Sharon M Moe

Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (145)728.65 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Summary Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases fracture risk. The results of this work point to changes in bone collagen and bone hydration as playing a role in bone fragility associated with CKD. Introduction Clinical data have documented a clear increase in fracture risk associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have shown reductions in bone mechanical properties although the tissue-level mechanisms for these differences remain unclear. The goal of this study was to assess collagen cross-links and matrix hydration, two variables known to affect mechanical properties, in animals with either high- or low-turnover CKD. Methods At 35 weeks of age (>75 % reduction in kidney function), the femoral diaphysis of male Cy/+ rats with high or low bone turnover rates, along with normal littermate (NL) controls, were assessed for collagen cross-links (pyridinoline (Pyd), deoxypyridinoline (Dpd), and pentosidine (PE)) using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay as well as pore and bound water per volume (pw and bw) using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique. Material-level biomechanical properties were calculated based on previously published whole bone mechanical tests. Results Cortical bone from animals with high-turnover disease had lower Pyd and Dpd cross-link levels (−21 % each), lower bw (−10 %), higher PE (+71 %), and higher pw (+46 %) compared to NL. Animals with low turnover had higher Dpd, PE (+71 %), and bw (+7 %) along with lower pw (−60 %) compared to NL. Both high- and low-turnover animals had reduced material-level bone toughness compared to NL animals as determined by three-point bending. Conclusions These data document an increase in skeletal PE with advanced CKD that is independent of bone turnover rate and inversely related to decline in kidney function. Although hydration changes occur in both high- and low-turnover disease, the data suggest that nonenzymatic collagen cross-links may be a key factor in compromised mechanical properties of CKD.
    Osteoporosis International 12/2014; · 4.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is associated with abnormalities in bone quantity and quality leading to increased fractures. Recent studies suggest abnormalities of Wnt signaling in animal models of CKD and elevated sclerostin levels in patients with CKD. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-sclerostin antibody treatment in an animal model of progressive CKD with low and high parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels. Cy/+ male rats (CKD) were treated without or with calcium in the drinking water at 25 weeks of age to stratify the animals into high PTH and low PTH groups, respectively, by 30 weeks. Animals were then treated with anti-sclerostin antibody at 100 mg/kg IV weekly for 5 doses, a single 20 ug/kg subcutaneous dose of zoledronic acid, or no treatment and sacrificed at 35 weeks. As a positive control, the efficacy of anti-sclerostin antibody treatment was also evaluated in normal littermates. The results demonstrated that the CKD animals with high PTH had lower calcium, higher phosphorus, and lower FGF23 compared to the CKD animals with low PTH. Treatment with anti-sclerostin Ab had no effect on any of the biochemistries, while zoledronic acid lowered dkk-1 levels. The anti-sclerostin antibody increased trabecular BV/TV., trabecular mineralization surface, in animals with low, but not high, PTH. Neither anti-sclerostin antibody nor zoledronic acid improved biomechanical properties in the animals. Cortical porosity was severe in high PTH animals and unaffected by either treatment. In contrast, in normal animals treated with anti-sclerostin antibody, there was an improvement in bone volume, cortical geometry, and biomechanical properties. In summary, this is the first study to test the efficacy of anti-sclerostin Ab treatment on animals with advanced CKD. We found efficacy in improving bone properties only when the PTH levels were low. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 11/2014; · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with CKD have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality from arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We used a rat model of CKD (Cy/+) to study potential mechanisms of increased ventricular arrhythmias. Rats with CKD showed normal ejection fraction but hypertrophic myocardium. Premature ventricular complexes occurred more frequently in CKD rats than normal rats (42% versus 11%, P=0.18). By optical mapping techniques, action potential duration (APD) at 80% of repolarization was longer in CKD rats (78±4ms) than normal rats (63±3 ms, P<0.05) at a 200-ms pacing cycle length. Calcium transient (CaT) duration was comparable. Pacing cycle length thresholds to induce CaT alternans or APD alternans were longer in CKD rats than normal rats (100±7 versus 80±3 ms and 93±6 versus 76±4 ms for CaT and APD alternans, respectively, P<0.05), suggesting increased vulnerability to ventricular arrhythmia. Ventricular fibrillation was induced in 9 of 12 CKD rats and 2 of 9 normal rats (P<0.05); early afterdepolarization occurred in two CKD rats but not normal rats. The mRNA levels of TGF-β, microRNA-21, and sodium calcium-exchanger type 1 were upregulated, whereas the levels of microRNA-29, L-type calcium channel, sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium-ATPase type 2a, Kv1.4, and Kv4.3 were downregulated in CKD rats. Cardiac fibrosis was mild and not different between groups. We conclude that cardiac ion channel and calcium handling are abnormal in CKD rats, leading to increased vulnerability to early afterdepolarization, triggered activity, and ventricular arrhythmias.
