600 mg EFV dosage is appropriate across a wide weight range.
AIDS 11/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1097/QAD.0000000000000530 · 5.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
High rates of hepatotoxicity have been observed among HIV-positive pregnant women using antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, the extent to which pregnancy affects the risk of ART-induced hepatotoxicity is unclear since studies in this area have generated conflicting results.
Material and Methods
Combined data from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC) study and the UK and Ireland National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) were used. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) data were assessed according to the Division of AIDS toxicity guidelines to identify factors associated with liver enzyme elevation (LEE) (grade 1–4). Women starting ART in 2000–11 aged 16–49 years were included irrespective of pregnancy status at ART start. Cox proportional hazards were used to assess the associations between fixed (ethnicity, exposure group, HBV/HCV co-infection, prior ART use, and age, year, pregnancy status, viral load and CD4 count at ART start) and time-dependent covariates (pregnancy status, age, year, CD4 count, viral load, duration on ART) and the risk of LEE.
Of the 3426 women included, one-quarter (25.0%, n=857) were pregnant during follow-up and 14.4% (n=492) started ART during pregnancy. The rate of LEE was 15/100 person-years (PY) during pregnancy and 6.1/100 PY outside pregnancy. The risk of LEE was increased during pregnancy (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.61 [1.26–2.06], p<0.001), including in secondary analysis excluding 493 women pregnant when starting ART. Other factors independently associated with LEE were lower CD4 count (<250 cells/mm3 vs. 251–350 cells/mm3 aHR 1.25 [1.02–1.54], p=0.03), HBV/HCV co-infection (aHR 1.94 [1.58–2.39], p<0.001), HIV acquired via injecting drug use (aHR 1.61 [1.15–2.24], p=0.01 vs. heterosexually) and calendar year (aHR 1.05 [1.02–1.08], p<0.001 per one year increase). Three ART drugs were associated with increased risk of LEE (efavirenz aHR 1.27 [1.06–1.50], p-value 0.008; maraviroc 4.19 [1.34–13.1], p=0.01; and nevirapine 1.59 [1.30–1.95], p-value <0.001). Use of zidovudine was associated with decreased risk of LEE (aHR 0.74 [0.63–0.87], p<0.001) as was increasing time on an NNRTI-based regimen (aHR 0.91 [0.86–0.96], p<0.001 per additional year).
Pregnant women were at increased risk of LEE, highlighting the importance of close monitoring of toxicity biomarkers during pregnancy.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19486. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19486 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) may affect vitamin D [25(OH)D], parathyroid hormone (PTH), bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover (BT). Reduced BMD and secondary hyperparathyroidism have been reported with tenofovir (TDF). We investigated the associations between TDF and bone markers, especially in 25(OH)D-deficient patients.
Materials and Methods
In a single-centre longitudinal study investigating BMD in HIV-positive men, serum 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, PTH and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured. Lumbar spine, non-dominant total hip and non-dominant femoral neck BMD (g/cm2) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BT was assessed by serum type 1 procollagen (P1NP) and carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (CTX). Mann–Whitney U tests compared serum markers and BT, and t-tests compared BMD according to TDF in all and 25(OH)D-deficient patients.
A total of 422 men were recruited: mean age 47 (SD 9.8) years, 94% white ethnicity, 93% MSM, diagnosed HIV positive for median 9.6 (IQR 5.0,15.5) years, median CD4 547 (IQR 411,696) cells/µL, HIV RNA <40 copies/mL in 87% (96% of those on cART). 25(OH)D (nmol/L) was normal (>75), insufficient (50–75), deficient (25–50) and severely deficient (<25) in 14%, 29%, 50% and 7%, respectively. Of 381 men on cART, 77% were currently on TDF. TDF was not associated with median calcium (p=0.69) or phosphate (p=0.52), but patients had higher (but normal) median ALP [81 (IQR 69,103) vs. 73 (IQR 60,89) IU/L, p=0.005) compared to non-TDF cART. There was no difference in the association between vitamin D and PTH according to whether someone currently was (r=0.11, p=0.06, Figure 1) or was not using TDF (r=0.12, p=0.29, Figure 1). TDF was also not associated with PTH, BMD or BT in either all patients on cART (Table 1a) or in patients with 25(OH)D deficiency (Table 1b).
In this largely TDF-experienced cohort of HIV-positive men, there was no association between TDF and 25(OH)D deficiency, hyperparathyroidism, reduced BMD or increased BT, although patients on TDF had higher but normal ALP. We found no evidence to support additional monitoring of bone markers in patients on TDF regardless of 25(OH)D status.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19568. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19568 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
There is a lack of data on potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the D:A:D study.
