Enrique Vidal

Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

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Publications (13)47.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Releases to the environment of pollutants from industrial metal production and processing installations can pose a health problem to humans, owing to the toxic substances that such emissions contain. To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumours of the digestive system among the population residing near Spanish metal production and processing installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Ecological study designed to examine mortality due to malignant tumours of the digestive system (oral cavity and pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and colon-rectum) at the municipal level, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to the pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analysed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometre zone around installations by year of commencement of operations; effect of pollution discharge route (air or water) and type of industrial activity; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometre radius of such installations. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for colorectal cancer (1.05, 1.02-1.08 in men; 1.04, 1.00-1.07 in women) and liver cancer (1.06, 1.00-1.12 in men), with this risk being concentrated in installations that released pollution to air. On stratifying by type of industrial activity, statistically significant associations were also observed between the remaining tumours and certain metal production and processing activities. There was also a gradient effect in the proximity to a number of installations. The results support the existence of an association between risk of dying due to some tumours of the digestive system and residential proximity to the Spanish metal production and processing installations studied.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2010; 408(16):3102-12. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1990s, there has been a downturn in mortality for specific types of tumour in Spain and other European countries. This article reports on the current situation of cancer mortality in Spain, as well as mortality trends over the period 1980-2007, and provides an overview of cancer mortality trends in Europe in recent years. Data were sourced from the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística - INE) and the World Health Organization mortality database. Mortality trends were studied using change-point Poisson regression models. All-cancer mortality decreased in both sexes from 1980 to 2007, owing to the fact that the tumours responsible for the highest number of deaths registered declining trends from the mid-1990s onwards. In men, mortality due to stomach and prostate cancer fell by >3% per annum in the last 10 years of the study period. In women, the largest contributions to the fall in cancer mortality were due to breast and colorectal cancers. In contrast, female mortality due to smoking-related cancers rose significantly. Within the European context, Spain's estimated 2005 mortality rates were intermediate for men and low for women. Cancer control is progressing in the right direction in Spain. Further interventions directed to reduce tobacco-related cancer mortality remain a priority, particularly for women.
    Annals of Oncology 05/2010; 21 Suppl 3:iii14-20. · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: While the timing of reproductive events varies across populations, a downward trend in age at menarche has nevertheless been reported in most of the developed world over the past century. Given the impact of change in age at menarche on health conditions, this study sought to examine secular trends in age at menarche among women living in Navarre (Northern Spain) who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening programme. The study was based on 110545 women born from 1925 to 1962. Trends were tested using a linear regression model, in which year of birth was entered continuously as the predictor and age at menarche (years) as the response variable, using size of town and region of birth as covariates. Among women born in Navarre between 1925 and 1962, age at menarche declined steadily from an average of 13.72 years in the 1925-1929 birth-cohorts to 12.83 years in the 1958-1962 birth-cohorts. Controlling for size of town or city of birth, age at menarche declined by an average of 0.132 years every 5 years over the period 1925-1962. This decline was greater in women born in rural versus urban settings. Trends were also different among regions of birth. We report a population-based study showing a downward trend in age of onset of menarche among Spanish women born in the period 1925-1962, something that is more pronounced among women born in rural settings and varies geographically.
    BMC Public Health 12/2009; 9:449. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the 1980s, Spain experienced two decades of sharply increasing breast cancer incidence. Declines in breast cancer incidence have recently been reported in many developed countries. We examined whether a similar downturn might have taken place in Spain in recent years. Cases of invasive female breast cancer were drawn from all population-based Spanish cancer registries that had at least 10 years of uninterrupted registration over the period 1980-2004. Overall and age-specific changes in incidence rates were evaluated using change-point Poisson models, which allow for accurate detection and estimation of trend changes. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 80,453 incident cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Overall age- and registry-adjusted incidence rates rose by 2.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7% to 3.1%) annually during the 1980s and 1990s; there was a statistically significant change in this trend in 2001 (95% CI = 1998 to 2004; P value for the existence of a change point <.001), after which incidence declined annually by 3.0% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.1%). This trend differed by age group: There was a steady increase in incidence for women younger than 45 years, an abrupt downturn in 2001 for women aged 45-64 years, and a gradual leveling off in 1995 for women aged 65 years or older. Separate analyses for registries that had at least 15 years of uninterrupted registration detected a statistically significant interruption of the previous upward trend in breast cancer incidence in provinces that had aggressive breast cancer screening programs and high screening participation rates, including Navarra (change point = 1991, P < .001), Granada (change point = 2002, P = .003), Bizkaia (change point = 1998, P < .001), Gipuzkoa (change point = 1998, P = .001), and Araba (change point = 1997, P = .002). The recent downturn in breast cancer incidence among Spanish women older than 45 years is best explained by a period effect linked to screening saturation.
    CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 10/2009; 101(22):1584-91. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is decreasing in most countries. While socioeconomic development is the main factor to which this decline has been attributed, enormous differences among countries and within regions are still observed, with the main contributing factors remaining elusive. This study describes the geographic distribution of gastric cancer mortality at a municipal level in Spain, from 1994-2003. Smoothed relative risks of stomach cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag-York-Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Maps depicting relative risk (RR) estimates and posterior probabilities of RR being greater than 1 were plotted. From 1994-2003, 62184 gastric cancer deaths were registered in Spain (7 percent of all deaths due to malignant tumors). The geographic pattern was similar for both sexes. RRs displayed a south-north and coast-inland gradient, with lower risks being observed in Andalusia, the Mediterranean coastline, the Balearic and Canary Islands and the Cantabrian seaboard. The highest risk was concentrated along the west coast of Galicia, broad areas of the Castile & Leon Autonomous community, the province of Cáceres in Extremadura, Lleida and other areas of Catalonia. In Spain, risk of gastric cancer mortality displays a striking geographic distribution. With some differences, this persistent and unique pattern is similar across the sexes, suggesting the implication of environmental exposures from sources, such as diet or ground water, which could affect both sexes and delimited geographic areas. Also, the higher sex-ratios found in some areas with high risk of smoking-related cancer mortality in males support the role of tobacco in gastric cancer etiology.
    BMC Cancer 09/2009; 9:316. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of oncologic death worldwide. One of the most noteworthy characteristics of this tumor's epidemiology is the marked decline reported in its incidence and mortality in almost every part of the globe in recent decades. This study sought to describe gastric cancer mortality time trends in Spain's regions for both sexes. Mortality data for the period 1976 through 2005 were obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases 9th and 10th revision (codes 151 and C16, respectively). Crude and standardized mortality rates were calculated by geographic area, sex, and five-year period. Joinpoint regression analyses were performed to ascertain whether changes in gastric cancer mortality trends had occurred, and to estimate the annual percent change by sex and geographic area. Gastric cancer mortality decreased across the study period, with the downward trend being most pronounced in women and in certain regions situated in the interior and north of mainland Spain. Across the study period, there was an overall decrease of 2.90% per annum among men and 3.65% per annum among women. Generally, regions in which the rate of decline was sharpest were those that had initially registered the highest rates. However, the rate of decline was not constant throughout the study period: joinpoint analysis detected a shift in trend for both sexes in the early 1980s. Gastric cancer mortality displayed in both sexes a downward trend during the study period, both nationally and regionally. The different trend in rates in the respective geographic areas translated as greater regional homogeneity in gastric cancer mortality by the end of the study period. In contrast, rates in women fell more than did those in men. The increasing differences between the sexes could indicate that some risk factors may be modifying the sex-specific pattern of this tumor.