    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. 05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate determined. The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and adipocytes exposed to elevated phosphorus can induce calcification of VSMC in a paracrine manner. Sodium thiosulfate inhibited this calcification and decreased the secretin of leptin and VEGF from adipocytes. These results suggest that adipocyte exposure to elevated phosphorus may be a pathogenic factor in calcification observed in the skin in calciphylaxis and other diseases.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 05/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Calcification can occur in fat in multiple clinical conditions including in the dermis, breasts and in the abdomen in calciphylaxis. All of these are more common in patients with advanced kidney disease. Clinically, hyperphosphatemia and obesity are risk factors. Thus we tested the hypothesis that adipocytes can calcify in the presence of elevated phosphorus and/or that adipocytes exposed to phosphorus can induce vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification. Methods 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced into mature adipocytes and then treated with media containing high phosphorus. Calcification was assessed biochemically and PCR performed to determine the expression of genes for osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation. Adipocytes were also co-cultured with bovine VSMC to determine paracrine effects, and the efficacy of sodium thiosulfate determined. Results The results demonstrated that high phosphorus induced the calcification of differentiated adipocytes with increased expression of osteopontin, the osteoblast transcription factor Runx2 and decreased expression of adipocyte transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (CEBPα), indicating that high phosphorus led to a phenotypic switch of adipocytes to an osteoblast like phenotype. Sodium thiosulfate, dose dependently decreased adipocyte calcification and inhibited adipocyte induced increase of VSMC calcification. Co-culture studies demonstrated that adipocytes facilitated VSMC calcification partially mediated by changes of secretion of leptin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from adipocytes. Conclusion High phosphorus induced calcification of mature adipocytes, and adipocytes exposed to elevated phosphorus can induce calcification of VSMC in a paracrine manner. Sodium thiosulfate inhibited this calcification and decreased the secretin of leptin and VEGF from adipocytes. These results suggest that adipocyte exposure to elevated phosphorus may be a pathogenic factor in calcification observed in the skin in calciphylaxis and other diseases.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD), which leads tocortical bone loss and increasedporosity,increases therisk of fracture. Animal models have confirmed that these changes compromise whole bone mechanical properties. Estimates from whole bone testing suggest that material properties are negatively affected, though tissue-level assessmentshavenot been conducted. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to examine changes in cortical bone at different length scales using a rat model with theprogressive development of CKD. At 30 weeks of age (∼75% reduction in kidney function), skeletally mature male Cy/+ rats were compared to their normal littermates. Cortical bone material propertieswere assessed with reference point indentation (RPI), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy,and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Bones from animals with CKD had higher (+18%) indentation distance increase and first cycle energy dissipation (+8%) as measured by RPI.AFM indentation revealed a broader distribution of elastic modulus values in CKD animals witha greater proportion of both higher and lower modulus values compared to normal controls. Yet, tissue composition, collagen morphology, and collagen cross-linking fail to account for these differences. Though the specific skeletal tissue alterations responsible for these mechanical differences remain unclear, these results indicate that cortical bone material properties are altered in these animals and may contribute to the increased fracture risk associated with CKD.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(6):e99262. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Premature cardiovascular disease limits the duration and quality of life on long-term hemodialysis. The objective of this study was to define the frequency of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events attributable to atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic mechanisms, risk factors for these events, and the effects of cinacalcet, using adjudicated data collected during the EValuation of Cinacalcet HCl Therapy to Lower CardioVascular Events (EVOLVE) Trial. EVOLVE was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial that randomized 3883 hemodialysis patients with moderate to severe secondary hyperparathyroidism to cinacalcet or matched placebo for up to 64 months. For this post hoc analysis, the outcome measure was fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events