Materials and Methods
Follow-up was from 01/02/99 until the earliest of death, 6 months after last visit or 01/02/13. Rates of initiation of lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), anti-hypertensives and receipt of invasive cardiovascular procedures (ICPs; bypass, angioplasty, endarterectomy) were calculated in those without a myocardial infarction (MI) or stroke at baseline, overall and in groups known to be at higher CVD risk: (i) age >50, (ii) total cholesterol >6.2 mmol/l, (iii) triglyceride >2.3 mmol/l, (iv) hypertension, (v) previous MI, (vi) diabetes, or (vii) predicted 10-year CVD risk >10%. Poisson regression was used to assess whether rates of initiation were higher in men than women, after adjustment for these factors.
At enrolment, women (n=13,039; median (interquartile range) 34 (29–40) years) were younger than men (n=36,664, 39 (33–46) years, p=0.001), and were less likely to be current smokers (29% vs. 39%, p=0.0001), to have diabetes (2% vs. 3%, p=0.0001) or to have hypertension (7% vs. 11%, p=0.0001). Of 49,071 individuals without a MI/stroke at enrolment, 0.6% women vs. 2.1% men experienced a MI while 0.8% vs. 1.3% experienced a stroke. Overall, women received ICPs at a rate of 0.07/100 person-years (PYRS) compared to 0.29/100 PYRS in men. Similarly, the rates of initiation of LLDs (1.28 vs. 2.46), anti-hypertensives (1.11 vs. 1.38) and ACEIs (0.82 vs. 1.37) were all significantly lower in women than men (Table 1). As expected, initiation rates of each intervention were higher in the groups determined to be at moderate/high CVD risk; however, within each high-risk group, initiation rates of most interventions (with the exception of anti-hypertensives) were generally lower in women than men. These gender differences persisted after adjustment for potential confounders (Table 1).
Use of most CVD interventions was lower among women than men in the D:A:D study. Our findings suggest that actions should be taken to ensure that both men and women are monitored for CVD and, if eligible, receive appropriate CVD interventions.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19516. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19516 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Most people achieve and maintain viral load (VL) suppression on first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) but for a minority this does not happen. It is unclear whether those who have maintained VL suppression for several years will be able to continue to do so, or if rates of VL failure – due to poor adherence, ART interruption and/or resistance – remain at appreciable levels.
Eligible participants were ART-naïve and started treatment after 1st January 2000, with ≥3 antiretrovirals and ≥9 months follow-up. VL failure was defined as failure to achieve VL suppression (≤50 copies/mL) by 9 months on ART or a single VL >200 copies/mL after 9 months after start of ART. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to examine the cumulative probability of experiencing a VL >200 copies/mL over time, irrespective of treatment interruption (Figure 1). Follow-up was censored at last VL assessment but not at treatment interruption. In a sensitivity analysis, VL failure was instead defined as two consecutive VL >1000 copies/mL.
A total of 13,556 participants were included. Median (IQR) age at start of ART was 37 (32–43), median follow-up 4.1 (2.3–6.7) years, pre-ART VL 71,400 (17,400–221,900) copies/mL and pre-ART CD4 count 204 (110–290) cells/mm3. Fifty-one percent were white, 71% male and 50% MSM. Of which, 5,351 (39%) participants experienced a VL >200 copies/mL. In sub-groups of participants the proportion experiencing a VL >200 copies/mL by one year after start of ART were: <50 years 22%, ≥50 years 17%, men 20%, women 26%, MSM 19%, black heterosexuals 23%, white heterosexuals 26% and other 23%. The median time to VL >200 copies/ml was 8 years. In sensitivity analyses based on 12,811 participants, 4274 (33%) experienced two consecutive VL >1000 copies/mL. Table 1 presents the rate of experiencing a VL >200 copies/mL (two consecutive VL >1000 copies/mL) by time since start of ART. The rate of VL >200 copies/mL declines over time, from 30 per 100 person-years after up to two years after ART, to two per 100 person-years after up to 11.5 years after ART. A sum of 2,047 (15%) participants stopped ART at some point (10, 14 and 17% had stopped ART by 1, 3, and 5 years, respectively).
Although resistance will often not be present and, even if present, several drug options will likely remain, first occurrence of VL > 200 copies/mL after having attained viral suppression continues to occur after 10 years on ART.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19527. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19527 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Several resistance mutations have been shown to affect viral fitness, and the presence of certain mutations might result in clinical benefit for patients kept on a virologically failing regimen due to an exhaustion of drug options. We sought to quantify the effect of resistance mutations on CD4 slopes in patients undergoing episodes of viral failure.
