K. K. Marhas

Washington University in St. Louis, San Luis, Missouri, United States

Are you K. K. Marhas?

Claim your profile

Publications (77)338.18 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Water content in melt inclusions and apatites in low-Ti lunar mare basalt provide clues for lunar magma processes.
    03/2013;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report C, N, O, Si, Al–Mg, K, Ca, and Ti isotopic analyses of presolar graphite grains from the Orgueil CI chondrite. NanoSIMS isotopic measurements were made on 345 grains from seven density fractions, with grain sizes >1 μm: low-density grains from OR1b, OR1c, and OR1d; and high-density grains from OR1f, OR1g, OR1h, and OR1i. In all fractions, except OR1b and OR1h, we found presolar graphite as demonstrated by the large range of 12C/13C ratios (4–2480) measured in individual grains. Some isotopic properties are dependent on density: low-density grains contain 18O, 15N, and 28Si excesses, while the majority of high-density grains contain normal N and O, and are generally enriched in 29Si and 30Si. The 15N, 18O, and 28Si excesses and very high derived isotopic ratios for the extinct radionuclides 26Al, 41Ca, and 44Ti in low-density grains indicate an origin from supernovae. In order to explain the isotopic ratios measured in these grains, we present mixing scenarios between different layers of supernovae and discuss the limitations of various theoretical models. Silicon-30 and 12C excesses in high-density grains and lower values for short-lived radionuclides (26Al and 41Ca) indicate an origin in asymptotic giant branch stars with low metallicities. Some supernova grains, with 44Ca excesses, are also present amongst the high-density grains. Grains with low 12C/13C ratios (without evidence for 44Ti) and large excesses in 42,43Ca and 46,47,49,50Ti probably originate from post-asymptotic giant branch stars, that have suffered a very late thermal pulse, and can achieve low 12C/13C ratios and large neutron capture signatures in Ca and Ti isotopes. We conclude that most low-density graphite grains originate from supernovae while high-density graphite grains have multiple stellar sources: low-metallicity and born-again asymptotic giant branch stars, Type II supernovae, and possibly, J-type stars.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 01/2013; 113:193-224. · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Measurement of hydroxyl ion in lunar apatite from Apollo 15555 suggests presence of water (~80-240 ppm) in the basaltic parent melt of the Lunar mantle.
    Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. 09/2012;
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract– The fluence of dust particles <10 μm in diameter was recorded by impacts on aluminum foil of the NASA Stardust spacecraft during a close flyby of comet 81P/Wild 2 in 2004. Initial interpretation of craters for impactor particle dimensions and mass was based upon laboratory experimental simulations using projectiles less than >10 μm in diameter and the resulting linear relationship of projectile to crater diameter was extrapolated to smaller sizes. We now describe a new experimental calibration program firing very small monodisperse silica projectiles (470 nm–10 μm) at approximately 6 km s−1. The results show an unexpected departure from linear relationship between 1 and 10 μm. We collated crater measurement data and, where applicable, impactor residue data for 596 craters gathered during the postmission preliminary examination phase. Using the new calibration, we recalculate the size of the particle responsible for each crater and hence reinterpret the cometary dust size distribution. We find a greater flux of small particles than previously reported. From crater morphology and residue composition of a subset of craters, the internal structure and dimensions of the fine dust particles are inferred and a “maximum-size” distribution for the subgrains composing aggregate particles is obtained. The size distribution of the small particles derived directly from the measured craters peaks at approximately 175 nm, but if this is corrected to allow for aggregate grains, the peak in subgrain sizes is at <100 nm.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 08/2010; 45(9):1409 - 1428.