reflecting atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. During the trial, 1518 patients experienced an adjudicated cardiovascular event, including 958 attributable to nonatherosclerotic disease. Of 1421 deaths during the trial, 768 (54%) were due to cardiovascular disease. Sudden death was the most frequent fatal cardiovascular event, accounting for 24.5% of overall mortality. Combining fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events, randomization to cinacalcet reduced the rates of sudden death and heart failure. Patients randomized to cinacalcet experienced fewer nonatherosclerotic cardiovascular events (adjusted relative hazard 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96), while the effect of cinacalcet on atherosclerotic events did not reach statistical significance. Accepting the limitations of post hoc analysis, any benefits of cinacalcet on cardiovascular disease in the context of hemodialysis may result from attenuation of nonatherosclerotic processes. Unique identifier: NCT00345839. URL: ClinicalTrials.gov. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2014; 3(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity-associated elevations in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are common and may play a role in the development of kidney disease, so identifying the underlying mechanism is important. We therefore studied whether reductions in dietary protein intake, which is known to modulate GFR, explain why GFR decreases after bariatric surgery-induced weight loss. Cohort study with participants as their own controls. 8 severely obese patients with normal kidney function were recruited from bariatric surgery centers in Indianapolis, IN. All participants were placed on a fixed-protein (50-g/d) diet for 1 week before and after a minimum of a 20-kg weight loss by bariatric surgery and were followed up closely by dieticians for adherence. Ad lib versus low-protein diet before versus after bariatric surgery. Measured GFR, using repeated-measures analysis, was used to estimate the independent effects of diet and surgery. GFR was measured using plasma iohexol clearance. A median of 32.9 (range, 19.5-54.4)kg was lost between the first presurgery visit and first postsurgery visit. Dietetic evaluations and urinary urea excretion confirmed that patients generally adhered to the study diet. GFRs on an ad lib diet were significantly higher before compared to after surgery (GFR medians were 144 (range, 114-178) and 107 (range, 85-147) mL/min, respectively; P=0.01). Although bariatric surgery (-26mL/min; P=0.005) and dietary sodium intake (+7.5mL/min per 100mg of dietary sodium; P=0.001) both influenced GFR, consuming a low-protein diet did not (P=0.7). Small sample size; mostly white women; possible lack of generalizability. The decrease in GFR observed after bariatric surgery is explained at least in part by the effects of surgery and/or dietary sodium intake, but not by low dietary protein consumption.
    American Journal of Kidney Diseases 12/2013; · 5.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Identifying the best method to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in bariatric surgery patients has important implications for the clinical care of obese patients and research into the impact of obesity and weight reduction on kidney health. We therefore performed such an analysis in patients before and after surgical weight loss. Methods: Fasting measured GFR (mGFR) by plasma iohexol clearance before and after bariatric surgery was obtained in 36 severely obese individuals. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation using serum creatinine only, the CKD-EPI equation using serum cystatin C only and a recently derived equation that uses both serum creatinine and cystatin C (CKD-EPIcreat-cystC) and then compared to mGFR. Results: Participants were primarily middle-aged white females with a mean baseline body mass index of 46 ± 9, serum creatinine of 0.81 ± 0.24 mg/dl and mGFR of 117 ± 40 ml/min. mGFR had a stronger linear relationship with inverse cystatin C before (r = 0.28, p = 0.09) and after (r = 0.38, p = 0.02) surgery compared to the inverse of creatinine (before: r = 0.26, p = 0.13; after: r = 0.11, p = 0.51). mGFR fell by 17 ± 35 ml/min (p = 0.007) following surgery. The CKD-EPIcreat-cystC was unquestionably the best overall performing estimating equation before and after surgery, revealing very little bias and a capacity to estimate mGFR within 30% of its true value over 80% of the time. This was true whether or not mGFR was indexed for body surface area. Conclusions: In severely obese bariatric surgery patients with normal kidney function, cystatin C is more strongly associated with mGFR than is serum creatinine. The CKD-EPIcreat-cystC equation best predicted mGFR both before and after surgery. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American Journal of Nephrology 12/2013; 39(1):8-15. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high prevalence of periodontal disease that may predispose to tooth loss and inflammation. The goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that a genetic rat model of progressive CKD would exhibit altered oral bone properties and that treatment with either bisphosphonates or calcium could attenuate these adverse changes. Methods: At 25 weeks of age, rats were treated with zoledronate (ZOL), calcium gluconate, or their combination for 5 or 10 weeks. Mandible bone properties were assessed using micro-computed tomography to determine bone volume (BV/TV) and cementum-enamel junction to alveolar crest distance (CEJ-AC). Results: Untreated CKD animals had significantly lower BV/TV at both 30 (-5%) and 35 (-14%) weeks of age and higher CEJ-AC (+27 and 29%) compared to normal animals. CKD animals had a significantly higher parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared to normal animals, yet similar levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). ZOL treatment normalized BV/TV over the first 5 weeks but this benefit was lost by 10 weeks. Calcium treatment, alone or in combination with ZOL, was effective in normalizing BV/TV at both time points. Neither ZOL nor calcium was able to correct the higher CEJ-AC caused by CKD. Calcium, but not ZOL, significantly reduced serum PTH, while neither treatment affected CRP. Conclusions: (i) This progressive animal model of CKD shows a clear mandibular skeletal phenotype consistent with periodontitis, (ii) the periodontitis is not associated with systemic inflammation as measured by CRP, and (iii) reducing PTH has positive effects on the mandible phenotype. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    American Journal of Nephrology 11/2013; 38(6):458-464. · 2.62 Impact Factor
  • Sharon M Moe, Ravi Thadhani
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    ABSTRACT: The treatment of chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) has traditionally focused on improvement in biochemical parameters of the disease. However, studies evaluating hard clinical end points or surrogate end points are limited. Two randomized controlled trials have recently been published. In the EVOLVE study (Evaluation of Cinacalcet Hydrochloride Therapy to Lower Cardiovascular Events), cinacalcet was compared with placebo in 3883 haemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The primary end point (death, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, heart failure or peripheral vascular disease) in an unadjusted intention-to-treat analysis was not significant [hazard ratio 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85-1.02, P = 0.11]. However, the pre-specified secondary end points of an adjusted intention-to-treat analysis (hazard ratio 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.97, P = 0.008) were significant. In the PRIMO (Paricalcitol Capsule Benefits in Renal Failure Induced Cardiac Morbidity) trial, 227 patients with CKD stage 3-4 and left ventricular hypertrophy by echocardiography were randomized to paricalcitol or placebo. The primary end point of change in left ventricular mass index by MRI after 12 months was not different between the two groups, but the prespecified end point of cardiovascular-related hospitalizations was reduced in the paricalcitol-treated group (P = 0.04). The results of these two randomized controlled trials have negative primary end points but significant secondary end points and thus require physicians to individualize therapies for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
    Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension 11/2013; 22(6):651-655. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context:The clinical course of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) in patients on hemodialysis is not well described, and the effect of the calcimimetic cinacalcet on disease progression is uncertain.Objective:To describe (a) the clinical course of sHPT in patients treated with phosphate binders and/or vitamin D sterols and (b) the impact of cinacalcet on occurrence of severe unremitting HPT, defined by the persistence of markedly elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations together with hypercalcemia or parathyroidectomy (PTX).Design:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.Setting:Global, multicenter.Patients:3883 patients on hemodialysis of 5755 screened with moderate to severe sHPT.Main outcome measures:Parathyroidectomy, severe, unremitting HPT and use of commercial cinacalcet (a protocol violation).Intervention:Cinacalcet (30 to 180 mg daily) or placebo for up to 64 months.Results:In the 1935 patients randomized to placebo, 278 (14%) patients underwent PTX (median PTH 1872 pg/mL within prior 12 weeks of surgery). Age, sex, geographic region, co-morbidity, calcium-containing phosphate binder use, and baseline serum calcium, phosphorus and PTH concentrations were associated with PTX. Commercial cinacalcet was started in 443 (23%) patients (median PTH 1108 pg/mL before treatment began). Severe unremitting HPT developed in 470 (24%) patients. In a multivariable Cox model, the relative hazard (comparing patients randomized to cinacalcet versus placebo) of severe unremitting HPT was 0.31 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.37). The relative hazard differed little when adjusted by baseline clinical characteristics.Conclusions:Severe unremitting HPT develops frequently in patients on hemodialysis despite conventional therapy, and cinacalcet substantially reduces its occurrence.
