Grace E Kissling

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Durham, North Carolina, United States

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Publications (117)415.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Visualizing the interior (lumen) of a tubular structure within tissue can provide a unique perspective on anatomical organization of the tissue. Portal tracts of the liver contain several vessels and ducts in various patterns of intertwining branches and are an example of such spaces. An inexpensive method, using light microscopy and a sample of conventionally stained canine livers, was used to colorize and allow visualization of the lumens of vessels within the portal tract in three dimensions. When the colour of the background was digitally cleared and the lumen filled with a solid colour, it was possible to measure areas and volumes of the portal vein, arteries, bile ducts and lymphatics. Significant differences between vessels and ducts across lobes and gender in control samples are discussed. Differences were also found between control and mixed breed dogs and between controls and a dog that died of accidental traumatic haemorrhage. These differences are discussed in relation to visualizing lumens using images generated from a light microscope. Vessels in plants such as xylem and continuously formed spaces resulting from ice formation are other examples where this technique could be applied.
    Journal of microscopy. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In mice, inorganic arsenic in the drinking water in the parts per million range via the dam during in utero life or with whole-life exposure is a multi-site carcinogen in the offspring. However, human arsenic exposure is typically in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Thus, we studied "whole-life" inorganic arsenic carcinogenesis in mice at levels more relevant to humans. Breeder male and female CD1 mice were exposed to 0, 50, 500 or 5,000 ppb arsenic (as sodium arsenite) in the drinking water for 3 weeks prior to breeding, during pregnancy and lactation, and after weaning (at week 3) groups of male and female offspring (initial n = 40) were exposed for up to 2 years. Tumors were assessed in these offspring. Arsenic exposure had no effect on pregnant dam weights or water consumption, litter size, offspring birthweight or weight at weaning compared to control. In male offspring mice, arsenic exposure increased (p < 0.05) bronchiolo-alveolar tumor (adenoma or carcinoma) incidence at 50-ppb group (51 %) and 500-ppb group (54 %), but not at 5,000-ppb group (28 %) compared to control (22 %). These arsenic-induced bronchiolo-alveolar tumors included increased (p < 0.05) carcinoma at 50-ppb group (27 %) compared to controls (8 %). An increase (p < 0.05) in lung adenoma (25 %) in the 50-ppb group compared to control (11 %) occurred in female offspring. Thus, in CD1 mice whole-life arsenic exposure induced lung tumors at human-relevant doses (i.e., 50 and 500 ppb).
    Archives of toxicology. 07/2014;
  • Sherry A Ferguson, C Delbert Law, Grace E Kissling
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    ABSTRACT: The developing central nervous system may be particularly sensitive to Bisphenol A (BPA)-induced alterations. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 11-12/group) were gavaged daily with vehicle, 2.5 or 25.0 μg/kg BPA, or 5.0 or 10.0 μg/kg ethinyl estradiol (EE2) on gestational days 6-21. The BPA doses were selected to be below the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 5 mg/kg/day. On postnatal days 1-21, all offspring/litter were orally treated with the same dose. A naïve control group was not gavaged. Body weight, pubertal age, estrous cyclicity, and adult serum hormone levels were measured. Adolescent play, running wheel activity, flavored solution intake, female sex behavior, and manually-elicited lordosis were assessed. No significant differences existed between the vehicle and naïve control groups. Vehicle controls exhibited significant sexual dimorphism for most behaviors, indicating these evaluations were sensitive to sex differences. However, only EE2 treatment caused significant effects. Relative to female controls, EE2-treated females were heavier, exhibited delayed vaginal opening, aberrant estrous cyclicity, increased play behavior, decreased running wheel activity, and increased aggression toward the stimulus male during sexual behavior assessments. Relative to male controls, EE2-treated males were older at testes descent and preputial separation and had lower testosterone levels. These results suggest EE2-induced masculinization/defeminization of females and are consistent with increased SDN-POA volume at weaning in female siblings of these subjects (He et al., 2012). Although EE2 treatment caused pubertal delays and decreased testosterone levels in males, their behaviors were within the range of control males. Conversely, BPA treatment did not alter any measured endpoint. Similar to our previous reports (Ferguson et al., 2012, 2011), the BPA doses and design used here produced few alterations.