Niels Eske Bruun

Aalborg University, Ålborg, North Denmark, Denmark

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Publications (50)152.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), fever, pericardial effusion and a mitral valve vegetation. (18)F-Fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography CT ((18)F-FDG-PET-CT) showed very high accumulation of the isotope at the mitral valve. The patient underwent cardiothoracic surgery and pathologic examinations showed characteristic morphology of Libman-Sacks vegetations. All microbiological examinations including blood cultures, microscopy, culture and 16s PCR of the valve were negative and the diagnosis of Libman-Sacks endocarditis was convincing. It is difficult to distinguish Libman-Sacks endocarditis from culture-negative infective endocarditis (IE). Molecular imaging techniques are being used increasingly in cases of suspected IE but no studies have previously reported the use in patients with Libman-Sacks endocarditis. In the present case, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT clearly demonstrated the increased glucose uptake caused by infiltrating white blood cells in the ongoing inflammatory process at the mitral valve. In conclusion, (18)F-FDG-PET-CT cannot be used to distinguish between IE and non-infective Libman-Sacks vegetations.
    01/2015; DOI:10.3109/00365548.2014.984323
  • Source
    Martin Huth Ruwald, Niels Eske Bruun
    11/2014; 2014(5):305-317. DOI:10.2147/RRCC.S50541
  • Acta ophthalmologica 07/2014; 92(8). DOI:10.1111/aos.12454 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enterococci currently account for approximately 10% of all bacteraemias, reflecting remarkable changes in their epidemiology. However, population-based data of enterococcal bacteraemia are scarce. A population-based cohort study comprised all patients with a first episode of Enterococcus faecalis or Enterococcus faecium bacteraemia in two Danish regions during 2006–2009. We used data collected prospectively during clinical microbiological counselling and hospital registry data. We determined the incidence of mono- and polymicrobial bacteraemia and assessed clinical and microbiological characteristics as predictors of 30-day mortality in monomicrobial bacteraemia by logistic regression analysis. We identified 1145 bacteraemic patients, 700 (61%) of whom had monomicrobial bacteraemia. The incidence was 19.6/100 000 person-years (13.0/100 000 person-years for E. faecalis and 6.6/100 000 person-years for E. faecium). The majority of bacteraemias were hospital-acquired (E. faecalis, 45.7%; E. faecium, 85.2%). Urinary tract and intra-abdominal infections were the predominant foci for the two species, respectively. Infective endocarditis (IE) accounted for 25% of patients with community-acquired E. faecalis bacteraemia. Thirty-day mortality was 21.4% in patients with E. faecalis and 34.6% in patients with E. faecium. Predictors of 30-day mortality included age, co-morbidity and hospital-acquired bacteraemia. In addition, intra-abdominal infection, unknown focus and high-level gentamicin resistance were predictors of mortality in E. faecalis patients. E. faecium was associated with increased risk of mortality compared with E. faecalis. The study emphasizes the importance of enterococci both in terms of incidence and prognosis. The frequency of IE in patients with E. faecalis bacteraemia emphasizes the importance of echocardiography, especially in community-acquired cases.
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection 02/2014; 20(2). DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12236 · 4.58 Impact Factor
  • Anders Dahl, Niels Eske Bruun
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    ABSTRACT: Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (IE) is a disease of increasing importance, with more patients infected, increasing frequency of health-care associated infections and increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistances. The typical clinical presentation is a subacute course with fever, malaise and generalized aches, difficult to distinguish from other more common diseases. Of paramount importance is transthoracic- and transesophageal-echocardiography to establish the diagnosis. At the moment, the predominant strategies recommend ampicillin in combination with either gentamicin or ceftriaxone. E. faecalis infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious disease with considerable percentages of high-level gentamicin resistant strains and in-hospital mortality around 20%. Strategies to prevent E. faecalis IE, improve diagnostics, optimize treatment and reduce morbidity will be necessary to improve the overall prognosis.
    Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 09/2013; 11(9):1247-57. DOI:10.1586/14779072.2013.832482
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    ABSTRACT: The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently been independently published for both ECG and echocardiography. The relationship between the 2 modalities and the relation to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response was investigated. Sixty-six patients with LBBB by conventional criteria had a standard 12-lead ECG and 2-dimensional strain echocardiography performed before CRT implantation. Criteria for LBBB by echocardiography included early termination of contraction in one wall and prestretch and late contraction in opposing wall(s). New strict criteria by ECG included QRS duration ≥140 ms (men) or 130 ms (women), QS or rS in leads V1 and V2, and mid-QRS notching or slurring in ≥2 of leads V1, V2, V5, V6, I, and aVL. Response was defined as >15% decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume after 6 months. In 64 of 66 patients, ECG analysis was possible. Echo and ECG readings for LBBB presence were concordant in 54 (84%) of 64. Thirty-seven (82%) of 45 patients with LBBB by strict ECG criteria responded to CRT, whereas only 4 (21%) of the 19 patients without LBBB responded (sensitivity 90% and specificity 65%). Thirty-six (95%) of 38 patients with concordance for the presence of LBBB responded to CRT. In patients with concordance for the absence of LBBB, 15 (94%) of 16 did not respond. For the first time, a close relation has been demonstrated between electrical activation by ECG and mechanical contraction by echocardiography. These findings may help identify CRT candidates.
    American heart journal 08/2013; 166(2):340-8. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.04.005 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Infectious endocarditis remains both a diagnostic and a treatment challenge. A positive outcome depends on a rapid diagnosis, accurate risk stratification, and a thorough follow-up. Imaging plays a key role in each of these steps and echocardiography remains the cornerstone of the methods in use. The technique of both transthoracic echocardiography and transoesophageal echocardiography has been markedly improved across the last decades and most recently three-dimensional real-time echocardiography has been introduced in the management of endocarditis patients. Echocardiography depicts structural changes and abnormalities in the heart, but it does not uncover the underlying pathophysiological processes at the cellular or molecular level. This problem is addressed with introduction of new molecular imaging methods as (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET-CT and single photon emission computed tomography fused with conventional CT (SPECT/CT). Of these methods, (18)F-FDG PET-CT carries the best promise for a future role in endocarditis. But there are distinct limitations with both SPECT/CT and (18)F-FDG PET-CT which should not be neglected. MRI and spiral CT are methods primarily used in the search for extra cardial infectious foci. A flowchart for the use of imaging in both left-sided and right-sided endocarditis is suggested.
    European Heart Journal 07/2013; DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht274 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optimization of the interventricular delay (VV-optimization) in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients can be performed by evaluation of mechanical dyssynchrony. However, there is no consensus on which method to use. In this study, three conceptually different methods were evaluated. Thirty consecutive CRT patients were included. At day 1, patients were atrioventricular and VV optimized by left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity time integral (VTI). At 6 months, 2D strain (2DS) echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) was performed at six different VV-programming delay in steps of 20 ms. LVOT and three indices of dyssynchrony were evaluated at each setting: standard deviation (SD) of time-to-peak strain in 12 segments (2DS-SD), SD of time-to-peak velocities in 12 segments (TDI-SD), and maximal activation delay (AD-max) by cross-correlation analysis (XCA) of TDI-derived myocardial acceleration curves. Feasibility was 90% for 2DS-SD and TDI-SD and 97% for AD-max. Coefficients of variation for intraobserver variability were 13% for 2DS-SD, 11% for TDI-SD, and 6% for AD-max. A relative increase in LVOT VTI > 10% was observed in 5/12 (42%) nonresponders and 7/18 (39%) responders to CRT. Optimization by all three dyssynchrony indices significantly increased LVOT VTI compared to simultaneous pacing and optimal setting at day 1 (P < 0.05, all). LVOT VTI was highest when using AD-max, and AD-max showed the best agreement (k = 0.71). VV optimization at 6 months acutely benefits both responders and nonresponders; however, dyssynchrony indices do not perform equally well. XCA has a high feasibility and reproducibility and appears to be superior to time-to-peak techniques.
    Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 07/2013; 36(11). DOI:10.1111/pace.12203 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Due to the nephrotoxic effects of aminoglycosides the Danish guidelines on infective endocarditis (IE) were changed in January 2007 reducing gentamicin treatment in enterococcal IE from 4-6 weeks to only 2 weeks. In this pilot study we compare the outcome in patients with enterococcus faecalis IE treated in the years before and after endorsement of these new recommendations. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 84 consecutive patients admitted with definite left-sided enterococcus faecalis endocarditis in the period 2002 to 2011 were enrolled. Forty-one patients were treated before, and 43 patients after January 1(st), 2007, respectively. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. At hospitalization the two groups had similar eGFR of 66 ml/min vs. 75 ml/min (p=0.22). Patients treated before January 2007 received gentamicin for a significantly longer period (28 days vs. 14 days, p<0.001). The primary outcome, 1-year event-free survival, did not differ: 66 % vs. 69 % (p=0.75). At discharge the patients treated before 2007 had a lower eGFR of 45 ml/min vs. 66 ml/min (p=0.008), and a significantly greater decrease in eGFR: median 11ml/min vs. 1 ml/min (p=0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Our present pilot study suggests that a recommendation of 2 weeks gentamicin treatment seem adequate and preferable in treating non HLAR enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis. The longer duration of gentamicin treatment is associated with worse renal function and although the certainty of the clinical outcomes is limited by the sample size, outcomes appear to be no worse. Randomized controlled studies are warranted in order to substantiate these results.
    Circulation 03/2013; 127(17). DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.001170 · 14.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines for the treatment of left-sided infective endocarditis (IE) recommend 4 to 6 weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Conversion from intravenous to oral antibiotics in clinically stabilized patients could reduce the side effects associated with intravenous treatment and shorten the length of hospital stay. Evidence supporting partial oral therapy as an alternative to the routinely recommended continued parenteral therapy is scarce, although observational data suggest that this strategy may be safe and effective. This is a noninferiority, multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label study of partial oral treatment with antibiotics compared with full parenteral treatment in left-sided IE. Stable patients (n = 400) with streptococci, staphylococci, or enterococci infecting the mitral valve or the aortic valve will be included. After a minimum of 10 days of parenteral treatment, stable patients are randomized to oral therapy or unchanged parenteral therapy. Recommendations for oral treatment have been developed based on minimum inhibitory concentrations and pharmacokinetic calculations. Patients will be followed up for 6 months after completion of antibiotic therapy. The primary end point is a composition of all-cause mortality, unplanned cardiac surgery, embolic events, and relapse of positive blood cultures with the primary pathogen. The Partial Oral Treatment of Endocarditis study tests the hypothesis that partial oral antibiotic treatment is as efficient and safe as parenteral therapy in left-sided IE. The trial is justified by a review of the literature, by pharmacokinetic calculations, and by our own experience.
    American heart journal 02/2013; 165(2):116-22. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2012.11.006 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies on the value of culture-independent molecular identification of bacteria in cardiac valves are mostly restricted to comparing agreement of identification to what is obtained by culture to the number of identified bacteria in culture-negative cases. However, evaluation of the usefulness of direct molecular identification should also address weaknesses, their relevance in the given setting, and possible improvements. In this study cardiac valves from 56 Danish patients referred for surgery for infective endocarditis were analysed by microscopy and culture as well as by PCR targeting part of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing of the PCR product. PCR and DNA sequencing identified significant bacteria in 49 samples from 43 patients, including five out of 13 culture-negative cases. No rare, exotic, or intracellular bacteria were identified. There was a general agreement between bacterial identity obtained by ribosomal PCR and DNA sequencing from the valves and bacterial isolates from blood culture. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene did not discriminate well among non-haemolytic streptococci, especially within the Streptococcus mitis group. Ribosomal PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing is an efficient and reliable method of identifying the cause of IE, but exact species identification of some of the most common causes, i.e. non-haemolytic streptococci, may be improved with other molecular methods.