    The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 10/2013; · 6.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased risk of fractures, yet the optimal treatment is unknown. In secondary analyses of large randomized trials, bisphosphonates have been shown to improve bone mineral density and reduce fractures. However, bisphosphonates are currently not recommended in patients with advanced kidney disease due to concern about over-suppressing bone remodeling, which may increase the risk of developing arterial calcification. In the present study we used a naturally occurring rat model of CKD with secondary hyperparathyroidism, the Cy/+ rat, and compared the efficacy of treatment with zoledronic acid, calcium given in water to simulate a phosphate binder, and the combination of calcium and zoledronic acid. Animals were treated beginning at 25 weeks of age (approximately 30% of normal renal function) and followed for ten weeks. The results demonstrate that both zoledronic acid and calcium improved bone volume by microCT and both equally suppressed mineral apposition rate, bone formation rate, and mineralizing surface of trabecular bone. In contrast, only calcium treatment with or without zoledronic acid improved cortical porosity and cortical biomechanical properties (ultimate load and stiffness) and lowered parathyroid hormone (PTH). However, only calcium treatment led to the adverse effects of increased arterial calcification and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). These results suggest zoledronic acid may improve trabecular bone volume in CKD in the presence of secondary hyperparathyroidism, but does not benefit extraskeletal calcification or cortical biomechanical properties. Calcium effectively reduces PTH and benefits both cortical and trabecular bone yet increases the degree of extra skeletal calcification.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 09/2013; · 6.04 Impact Factor
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    Ranjani N Moorthi, Sharon M Moe
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is the term used to describe a constellation of biochemical abnormalities, bone disturbances that may lead to fractures, and extraskeletal calcification in soft tissues and arteries seen in CKD. This review focuses on the noninvasive diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy, the term used exclusively to define the bone pathology associated with CKD. Transiliac bone biopsy and histomorphometry with double-labeled tetracycline or its derivatives remains the gold standard for diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. However, histomorphometry provides a 'window' into bone only at a single point in time, and is not clinically practical for studying continuous changes in bone morphology. Furthermore, the etiology of fractures in CKD is multifactorial and not fully explained by histomorphometry findings alone. The propensity of a bone to fracture is determined by bone strength, which is affected by bone mass and bone quality; the latter is a term used to describe the structure and composition of bone. Bone quantity is traditionally assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and CT-based methods. Bone quality is more difficult to assess noninvasively, but newer techniques are emerging and are described in this review. Ultimately, the optimal diagnostic strategy for renal osteodystrophy may be a combination of multiple imaging techniques and biomarkers that are specific to each gender and race in CKD, with a goal of predicting fracture risk and optimizing therapy.Kidney International advance online publication, 26 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.254.
    Kidney International 06/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) is a calcium-dependent enzyme that can cross-link nearly all extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and can facilitate cell-ECM interaction through integrins. Given the importance of the ECM in vascular calcification we tested the hypothesis that increased TGM2 activity may accelerate vascular calcification in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods: We utilized thoracic aortas and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the Cy/+ rat, a model of progressive CKD that develops arterial calcification on a normal phosphorus diet, compared to normal rats. Results: VSMC isolated from CKD rats had increased expression and activity of TGM2 compared to cells from normal rats. The increased calcification and expression of alkaline phosphatase activity observed in VSMC from CKD rats compared to normal was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner with the TGM inhibitors cystamine and Z006. Matrix vesicles (MV) from CKD rat VSMC also had increased TGM2 expression and the calcification of MV on type I collagen could be inhibited with cystamine and accelerated by exogenous cross-linking of fibronectin or type I collagen with TGM2. Finally, the calcification of aorta rings from CKD rats in ex vivo cultures was inhibited with TGM2 inhibitor. Conclusion: These data demonstrate a role of TGM2 in the pathogenesis of vascular calcification in CKD through enhancement of MV-ECM calcification.