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2014; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA) is a multifunctional monomer with industrial applications. To determine the carcinogenic potential, male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1/N mice were administered TMPTA (0, 0.3, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg) in acetone dermally for 2 years. There were no differences in the body weights and survival in the treated animals compared to controls. Nonneoplastic skin lesions at the site of application included epidermal hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis in both rats and mice. There were no incidences of tumors at the site of application in rats and mice. Rare malignant liver neoplasms were observed in female mice that included hepatoblastoma in the 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg groups, and hepatocholangiocarcinoma in the 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg groups. The incidences of uterine stromal polyp and stromal polyp or stromal sarcoma (combined) in female mice occurred with positive trends and the incidences were significantly increased in the 3.0 mg/kg group. A marginal increase in the incidences of malignant mesothelioma in male rats may have been related to TMPTA treatment. In conclusion, our studies show that TMPTA is dermal irritant in both rats and mice of either sex. Increased incidences of tumor formation were observed in female mice and male rats.
    Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 01/2014; · 2.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Female ESR2 null-mice (betaERKO) display defects in ovarian function and are subfertile. Follicular maturation is impaired and explains smaller litters, but betaERKO also produce fewer litters which may be partially due to inadequate ovulatory signals. To test this, the amplitude and timing of the naturally occurring LH surge was measured in individual intact betaERKO and WT mice. Vaginal cytology was evaluated daily and blood samples were taken from mice in proestrus. The amplitude of the LH surge was severely blunted in betaERKO mice compared to WT, but pituitary LH levels revealed no differences. betaERKO mice did not produce a preovulatory estradiol surge. To determine if the smaller LH surges and the reduced number of litters in betaERKO were due to the lack of ESR2 in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis or due to the absence of ESR2 in the ovary, ovaries were transplanted from WT into betaERKO mice and vice versa. The size of the LH surge was only reduced in mice lacking ESR2 within the ovary and these mice had fewer litters. Fertility and size of the LH surge were rescued in betaERKO mice receiving a WT ovary. These data provide the first experimental evidence that the LH surge is impaired in betaERKO females, and may contribute to their reduced fertility. ESR2 is not necessary within the pituitary and hypothalamus for the generation of a normal LH surge and for normal fertility, but ESR2 is essential within the ovary to provide proper signals.
    Biology of Reproduction 12/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arachidonic acid stimulates cell adhesion by activating α2β1 integrins in a process that depends on protein kinases, including p38 mitogen activated protein kinase. Here, we describe the interaction of cytoskeletal components with key signaling molecules that contribute to the spreading of, and morphological changes in, arachidonic acid-treated MDA-MB-435 human breast carcinoma cells. Arachidonic acid-treated cells showed increased attachment and spreading on collagen type IV, as measured by electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. Fatty acid-treated cells displayed short cortical actin filaments associated with an increased number of β1 integrin-containing pseudopodia, whereas untreated cells displayed elongated stress fibers and fewer clusters of β1 integrins. Confocal microscopy of arachidonic acid-treated cells showed that vinculin and phospho-p38 both appeared enriched in pseudopodia and at the tips of actin filaments, and fluorescence ratio imaging indicated the increase was specific for the phospho-(active) form of p38. Immunoprecipitates of phospho-p38 from extracts of arachidonic acid-treated cells contained vinculin, and GST-vinculin fusion proteins carrying the central region of vinculin bound phospho-p38, whereas fusion proteins expressing the terminal portions of vinculin did not. These data suggest that phospho-p38 associates with particular domains on critical focal adhesion proteins that are involved in tumor cell adhesion and spreading, and that this association can be regulated by factors in the tumor microenvironment.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 12/2013; 91(6):404-18. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In urine specimens that were collected from pregnant women in a large cohort, 24% contained more than 10ng/ml of total bisphenol A (BPA), suggesting external contamination. Therefore, we conducted an investigation of the source(s) of extraneous BPA in the specimens. We found that under the conditions used to collect urine specimens in the epidemiologic study, contamination with BPA occurred, and by two separate mechanisms.