    The Open Microbiology Journal 01/2013; 7:146-151. DOI:10.2174/1874285801307010146
  • Anders Dahl, Thomas Fritz Hansen, Niels Eske Bruun
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    ABSTRACT: We present a case of Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis in which a large abscess was formed in only 4 days, despite specific intravenous antibiotics and only few vague signs of disease progression. Our case seems to be the first to show echocardiographic documentation of how quickly an intracardiac abscess can develop despite relevant antibiotics. Clinically, the patient is remarkably unaffected, and thus even small signs of progression should lead to considerations about repeating the diagnostic imaging workup. This case illustrates how aggressive an infection S. aureus endocarditis may be, and therefore it should be treated by an experienced team with easy access to both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography.
    Heart & lung: the journal of critical care 05/2012; 42(1). DOI:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2012.04.008 · 1.04 Impact Factor
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    Martin Huth Ruwald, Niels Bruun
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    ABSTRACT: Purulent pericarditis is a rare entity in the modern antibiotic era. Despite advances in treatment and diagnostics, purulent pericarditis remains a life-threatening disease. We present a case with cardiac tamponade due to purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. A 67 year-old woman was admitted with massive pericardial fluid. The patient was treated successfully with drainage and intravenous penicillin. Due to the high mortality of this disease, early diagnosis, aggressive pericardial drainage and appropriate antibiotic therapy are essential.
    Ugeskrift for laeger 04/2012; 174(15):1027-8.
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    ABSTRACT: A classical strain pattern of early contraction in one wall and prestretching of the opposing wall followed by late contraction has previously been associated with left bundle branch block (LBBB) activation and short-term response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Aims of this study were to establish the long-term predictive value of an LBBB-related strain pattern and to identify changes in contraction patterns during short-term and long-term CRT. Sixty-seven patients with standard CRT criteria were prospectively enrolled between early 2009 and late 2010. Echocardiography including regional strain analysis by 2-dimensional speckle tracking was performed 1 week before implantation, at day 1, and 6 months after. Response was defined as a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic volume ≥ 15%. The predictive ability of a classical pattern was compared with time-to-peak measurements from velocity and deformation analysis. Forty-three patients (65%) were classified as responders. The presence of a classical pattern showed 91% specificity and 95% sensitivity for response and performed significantly better than time-to-peak parameters in prediction of response to CRT (P < .001, all). In responders, CRT acutely increased septal longitudinal peak systolic strain (-8.7% ± 3.6% to -11.1% ± 3%, P < .001) but not in nonresponders. The classical pattern is highly predictive of response to CRT and superior to time-to-peak methods. Patients who obtain long-term reverse remodeling are characterized by short-term reversal of the classical strain pattern. These findings emphasize the value of recognizing potentially reversible strain patterns in selection of CRT candidates.
    American heart journal 04/2012; 163(4):697-704. DOI:10.1016/j.ahj.2012.01.025 · 4.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The increasing number of resistant bacterial strains in infective endocarditis (IE) emphasizes the need for a constant development of antimicrobials. Linezolid is an oxazolidinone with an effect on Gram-positive cocci. Only a few casuistic reports describe its utilization in the treatment of IE. The objective of this study is to report our experience with linezolid from a large consecutive cohort of IE patients. In a retrospective cohort study, data on 550 consecutive IE patients were collected at two tertiary University Hospitals in Copenhagen, Denmark. The main endpoints were differences in the in-hospital and 12 months post-discharge mortality between IE patients receiving linezolid for a part of the treatment and IE patients receiving conventional treatment. Of the 550 patients enrolled in the study, 38 patients received linezolid treatment and 512 received conventional treatment. Reasons for adding linezolid were antibiotic intolerance (n = 13), nephrotoxicity (n = 5), pharmaceutical interactions (n = 1), inadequate clinical response (n = 14), or inadequate microbial response (n = 5). No significant differences in the cure rate (74 % vs. 71 %, p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (13 % vs. 14 %, p > 0.05), or post-discharge mortality at 12 months follow-up (26 % vs. 26 %, p > 0.05) were observed. In the current study, we found that linezolid, in general, was well tolerated and associated with the same outcome as in patients with Gram-positive IE treated with other antibiotics.