    BMC Cancer 09/2009; 9:346. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cancers of the breast, uterus and ovary are responsible for 30% of the cancer deaths in Spanish women. In recent decades, Spain has experienced important socioeconomic transformations, which may have affected mortality trends. We present the current situation of mortality in Spain due to cancers of the breast, uterus and ovary, as well as trends over 1980-2006. Data on population and deaths due to cancers of the breast, uterus and ovary were obtained from records of the National Statistics Institute. Overall and age-specific changes in mortality of these tumors were studied using change-point Poisson regression models. Breast cancer was responsible for more than 140,000 deaths of females in 1980-2006. Trend analysis of breast cancer mortality of women of all ages showed that rates increased 2.9% annually until 1992 (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5, 3.3). After 1992, mortality declined steadily at a rate of -2.1% per year (95% CI=-2.4, -1.8). The number of deaths due to cancers of the uterus was 49,287 between the years 1980 and 2006. Uterine cancer mortality registered a steady decrease of -1.9% every year since 1980 (95% CI=-2.1, -1.8). Ovarian cancer caused 36,157 deaths during the same period, with rates in women older than 50 years more than ten-fold those of younger women. Trend analysis showed a sharp increase of mortality up to 1998 (4.4% annually; 95% CI=3.9, 4.8) followed by a stabilization. The downturn observed in mortality for these tumors mainly reflects improved survival as a result of earlier diagnosis and better cancer treatments. Cancer management is moving in the right direction in Spain.
    Cancer epidemiology. 09/2009; 33(3-4):169-75.
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    ABSTRACT: Installations that burn fossil fuels to generate power may represent a health problem due to the toxic substances which they release into the environment. To investigate whether there might be excess mortality due to tumors of lung, larynx and bladder in the population residing near Spanish combustion installations included in the European Pollutant Emission Register. Ecologic study designed to model sex-specific standardized mortality ratios for the above three tumors in Spanish towns, over the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we analyzed: risk of dying from cancer in a 5-kilometer zone around installations that commenced operations before 1990; effect of type of fuel used; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometer radius of such installations. Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations for lung cancer (1.066, 1.041-1.091 in the overall population; 1.084, 1.057-1.111 in men), and laryngeal cancer among men (1.067, 0.992-1.148). Lung cancer displayed excess mortality for all types of fuel used, whereas in laryngeal and bladder cancer, the excess was associated with coal-fired industries. There was a risk gradient effect in the proximity of a number of installations. Our results could support the hypothesis of an association between risk of lung, laryngeal and bladder cancer mortality and proximity to Spanish combustion installations.
    Science of The Total Environment 02/2009; 407(8):2593-602. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHLs) have been linked to proximity to industrial areas, but evidence regarding the health risk posed by residence near pollutant industries is very limited. The European Pollutant Emission Register (EPER) is a public register that furnishes valuable information on industries that release pollutants to air and water, along with their geographical location.This study sought to explore the relationship between NHL mortality in small areas in Spain and environmental exposure to pollutant emissions from EPER-registered industries, using three Poisson-regression-based mathematical models. Observed cases were drawn from mortality registries in Spain for the period 1994-2003. Industries were grouped into the following sectors: energy; metal; mineral; organic chemicals; waste; paper; food; and use of solvents. Populations having an industry within a radius of 1, 1.5, or 2 kilometres from the municipal centroid were deemed to be exposed. Municipalities outside those radii were considered as reference populations.The relative risks (RRs) associated with proximity to pollutant industries were estimated using the following methods: Poisson Regression; mixed Poisson model with random provincial effect; and spatial autoregressive modelling (BYM model). Only proximity of paper industries to population centres (>2 km) could be associated with a greater risk of NHL mortality (mixed model: RR:1.24, 95% CI:1.09-1.42; BYM model: RR:1.21, 95% CI:1.01-1.45; Poisson model: RR:1.16, 95% CI:1.06-1.27). Spatial models yielded higher estimates. The reported association between exposure to air pollution from the paper, pulp and board industry and NHL mortality is independent of the model used. Inclusion of spatial random effects terms in the risk estimate improves the study of associations between environmental exposures and mortality.The EPER could be of great utility when studying the effects of industrial pollution on the health of the population.