    Environmental Research 10/2013; · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) is a popular herbal supplement that is used to improve circulation and brain function. In spite of widespread human exposure to relatively high doses over potentially long periods of time, there is a paucity of data from animal studies regarding the toxicity and carcinogenicity associated with GBE. In order to fill this knowledge gap, 3-month and 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies with GBE administered by oral gavage to B6C3F1/N mice and F344/N rats were performed as part of the National Toxicology Program's Dietary Supplements and Herbal Medicines Initiative. The targets of GBE treatment were the liver, thyroid, and nose. These targets were consistent across exposure period, sex, and species, albeit with varying degrees of effect observed among studies. Key findings included a notably high incidence of hepatoblastomas in male and female mice and evidence of carcinogenic potential in the thyroid gland of both mice and rats. Various nonneoplastic lesions were observed beyond control levels in the liver, thyroid gland, and nose of rats and mice administered GBE. Although these results cannot be directly extrapolated to humans, the findings fill an important data gap in assessing risk associated with GBE use.
    Toxicologic Pathology 08/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background:Local inflammation after tubal ligation may affect ovarian function and breast cancer risk.Methods:We analysed tubal ligation, menopausal characteristics, and breast cancer risk in the Sister Study cohort (N=50 884 women).Results:Tubal ligation was associated with hot flashes (hazard ratio (HR) 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-1.12) but not menopausal age (HR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.96-1.02). Tubal ligation did not have an impact on breast cancer overall (HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.85-1.06), but had a suggested inverse relation with oestrogen receptor+/progesterone receptor+ invasive tumours (HR 0.84; 95% CI: 0.70-1.01), possibly because of subsequent hysterectomy/bilateral oophorectomy.Conclusion:Tubal ligation does not influence overall breast cancer risk.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 6 August 2013; doi:10.1038/bjc.2013.433
    British Journal of Cancer 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Grace E Kissling, Dennis W Grogan, John W Drake
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    ABSTRACT: In a recent description of the rate and character of spontaneous mutation in the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the mutation rate was observed to be substantially lower than seen in several mesophiles. Subsequently, a report appeared indicating that this bacterium maintains an average of about 4.5 genomes per cell. This number of genomes might result in a segregation lag for the expression of a recessive mutation and might therefore lead to an underestimate of the rate of mutation. Here we describe some kinds of problems that may arise when estimating mutation rates and outline ways to adjust the rates accordingly. The emphasis is mainly on differential rates of growth of mutants versus their parents and on various kinds of phenotypic lag. We then apply these methods to the T. thermophilus data and conclude that there is as yet no reliable impact on a previously described rate.
    Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2013; · 3.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective-To determine the frequency of clinically relevant abnormalities missed by failure to perform a blood smear evaluation in a specific subset of dogs receiving chemotherapy and to compare automated and manual neutrophil counts in the same population Design-Retrospective case series Animals-50 dogs receiving chemotherapy with a total nucleated cell count > 4,000 nucleated cells/μL. Procedures-50 blood smears were evaluated for abnormalities that have strong potential to change the medical plan for a patient: presence of blast cells, band neutrophils, nucleated RBCs, toxic change, hemoparasites, schistocytes, and spherocytes. Automated and manual neutrophil counts were compared. Results-Blood smears from 10 (20%) patients had ≥ 1 abnormalities. Blast cells were identified on 4 (8%) blood smears, increased nucleated RBCs were identified on 5 (10%), and very mild toxic change was identified on 2 (4%). Correlation coefficient of the neutrophil counts was 0.96. Analysis revealed a slight bias between the automated and manual neutrophil counts (mean ± SD difference, -0.43 × 10(3)/μL ± 1.10 × 10(3)/μL) Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In this series of patients, neutrophil count correlation was very good. Clinically relevant abnormalities were found on 20% of the blood smears. An automated CBC appears to be accurate for neutrophil counts, but a microscopic examination of the corresponding blood smear is still recommended; further studies are needed to determine whether the detection or frequency of these abnormalities would differ dependent on chemotherapy protocol, neoplastic disease, and decision thresholds used by the oncologist in the ordering of a CBC without a blood smear evaluation.