Materials and Methods
Patients from the EuroSIDA and UK CHIC cohorts undergoing at least one episode of virological failure (>3 consecutive RNA measurements >500 on ART) with at least three CD4 measurements and a resistance test during the episode were included. Mutations were identified using the IAS-US (2013) list, and were presumed to be present from detection until the end of an episode. Multivariable linear mixed models with a random intercept and slope adjusted for age, baseline CD4 count, hepatitis C, drug type, RNA (log-scale), risk group and subtype were used to estimate CD4 slopes. Individual mutations with a population prevalence of >10% were tested for their effect on the CD4 slope.
A total of 2731 patients experiencing a median of 1 (range 1–4) episodes were included in this analysis. The prevalence of any resistance per episode was 88.4%; NNRTI resistance was most common (78.5%). Overall, CD4 counts declined by 17.1 (−19.7; −14.5) cells per year; this decline was less marked with partial viral suppression (current HIV RNA more than 1.5 log below the setpoint; p=0.01). In multivariable models adjusting for viral load, CD4 decline was slower during episodes with detected resistance compared to episodes without detected resistance (21.0 cells/year less, 95% CI 11.75–30.31, p<0.001). Among those with more than one resistance mutation, there was only weak evidence that class-specific mutations had any effect on the CD4 slope (Table 1). The effects of individual mutations (incl. M184V) were explored, but none were significantly associated with the CD4 slope; for these comparisons, a Bonferroni-corrected p-value level was 0.003.
In our study population, detected resistance was associated with slightly less steep CD4 declines. This may be due to a biological effect of resistance on CD4 slopes, or other unmeasured factors such as poor adherence among individuals without resistance. Among individuals with detected drug resistance, we found no evidence suggesting that the presence of individual mutations was associated with beneficial CD4 slope changes.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4(Suppl 3)):19737. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19737 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
A recent meta-analysis of 4 RCTs showed an increased rate of suicidality events (suicidal ideation or attempted/completed suicide) associated with efavirenz (EFV) compared to other regimens, but only a trend towards a higher rate of completed/attempted suicides, as only 17 events occurred. We investigated the association between EFV use and completed suicide.
Materials and Methods
All D:A:D participants were followed from study entry to the first of death, last study visit or 1 February 2013. Deaths are centrally validated using cause of death methodology, which assigns underlying, immediate and up to four contributing causes of death. Two endpoints were considered: 1) suicide or psychiatric disease as the underlying cause, and 2) suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned as an underlying, immediate or contributing cause of death (anywhere). Adjusted rate ratios were calculated using Poisson regression.
A total of 4420 deaths occurred in 49,717 people over 371,333 person-years (PY) (rate 11.9 per 1000 PY; 95% CI 11.6–12.3). A total of 193 deaths (rate 0.52; 0.45–0.59) had an underlying cause of suicide or psychiatric disease, and 482 deaths (1.30; 1.18–1.41) had suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned anywhere. A strong association with current CD4 count was seen: for suicide or psychiatric disease mentioned anywhere, rates were: 3.18 (2.55–3.80) for <200 cells/uL, 1.60 (1.29–1.90) for 201–350 cells/uL, 1.07 (0.86–1.29) for 351–500 cells/uL, 0.95 (0.80–1.09) for >500 cells/uL and 1.30 (1.18–1.41) for unknown. Highest rate of suicide or psychiatric deaths were seen in ART-experienced people currently off ART, but no differences were seen according to current ART regimen, which remained after adjustment (Table 1). Consistent results were obtained when considering additional endpoints of suicide alone as the underlying cause and death from suicide or any possibly related cause (psychiatric disease, drug overdose, alcohol related, accidental or violent), as well as considering recent EFV use in the previous 3 and 6 months.
The finding of no higher death rates from suicide amongst those receiving EFV is reassuring. However, there is likely confounding by indication in our observational study. In light of conflicting results from RCTs, this potentially could suggest that in clinical practice EFV may be less frequently prescribed in those with underlying psychiatric conditions.
Journal of the International AIDS Society 11/2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19512. DOI:10.7448/IAS.17.4.19512 · 5.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives::
To evaluate the prevalence, impact and risk factors for pain among a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) if indicated according to current guidelines.
This was a cross-sectional epidemiological observational study. All patients attending one HIV-outpatient centre in the UK in a 10-month period were eligible. Patients completed a validated questionnaire enquiring about demographics, HIV factors and symptoms of pain.