    BMC Public Health 01/2009; 9:26. · 2.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Since the second half of the 1990s, kidney cancer mortality has tended to stabilize and decline in many European countries, due to the decrease in the prevalence of smokers. Nevertheless, incidence of kidney cancer is rising across the sexes in some of these countries, a trend which may possibly reflect the fact that improvements in diagnostic techniques are being outweighed by the increased prevalence of some of this tumor's risk factors. This study sought to: examine the geographic pattern of kidney cancer mortality in Spain; suggest possible hypotheses that would help explain these patterns; and enhance existing knowledge about the large proportion of kidney tumors whose cause remains unknown. Smoothed municipal relative risks (RRs) for kidney cancer mortality were calculated in men and women, using the conditional autoregressive model proposed by Besag, York and Molliè. Maps were plotted depicting smoothed relative risk estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability of RR>1 by sex. Municipal maps displayed a marked geographic pattern, with excess mortality in both sexes, mainly in towns along the Bay of Biscay, including areas of Asturias, the Basque Country and, to a lesser extent, Cantabria. Among women, the geographic pattern was strikingly singular, not in evidence for any other tumors, and marked by excess risk in towns situated in the Salamanca area and Extremaduran Autonomous Region. This difference would lead one to postulate the existence of different exposures of environmental origin in the various regions. The reasons for this pattern of distribution are not clear, and it would thus be of interest if the effect of industrial emissions on this disease could be studied. The excess mortality observed among women in towns situated in areas with a high degree of natural radiation could reflect the influence of exposures which derive from the geologic composition of the terrain and then become manifest through the agency of drinking water.
    BMC Cancer 10/2008; 8:293. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. During the study period (1989-1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale.
    BMC Cancer 10/2008; 8:258. · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER-Spain industries. Knowing the exact location of pollutant foci is vital to obtain reliable and valid conclusions in any study where distance to the focus is a decisive factor, as in the case of the consequences of industrial pollution on the health of neighbouring populations.
    International Journal of Health Geographics 02/2008; 7:1. · 2.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: El cáncer de mama es el tumor más frecuente en Europa. Según la Agencia Internacional de investigación del Cáncer, en 2006 se diagnosticaron unos 429.900 casos nuevos de cáncer de mama en Europa, con una tasa estandarizada de incidencia de 110 casos por 100.000 mujeres. También es la localización más frecuente en mujeres españolas: supone casi la cuarta parte de los casos de cáncer femeninos, y su incidencia está aumentando entre un 2-3% anual. Entre las posibles causas de este incremento están los cambios en los patrones reproductivos y en los hábitos de vida y la introducción de la terapia hormonal sustitutiva. Nuestro país, con una tasa de incidencia estandarizada estimada de 93,6 casos por 100.000 mujeres-año para 2006, ocupa una posición intermedia entre los países de Europa occidental y los del este. Es también una importante causa de mortalidad femenina. En 2005 causó la muerte de 5.703 mujeres españolas, con una tasa de mortalidad estandarizada de 18,6 por 100.000 mujeres-año. Desde los años 90 la mortalidad por cáncer de mama está descendiendo debido al diagnóstico precoz por programas de cribado y a los avances terapéuticos. En España esta tendencia decreciente se observa a partir de 1993, con un descenso de un 2,4% anual. La supervivencia global en Europa a los 5 años es cercana al 79%, inferior a la observada en EEUU (90%), y ha aumentado en los últimos años. En España, se sitúa en un 83%, significativamente más alta que la media europea. Breast cancer is the most frequent neoplasm in Europe. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, there were an estimated 429,900 cases diagnosed in Europe in 2006, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 110 cases per 100,000 women. It is also the most frequent cancer in Spanish women, accounting for one forth of female cancer cases, and its incidence is increasing around 2-3% per year. Changes in reproductive behaviour and life style along with the introduction of hormone replacement therapy are partially responsible of this trend. Our country, with an estimated age-standardised incidence rate of 93.6 cases per 100,000 women-year in 2006, occupies an intermediate position between Western and Eastern European countries. This tumour also represents an important cause of female mortality. In 2005, it caused 5,703 deaths in Spanish women, with an age-standardised mortality rate of 18.6 per 100,000 women-year. However, since the 90’s, breast cancer mortality is declining thanks to earlier diagnosis derived from population screening programs and to therapeutical advances. In Spain this downward trend has started in 1993, declining a 2.4% per year. In Europe, 5-year global survival is close to 79%, lower than EEUU survival estimates (90%). Breast cancer survival has risen in recent years. In Spain, 5-year survival is around 83%, significantly higher than European average.
    Psicooncología, 2007. 01/2007;