    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 06/2013; 242(11):1539-1543. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a contaminant of water and soil and is a human lung carcinogen. Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)), a proposed essential element, is ingested by humans in the diet and in dietary supplements such as chromium picolinate (CP). The National Toxicology Program (NTP) demonstrated that Cr(VI) is also carcinogenic in rodents when administered in drinking water as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD), inducing neoplasms of the oral cavity and small intestine in rats and mice, respectively. In contrast, there was no definitive evidence of toxicity or carcinogenicity following exposure to Cr(III) administered in feed as CP monohydrate (CPM). Cr(VI) readily enters cells via nonspecific anion channels, in contrast to Cr(III), which cannot easily pass through the cell membrane. Extracellular reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), which occurs primarily in the stomach, is considered a mechanism of detoxification, while intracellular reduction is thought to be a mechanism of genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Tissue distribution studies in additional groups of male rats and female mice demonstrated higher Cr concentrations in tissues following exposure to Cr(VI) compared to controls and Cr(III) exposure at a similar external dose, indicating that some of the Cr(VI) escaped gastric reduction and was distributed systemically. The multiple potential pathways of Cr-induced genotoxicity will be discussed.
    Toxicologic Pathology 01/2013; · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We propose, and offer evidence to support, the concept that many uterine leiomyomas pursue a self-limited life cycle. This cycle can be arbitrarily divided on the basis of morphologic assessment of the collagen content into 4 phases: (1) proliferation, (2) proliferation and synthesis of collagen, (3) proliferation, synthesis of collagen, and early senescence, and (4) involution. Involution occurs as a result of both vascular and interstitial ischemia. Interstitial ischemia is the consequence of the excessive elaboration of collagen, resulting in reduced microvascular density, increased distance between myocytes and capillaries, nutritional deprivation, and myocyte atrophy. The end stage of this process is an involuted tumor with a predominance of collagen, little to no proliferative activity, myocyte atrophy, and myocyte cell death. Since many of the dying cells exhibit light microscopic and ultrastructural features that appear distinct from either necrosis or apoptosis, we refer to this process as inanosis, because it appears that nutritional deprivation, or inanition, is the underlying cause of cell death. The disposal of myocytes dying by inanosis also differs in that there is no phagocytic reaction, but rather an apparent dissolution of the cell, which might be viewed as a process of reclamation as the molecular contents are reclaimed and recycled.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology International 01/2013; 2013:528376.
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    ABSTRACT: The lowest observed adverse effect level for bisphenol A (BPA) in mice and rats is currently poorly defined due to inconsistent study designs and results in published studies. The objectives of the current study were to (1) compare the estrogenic content of rodent diets, bedding, cages, and water bottles to evaluate their impact on the estrogenic activity of BPA and (2) review the literature on BPA to determine the most frequently reported diets, beddings, cages, and water bottles used in animal studies. Our literature review indicated that low-dose BPA animal studies have inconsistent results and that factors contributing to this inconsistency are the uses of high-phytoestrogen diets and the different routes of exposure. In 44% (76 of 172) of all reports, rodents were exposed to BPA via the subcutaneous route. Our literature review further indicated that the type of diet, bedding, caging, and water bottles used in BPA studies were not always reported. Only 37% (64 of 172) of the reports described the diet used. In light of these findings, we recommend the use of a diet containing low levels of phytoestrogen (less than 20 μg/g diet) and metabolizable energy (approximately 3.1 kcal/g diet) and estrogen-free bedding, cages, and water bottles for studies evaluating the estrogenic activity of endocrine-disrupting compounds such as BPA. The oral route of BPA exposure should be used when results are to be extrapolated to humans.
    Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS 01/2013; 52(2):130-41. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based upon our morphologic observations, we hypothesize and also provide morphometric evidence for the occurrence of progressive developmental changes in many uterine fibroids, which can be arbitrarily divided into 4 phases. These developmental phases are related to the ongoing production of extracellular collagenous matrix, which eventually exceeds the degree of angiogenesis, resulting in the progressive separation of myocytes from their blood supply and a condition of interstitial ischemia. The consequence of this process of slow ischemia with nutritional and oxygen deprivation is a progressive myocyte atrophy (or inanition), culminating in cell death, a process that we refer to as inanosis. The studies presented here provide quantitative and semiquantitative evidence to support the concept of the declining proliferative activity as the collagenous matrix increases and the microvascular density decreases.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology International 01/2013; 2013:285103.
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    ABSTRACT: The breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) protein is a tumor suppressor playing roles in DNA repair and cell cycle regulation. Studies of DNA repair functions of BRCA1 have focused on double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways and have recently included base excision repair (BER). However, the function of BRCA1 in BER is not well defined. Here, we examined a BRCA1 role in BER, first in relation to alkylating agent (MMS) treatment of cells and the BER enzyme DNA polymerase β (pol β). MMS treatment of BRCA1 negative human ovarian and chicken DT40 cells revealed hypersensitivity, and the combined gene deletion of BRCA1 and pol β in DT40 cells was consistent with these factors acting in the same repair pathway, possibly BER. Using cell extracts and purified proteins, BRCA1 and pol β were found to interact in immunoprecipitation assays, yet in vivo and in vitro assays for a BER role of BRCA1 were negative. An alternate approach with the human cells of immunofluorescence imaging and laser-induced DNA damage revealed negligible BRCA1 recruitment during the first 60 s after irradiation, the period typical of recruitment of pol β and other BER factors. Instead, 15 min after irradiation, BRCA1 recruitment was strong and there was γ-H2AX co-localization, consistent with DSBs and repair. The rapid recruitment of pol β was similar in BRCA1 positive and negative cells. However, a fraction of pol β initially recruited remained associated with damage sites much longer in BRCA1 positive than negative cells. Interestingly, pol β expression was required for BRCA1 recruitment, suggesting a partnership between these repair factors in DSB repair.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e66801. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We recently identified a novel germinal center GTPase, SLIP-GC, that localizes to replication factories in B cells and that, when reduced, induces DNA breaks in lymphoma B cell lines in an activation-induced deaminase (AID)-dependent manner. Herein, we generated mice deficient in SLIP-GC and examined the impact of SLIP-GC deficiency in immunoglobulin hypermutation and class switch recombination, both AID-dependent mechanisms. SLIP-GC-deficient mice experienced a substantial increase in mutations at G:C base pairs at the region downstream of JH4 in the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus. This change was reflected in the overall mutation frequency, and it was associated with an increase in transitions from G:C base pairs, a hallmark of AID-mediated deamination during replication. In addition, G:C transitions at non-immunoglobulin loci also increased in these mice. Given the intracellular localization of SLIP-GC to sites of replicating DNA, these results suggest that SLIP-GC protects replicating DNA from AID-mediated deamination of cytosines in both strands.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2012; 287(38):31856-65. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we have investigated the immunoexpression of peptide hormones and mediators associated with human islet cell tumors in a group of proliferative islet cell lesions in F344 rats including islet cell hyperplasias, adenomas, and carcinomas, as defined by conventional histopathologic criteria. All proliferative islets expressed synaptophysin, although decreased expression intensity was observed in hyperplasias and adenomas. Most of the proliferative lesions expressed insulin, which generally decreased as lesions progressed toward malignancy. The distribution of glucagon, somatostatin, and gastrin-expressing cells was altered in proliferative islet lesions but did not comprise a large proportion of cells. Islet cell tumors were associated with increased nuclear expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 as well as increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen and decreased β-catenin expression. c-Myelocytomatosis oncogene expression was variable. This is the first study to describe the immunophenotype of islet cell tumors in the F344 rat and to show that islet cell tumors in the F344 rat exhibit similarities in protein expression to the human counterpart.