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have studied more than 2000 presolar silicon carbide (SiC) grains from the Murchison CM2 chondrite in the size range 0.2-0.5 {mu}m for C- and Si-isotopic compositions. In a subset of these grains, we also measured N-, Mg-Al-, S-, and Ca-Ti-isotopic compositions as well as trace element concentrations. The overall picture emerging from the isotope data is quite comparable with that of larger grains, except for the abundances of grains from Type II supernovae (SNeII) and low-metallicity asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. Especially, the latter are much more abundant among submicrometer-sized grains than among micrometer-sized grains. This implies that SiC grains from lower-than-solar-metallicity AGB stars are on average smaller than those from solar metallicity AGB stars which provided the majority of presolar SiC grains. We identified five grains with large enrichments in {sup 29}Si (up to 3.5x solar) and {sup 30}Si (up to 3.9x solar in three of these grains). These grains are most likely from SNeII. The isotopically light S ({sup 32}S/{sup 34}S of 2x solar) together with the heavy Si in one of these grains suggests that molecule formation precedes macroscopic mixing and dust formation in SNII ejecta. This adds to the complexity of SN mixing calculations and should be considered in future studies. In total, about 2% of the presolar SiC grains in the size range 0.2-0.5 {mu}m appear to come from SNeII. This is about a factor of 2 higher than for micrometer-sized grains and suggests that SNeII, on average, produce smaller SiC grains than solar metallicity AGB stars. The high {sup 29}Si/{sup 30}Si ratio in one of the SN grains suggests that current SN models underestimate the {sup 29}Si production in the C- and Ne-burning regions by about a factor of 2. It is shown that with this adjustment the solar {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si ratio can be well reproduced in Galactic chemical evolution models and that a merger of our Galaxy with a low-metallicity satellite some 1.5 Gyr before solar system formation could account for the slope 1.3 of the Si mainstream line.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract— We report the discovery that impacts in the Stardust cometary collector are not distributed randomly in the collecting media, but appear to be clustered on scales smaller than ˜10 cm. We also report the discovery of at least two populations of oblique tracks. We evaluate several hypotheses that could explain the observations. No hypothesis is consistent with all the observations, but the preponderance of evidence points toward at least one impact on the central Whipple shield of the spacecraft as the origin of both clustering and low-angle oblique tracks. High-angle oblique tracks unambiguously originate from a non-cometary impact on the spacecraft bus just forward of the collector.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2010; 43(1‐2):415 - 429.
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract— Recent results of isotopic dating studies (182Hf-182W, 26Al-26Mg) and the increasing number of observed igneous and metamorphosed fragments in (primitive) chondrites provide strong evidence that accretion of differentiated planetesimals predates that of primitive chondrite parent bodies. The primitive chondrites Adrar 003 and Acfer 094 contain some unusual fragments that seem to have undergone recrystallization. Magnesium isotope analyses reveal no detectable radiogenic 26Mg in any of the studied fragments. The possibility that evidence for 26Al was destroyed by parent body metamorphism after formation is not likely because several other constituents of these chondrites do not show any metamorphic features. Since final accretion of a planetesimal must have occurred after formation of its youngest components, formation of these parent bodies must thus have been relatively late (i.e., after most 26Al had decayed). Al-Mg isotope data for some igneous-textured clasts (granitoids and andesitic fragments) within the two chondrite regolith breccias Adzhi-Bogdo and Study Butte reveal also no evidence for radiogenic 26Mg. As calculated from the upper limits, the formation of these igneous clasts, the incorporation into the parent body regolith, and the lithification must have occurred at least 3.8 Myr (andesite in Study Butte) and 4.7 Myr (granitoids in Adzhi-Bogdo) after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAI) formation. The absence of 26Mg excess in the igneous inclusions does not exclude 26Al from being a heat source for planetary melting. In large, early formed planetesimals, cooling below the closure temperature of the Al-Mg system may be too late for any evidence for live 26Al (in the form of 26Mg excess) to be preserved. Thus, growing evidence exists that chondritic meteorites represent the products of a complex, multi-stage history of accretion, parent body modification, disruption and re-accretion.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2010; 42(7‐8):1291 - 1308.