Of 1050 eligible participants, 859 (82%) completed a questionnaire. The 1-month period prevalence of pain lasting >1 day was 62.8% amongst whom 63% reported current pain. The prevalence of pain at most anatomical sites was broadly similar to that observed in population studies using the same questionnaires except that we found considerably higher rates of foot/ankle pain. The median duration of pain was 3 years (range 0-51 y) and the median pain score was 5.0 on an 11-point visual analogue score. Over 40% of people in pain had consulted their primary care physician and >20% were taking analgesics daily. Independent risk factors for current pain were older age (P=0.001), time since diagnosis of HIV infection (P=0.001) and receipt of a protease inhibitor-based regimen (P=0.04).
Pain, and notably foot/ankle pain, is common among adults living with prevalent HIV and is associated with substantial morbidity and healthcare utilisation.
Clinical Journal of Pain 10/2014; Publish Ahead of Print. DOI:10.1097/AJP.0000000000000162 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Some individuals remain AIDS-free with a high and stable CD4 cell count without antiretroviral
therapy (ART) for many years. We estimated long-term progression-free survival after HIV seroconversion and
aimed to identify factors associated with loss of long-term non-progression (LTNP) status.
Methods For this cohort study, we used data for individuals with well-estimated dates of HIV-1 seroconversion
from the CASCADE Collaboration a network of 28 HIV seroconverter cohort studies in Europe, Australia, Canada,
and sub-Saharan Africa. The fi rst cohort began enrolling patients in 1979, and for this analysis we used data
pooled in May 1, 2011. We defi ned non-progression as being HIV-positive without AIDS, ART-naive, and with CD4
counts of 500 cells per μL or higher. We defi ned LTNP as non-progression during the fi rst 10 years after
seroconversion. We used longitudinal methods to characterise LTNP.
Findings Of the 4979 HIV seroconverters in our dataset, 3708 (75%) were men. Median time to progression was
2·07 years (95% CI 1·96–2·17), giving estimated progression-free survivals of 18·4% (17·2–19·6) 5 years, 4·0%
(3·6–4·5) 10 years, and 1·4% (0·9–1·5) 15 years after seroconversion. The rate of progression did not change
beyond 10 years after seroconversion (0·28 [95%CI 0·26–0·31] per person-year at 10 years after seroconversion,
0·24 [0·19–0·29] per person-year at 15 years, and 0·18 [0·10–0·33] per person-year at 20 years). At 10 years since
HIV seroconversion, 283 individuals had LTNP, of whom 202 subsequently lost this status (median time to loss of
status 2·49 years [2·05–2·92]). In univariable analyses, loss of LTNP status was associated with CD4 cell count at
10 years after seroconversion (p<0·0001) and HIV RNA load at 10 years after seroconversion (p=0·005), but not
age (p=0·544), mode of infection (p=0·621), sex (p=0·676), or calendar year of seroconversion (p=0·397). In the
multivariable analyses, loss of LTNP status was associated with lower CD4 counts at 10 years after seroconversion
(p<0·0001). After exclusion of CD4 cell counts from the model, higher HIV RNA load at 10 years after
seroconversion was independently associated with loss of LTNP status (p=0·009).
Interpretation Progression-free survival is rare. Most individuals with LTNP eventually lose immunological and
clinical control of HIV infection eventually.
Funding European Union Seventh Framework Programme.
The Lancet HIV 10/2014; 1(1):e41-e48. DOI:10.1016/S2352-3018(14)70016-5
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethnic differences have the potential to confound associations between HIV-1 subtype and immunologic progression. We compared declines in CD4 cell counts during untreated infection for the most prevalent HIV-1 subtypes, focusing on distinguishing between the effects of viral subtype and ethnicity.
We combined data from 4 European and 6 Canadian cohorts, selecting adults in the stable chronic phase of untreated HIV infection. We estimated the change in square root CD4 cell count over time for subtypes and ethnicities using mixed models, adjusting for covariates selected for their potential effect on initial CD4 cell count or its decline.
Data from 9772 patients were analyzed, contributing 79 175 measurements of CD4 cell count and 24 157 person-years of follow-up. Overall, there were no appreciable differences in CD4 cell count decline for viral subtypes A, CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, C and G compared with viral subtype B; whereas the decline in CD4 cell count in patients of African ancestry was considerably slower than in patients of other ethnicity. When ethnic groups were studied separately, there was evidence for slower declines in CD4 cell count in viral subtypes C, and possibly A and G, compared with viral subtype B in patients of African ancestry but not among patients of other ethnicities, suggesting an interaction between subtype and ethnicity.
Ethnicity is a major determinant of CD4 cell count decline; viral subtype differences may have existed but were small compared with the effect of ethnicity and were most apparent in patients of African ancestry. In developing countries, slower CD4 cell count declines among individuals of African descent may translate to a longer asymptomatic phase and increase the opportunity for HIV transmission.