    Toxicologic Pathology 04/2012; 40(5):751-63. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Steroid hormone receptors initiate a genetic program tightly regulated by the chromatin environment of the responsive regions. Using the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as a model factor for transcriptional initiation, we classified chromatin structure through formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE). We looked at dynamic changes in FAIRE signals during GR activation specifically at regions of receptor interaction. We found a distribution of GR-responsive regions with diverse responses to activation and chromatin modulation. The majority of GR binding regions demonstrate increases in FAIRE signal in response to ligand. However, the majority GR-responsive regions shared a similar FAIRE signal in the basal chromatin state, suggesting a common chromatin structure for GR recruitment. Supporting this notion, global FAIRE sequencing (seq) data indicated an enrichment of signal surrounding the GR binding site prior to activation. Brg-1 knockdown showed response element-specific effects of ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling. FAIRE induction was universally decreased by Brg-1 depletion, but to varying degrees in a target specific manner. Taken together, these data suggest classes of nuclear receptor response regions that react to activation through different chromatin regulatory events and identify a chromatin structure that classifies the majority of response elements tested.
    Molecular and cellular biology 03/2012; 32(10):1805-17. · 6.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen and growth factors play a major role in uterine leiomyoma (UtLM) growth possibly through interactions of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) signaling. We determined the genomic and nongenomic effects of 17β-estradiol (E(2)) on IGF-IR/MAPKp44/42 signaling and gene expression in human UtLM cells with intact or silenced IGF-IR. Analysis by RT(2) Profiler PCR-array showed genes involved in IGF-IR/MAPK signaling were upregulated in UtLM cells by E(2) including cyclin D kinases, MAPKs, and MAPK kinases; RTK signaling mediator, GRB2; transcriptional factors ELK1 and E2F1; CCNB2 involved in cell cycle progression, proliferation, and survival; and COL1A1 associated with collagen synthesis. Silencing (si)IGF-IR attenuated the above effects and resulted in upregulation of different genes, such as transcriptional factor ETS2; the tyrosine kinase receptor, EGFR; and DLK1 involved in fibrosis. E(2) rapidly activated IGF-IR/MAPKp44/42 signaling nongenomically and induced phosphorylation of ERα at ser118 in cells with a functional IGF-IR versus those without. E(2) also upregulated IGF-I gene and protein expression through a prolonged genomic event. These results suggest a pivotal role of IGF-IR and possibly other RTKs in mediating genomic and nongenomic hormone receptor interactions and signaling in fibroids and provide novel genes and targets for future intervention and prevention strategies.
    Journal of signal transduction. 01/2012; 2012:204236.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
415.49 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2014
    • National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
      • Biostatistics Branch
      Durham, North Carolina, United States
  • 2011
    • North Carolina Department of Health and Human Services
      Raleigh, North Carolina, United States
  • 2004–2011
    • National Institutes of Health
      • • Molecular Targets Laboratory
      • • Section on Human Iron Metabolism
      • • Branch of Epidemiology (EPI)
      Bethesda, MD, United States
  • 2009
    • Kansai Medical University
      • Department of Pathology II (Comparative Pathology)
      Moriguchi, Osaka-fu, Japan
    • Hebrew University of Jerusalem
      Yerushalayim, Jerusalem District, Israel
  • 2007
    • University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
      North Carolina, United States
  • 2006
    • GlaxoSmithKline plc.
      • Department of Safety Assessment
      London, ENG, United Kingdom
    • University of Louisville
      Louisville, Kentucky, United States
    • University of Southern Mississippi
      Mississippi, United States