  • K. K. Marhas, J. N. Goswami, A. Singh
    Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. 09/2009;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The 26Al–26Mg isotope systematics in 33 petrographically and mineralogically characterized plagioclase-rich chondrules (PRCs) from 13 carbonaceous chondrites (CCs) – one ungrouped (Acfer 094), six CR, five CV, and one CO – reveal large variations in the initial 26Al/27Al ratio, (26Al/27Al)0. Well-resolved 26Mg excesses (δ26Mg) from the in situ decay of the short-lived nuclide 26Al (t1/2 ∼ 0.72 Ma) were found in nine chondrules, two from Acfer 094, five from the CV chondrites, Allende and Efremovka, and one each from the paired CR chondrites, EET 92147 and EET 92042, with (26Al/27Al)0 values ranging from ∼3 × 10−6 to ∼1.5 × 10−5. Data for seven additional chondrules from three CV and two CR chondrites show evidence suggestive of the presence of 26Al but do not yield well defined values for (26Al/27Al)0, while the remaining chondrules do not contain excess radiogenic 26Mg and yield corresponding upper limits of (11–2) × 10−6 for (26Al/27Al)0. The observed range of (26Al/27Al)0 in PRCs from CCs is similar to the range seen in chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs) of low metamorphic grade (3.0–3.4). However, unlike the UOC chondrules, there is no clear trend between the (26Al/27Al)0 values in PRCs from CCs and the degree of thermal metamorphism experienced by the host meteorites. High and low values of (26Al/27Al)0 are found equally in PRCs from both CCs lacking evidence for thermal metamorphism (e.g., CRs) and CCs where such evidence is abundant (e.g., CVs). The lower (26Al/27Al)0 values in PRCs from CCs, relative to most CAIs, are consistent with a model in which 26Al was distributed uniformly in the nebula when chondrule formation began, approximately a million years after the formation of the majority of CAIs. The observed range of (26Al/27Al)0 values in PRCs from CCs is most plausibly explained in terms of an extended duration of ∼2–3 Ma for the formation of CC chondrules. This interval is in sharp contrast to most CAIs from CCs, whose formation appears to be restricted to a narrow time interval of less than 105 years. The active solar nebula appears to have persisted for a period approaching 4 Ma, encompassing the formation of both CAIs and chondrules present in CCs, and raising important issues related to the storage, assimilation and mixing of chondrules and CAIs in the early solar system.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 01/2009; · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The magnesium isotopic compositions of 26 hibonite-bearing inclusions from the CM chondrite Murchison, as well as isotopic measurements on a subset of these samples for oxygen, titanium, and lithium–beryllium–boron are reported along with oxygen isotopic data for an additional 13 hibonites that were previously investigated for other isotope systems (magnesium, potassium, calcium, and titanium) and rare earth element concentrations. Magnesium isotopic compositions divide CM hibonites into two distinct populations which correlate perfectly with their mineralogy and morphology, as previously discovered by Ireland [Ireland T. R. (1988) Correlated morphological, chemical, and isotopic characteristics of hibonites from the Murchison carbonaceous chondrite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta52, 2827–2839]: Spinel-HIBonite spherules (SHIBs) bear evidence of in situ26Al decay, whereas PLAty-Crystals (PLACs) and Blue AGgregates (BAGs) either lack resolvable 26Mg-excesses or exhibit 26Mg deficits by up to ∼4‰. High precision, multiple collector SIMS analyses show that 6 of 7 SHIBs investigated fall on a single correlation line implying 26Al/27Al = (4.5 ± 0.2) × 10−5 at the time of isotopic closure, consistent with the “canonical” 26Al abundance characteristic of internal isochrons in many calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). One SHIB sample exhibits Δ26Mg∗ consistent with a “supracanonical” 26Al/27Al ratio of (6.4 ± 0.5) × 10−5. The PLAC hibonites contain highly