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 03/2012; 31(10):2567-74. DOI:10.1007/s10096-012-1597-7 · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AimsPre-implant assessment of longitudinal mechanical dyssynchrony using cross-correlation analysis (XCA) was tested for association with long-term survival and compared with other tissue Doppler imaging (TDI)-derived indices.Methods and resultsIn 131 patients referred for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) from two international centres, mechanical dyssynchrony was assessed from TDI velocity curves using time-to-peak opposing wall delay (OWD) ≥80 ms, Yu index ≥32 ms, and the maximal activation delay (AD-max) >35 ms. AD-max was calculated by XCA of the TDI-derived myocardial acceleration curves. Outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, cardiac transplantation, or implantation of a ventricular assist device (left ventricular assist device) and modelled using the Cox proportional hazards regression. Follow-up was truncated at 1460 days. Dyssynchrony by AD-max was independently associated with improved survival when adjusted for QRS > 150 ms and aetiology {hazard ratio (HR) 0.35 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.77], P = 0.01}. Maximal activation delay performed significantly better than Yu index, OWD, and the presence of left bundle branch block (P < 0.05, all, for difference between parameters). In subgroup analysis, patients without dyssynchrony and QRS between 120 and 150 ms showed a particularly poor survival [HR 4.3 (95% CI 1.46-12.59), P < 0.01, compared with the group with dyssynchrony and QRS between 120 and 150 ms].ConclusionMechanical dyssynchrony assessed by AD-max was associated with long-term survival after CRT and was significantly better associated compared with other TDI-derived indices. Patients without dyssynchrony and QRS between 120 and 150 ms had a particularly poor prognosis. These results indicate a valuable role for XCA in selection of CRT candidates.
    European Heart Journal 03/2012; 34(1). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs035 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The degree to which the results of valve culture depend on different laboratory procedures as well as other factors is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the results of heart valve culture at 2 different endocarditis centres in order to clarify this. The study included 223 patients with definitive endocarditis undergoing heart valve surgery at 2 Danish endocarditis centres (96 at the East centre and 127 at the West centre). The following data related to the samples were registered: transportation, time to inoculation, culture media used and duration of incubation, species distribution, and preoperative duration of appropriate antimicrobial treatment (DAAT). 16S polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of valve tissue was used to estimate the frequency of non-cultivable bacteria. Valve culture was positive in 12.5% of cases at the East centre and 36.2% at the West centre (p < 0.001). Valve cultures were positive in 10%, 45%, and 58% of cases of streptococcal, staphylococcal, and enterococcal infections, respectively. The median DAAT was 3 days for valve culture-positive cases and 11 days for valve culture-negative cases (p < 0.001). By logistic regression analysis, DAAT, species distribution, and laboratory protocol were identified as independent risk determinants for positive valve culture. The adjusted odds ratio for positive culture by the West centre protocol was 3.0 (confidence interval 1.3-6.9; East = 1, p < 0.01). The valve culture contamination rate was 4% at the East centre and 31% at the West centre (p < 0.01). Our study showed that the duration of preoperative antibiotic treatment and species distribution must be taken into account when comparing valve culture results. Differences in laboratory protocol explained the 3-fold higher sensitivity of heart valve culture observed in the West centre compared to the East centre.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 01/2012; 44(6):405-13. DOI:10.3109/00365548.2011.646301 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cerebrovascular complications (CVC) in infective endocarditis (IE) are common. The only established treatments to reduce the incidence of CVC in IE are antibiotics and in selected cases early cardiac surgery. Potential effects of previously established antiplatelet therapy are under debate. In a prospective cohort study in Sweden and Demark, the influence of previously established antiplatelet therapy on CVC incidence and mortality in IE was assessed using logistic regression models. Among 684 left-sided definite IE episodes, 23.0% were seen in patients on established antiplatelet therapy (96% acetylsalicylic acid). Patients on antiplatelet therapy were older and significantly more often had a history of congestive heart failure prior to IE diagnosis. No difference in CVC rate was seen between patients with and without ongoing antiplatelet therapy (23.6% vs 25.0%, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-1.5). Ischemic stroke, which occurred in 115 episodes (16.8%), was the most common cerebral lesion, and haemorrhagic complications were seen in 16 (2.3%) patients without correlation to chronic antiplatelet therapy. Unadjusted 1-y mortality was higher for patients on previously established antiplatelet therapy (33.8% vs 24.1%, odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4), but after adjustment for covariables associated with mortality an opposite statistical trend was seen (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). The incidence of symptomatic CVC in IE patients was not reduced by previously established antiplatelet therapy. One-y mortality was higher in patients on antiplatelet therapy in univariate analysis, but after multivariable modelling this association was lost.
    Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 09/2011; 43(11-12):899-904. DOI:10.3109/00365548.2011.603742 · 1.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this randomized study was to investigate the effects of once versus twice daily gentamicin dosing on renal function and measures of infectious disease in a population with infective endocarditis (IE). Seventy-one IE patients needing gentamicin treatment according to guidelines were randomized to either once (n = 37) or twice daily (n = 34) doses of gentamicin. Kidney function (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) was measured with an isotope method ((51)Cr-EDTA) at the beginning of treatment and at discharge. Treatment efficacy was assessed by C-reactive protein (CRP) time to half-life, mean CRP and leukocytes. Baseline GFR was similar in the two groups. Both groups displayed a significant fall in GFR from admission to discharge. The mean decrease in GFR was as follows: with once daily gentamicin, 17.0% (95% confidence interval 7.5-26.5), and with twice daily gentamicin, 20.4% (95% confidence interval 12.0-28.8). However, there was no significant difference in the GFR decrease between the once and twice daily regimens (p = 0.573). No difference in infection parameters was demonstrated between the two dosing regimens. A twice daily gentamicin dosing regimen is neither less nephrotoxic nor more efficient than a once daily regimen in the treatment of IE patients. When indicated, gentamicin may therefore also be administered as a single-dose regimen in the treatment of IE patients.
    Cardiology 08/2011; 119(2):65-71. DOI:10.1159/000329842 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus infective endocarditis (IE) is a critical medical condition associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In the present study, we prospectively evaluated the importance of screening with echocardiography in an unselected S. aureus bacteraemia (SAB) population. From 1 January 2009 to 31 August 2010, a total of 244 patients with SAB at six Danish hospitals underwent screening echocardiography. The inclusion rate was 73% of all eligible patients (n= 336), and 53 of the 244 included patients (22%; 95% CI: 17-27%) were diagnosed with definite IE. In patients with native heart valves the prevalence was 19% (95% CI: 14-25%) compared with 38% (95% CI: 20-55%) in patients with prosthetic heart valves and/or cardiac rhythm management devices (P= 0.02). No difference was found between Main Regional Hospitals and Tertiary Cardiac Hospitals, 20 vs. 23%, respectively (NS). The prevalence of IE in high-risk patients with one or more predisposing condition or clinical evidence of IE were significantly higher compared with low-risk patients with no additional risk factors (38 vs. 5%; P < 0.001). IE was associated with a higher 6 months mortality, 14(26%) vs. 28(15%) in SAB patients without IE, respectively (P < 0.05). SAB patients carry a high risk for development of IE, which is associated with a worse prognosis compared with uncomplicated SAB. The presenting symptoms and clinical findings associated with IE are often non-specific and echocardiography should always be considered as part of the initial evaluation of SAB patients.
    European Heart Journal – Cardiovascular Imaging 06/2011; 12(6):414-20. DOI:10.1093/ejechocard/jer023 · 3.67 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

209 Citations
152.56 Total Impact Points


  • 2014
    • Aalborg University
      • Department of Health Science and Technology
      Ålborg, North Denmark, Denmark
  • 2004–2014
    • Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte
      • Department of Dermato-Allergology
      Hellebæk, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009
    • University of Cologne
      Köln, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 2008
    • Region Hovedstaden
      Hillerød, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 1986
    • Glostrup Hospital
      København, Capital Region, Denmark