    American Journal of Nephrology 02/2013; 37(3):191-198. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with CKD have abnormal vascular remodeling that is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) control mRNA expression intracellularly and are secreted into the circulation; three miRNAs (miR-125b, miR-145 and miR-155) are known to alter vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and differentiation. We measured these vascular miRNAs in blood from 90 patients with CKD and found decreased circulating levels with progressive loss of eGFR by multivariate analyses. Expression of these vascular miRNAs miR-125b, miR-145, and miR-155 was decreased in the thoracic aorta in CKD rats compared to normal rats, with concordant changes in target genes of RUNX2, angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and myocardin. Furthermore, the expression of miR-155 was negatively correlated with the quantity of calcification in the aorta, a process known to be preceded by vascular de-differentiation in these animals. We then examined the mechanisms of miRNA regulation in primary VSMC and found decreased expression of miR-125b, 145, and 155 in VSMC from rats with CKD compared to normal littermates but no alteration in DROSHA or DICER, indicating that the low levels of expression is not due to altered intracellular processing. Finally, overexpression of miR-155 in VSMC from CKD rats inhibited AT1R expression and decreased cellular proliferation supporting a direct effect of miR-155 on VSMC. In conclusion, we have found ex vivo and in vitro evidence for decreased expression of these vascular miRNA in CKD, suggesting that alterations in miRNAs may lead to the synthetic state of VSMC found in CKD. The decreased levels in the circulation may reflect decreased vascular release but more studies are needed to confirm this relationship.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e64558. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of studies evaluating the change in liver metabolism in subjects receiving hemodialysis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of uremic toxins on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolism before and after a 4-hour hemodialysis session. Midazolam and dextromethorphan were incubated with uremic serum collected from subjects before and after the 4-hour hemodialysis session. Analysis and quantification of the 1'-OH-midazolam and 4-OH-midazolam and dextrorphan metabolites were performed by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Statistical analysis using the Student's t-test (paired) was used to compare the amount of metabolite formed. The mean amount of 1'-OH-midazolam, 4-OH-midazolam, and dextrorphan metabolites formed before and after hemodialysis did not significantly differ. There was no significant difference in CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolic activity in uremic serum before and after hemodialysis.
    Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications 01/2013; 5:193-9.
  • Nephrology 01/2013; · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are given calcium carbonate to bind dietary phosphorus, reduce phosphorus retention, and prevent negative calcium balance; however, data are limited on calcium and phosphorus balance during CKD to support this. Here, we studied eight patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate 36 ml/min) who received a controlled diet with or without a calcium carbonate supplement (1500 mg/day calcium) during two 3-week balance periods in a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over design. All feces and urine were collected during weeks 2 and 3 of each balance period and fasting blood, and urine was collected at baseline and at the end of each week. Calcium kinetics were determined using oral and intravenous (45)calcium. Patients were found to be in neutral calcium and phosphorus balance while on the placebo. Calcium carbonate supplementation produced positive calcium balance, did not affect phosphorus balance, and produced only a modest reduction in urine phosphorus excretion compared with placebo. Calcium kinetics demonstrated positive net bone balance but less than overall calcium balance, suggesting soft-tissue deposition. Fasting blood and urine biochemistries of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were unaffected by calcium carbonate. Thus, the positive calcium balance produced by calcium carbonate treatment within 3 weeks cautions against its use as a phosphate binder in patients with stage 3 or 4 CKD, if these findings can be extrapolated to long-term therapy.Kidney Internationaladvance online publication, 19 December 2012; doi:10.1038/ki.2012.403.
    Kidney International 12/2012; · 8.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
728.65 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2014
    • Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 1994–2014
    • Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Mahidol University
      Krung Thep, Bangkok, Thailand
  • 2012
    • NorthShore University HealthSystem
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006–2012
    • Indiana University-Purdue University School of Medicine
      • • Division of Nephrology
      • • Anatomy and Cell Biology
      • • Department of Medicine
      Indianapolis, Indiana, United States
  • 2011
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2010
    • Winthrop University Hospital
      • Division of Nephrology & Hypertension
      Mineola, New York, United States
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Medicine
      Seattle, WA, United States
  • 2007
    • Baylor College of Medicine
      • Division of Nephrology
      Houston, TX, United States
  • 2003
    • Minneapolis Veterans Affairs Hospital
      Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Medicine
      Chicago, IL, United States