anomalous titanium isotopic compositions, with δ50Ti values ranging from −80‰ to almost +200‰, whereas SHIBs generally lack large Ti isotopic anomalies.Eight out of 11 26Al-free PLAC hibonite grains record 10B/11B excesses that correlate with Be/B; the inferred initial 10Be/9Be ratio of (5.1 ± 1.4) × 10−4 is lower than the best-constrained 10Be/9Be of (8.8 ± 0.6) × 10−4 in a CV CAI. The data demonstrate that 10Be cannot be used as a relative chronometer for these objects and that most of the 10Be observed in CAIs must be produced by irradiation of precursor solids in the early solar system. The lack of 26Al in PLAC hibonites indicates that significant amounts of 26Al were not formed in the same spallogenic processes that made 10Be in PLAC precursors. This is most easily understood as indicating very early formation of the PLAC hibonites, prior to the incorporation and mixing of 26Al into the solar nebula, although an alternative scenario, which invokes irradiation under different solar flare conditions, cannot be ruled out. Lithium isotopes are normal within uncertainties, probably reflecting contamination and/or postcrystallization exchange.The oxygen isotopic compositions of SHIBs and PLACs are all highly 16O-enriched, but are not derived from a homogeneous reservoir: Δ17O values span a range of ∼−28‰ to −15‰. The ranges of 16O-enrichment in SHIBs and PLACs overlap and are less “anomalous” than the most 16O-enriched compositions found in meteorites [Kobayashi S., Imai H. and Yurimoto H. (2003) New extreme 16O-rich chondrule in the early solar system. Geochem. J.37, 663–669]. Both PLACs and SHIBs formed in 16O-enriched reservoirs characterized by small-scale heterogeneities in the gas phase. If such heterogeneities were generated by an admixture of relatively 16O-poor gas created by self-shielding during CO photolysis and transported to the hot inner regions of the accretion disk, then this process must have been initiated very early on, prior to the arrival of fresh radioactivity into the inner solar system. Oxygen isotope heterogeneities persisted throughout the formation interval of PLACs, CAI precursors, and SHIBs which could be as long as 3 × 105 years based on 26Al records.One SHIB and one BAG exhibit mass fractionated oxygen isotopic compositions similar to those seen in FUN inclusions and in several platy hibonite crystals [Lee T., Mayeda T. K. and Clayton R. N. (1980) Oxygen isotopic anomalies in Allende inclusion HAL. Geophys. Res. Lett.7, 493–496; Ireland T. R., Zinner E. K., Fahey A. J. and Esat T. M. (1992) Evidence for distillation in the formation of HAL and related hibonite inclusions. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta56, 2503–2520; Ushikubo T., Hiyagon H. and Sugiura N. (2007) A FUN-like hibonite inclusion with a large 26Mg-excess. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.254, 115–126]. The suite of mass-fractionated hibonites exhibit a range of isotopic properties, including 26Al/27Al ratios from below detection to a “canonical” level and oxygen and titanium anomalies that are not exceptional by PLAC standards. This suggests that F (fractionation) processes—evaporation under (oxidizing) conditions—are not necessarily associated with sampling a special isotopic reservoir.
    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 01/2009; · 3.88 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present C, N, O, Si, Al-Mg, K, Ca, and Ti isotopic analyses of seven high-density (ORG1f, ρ ~ 2.02–2.04 g cm−3) graphite grains from Orgueil with 12C/13C ratios smaller than 20. The presence of 44Ti in three of these grains indicates an origin in Type II supernovae (SNe). The 13C excesses in these SNe grains, however, remain enigmatic. The remaining grains have extremely large Ca and Ti isotopic anomalies, some of which are much larger than those predicted for envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. These anomalies in conjunction with low 12C/13C ratios can only be explained by pure nucleosynthetic He-shell components of AGB stars. Born-again AGB stars that experience a late He flash are able to explain the low 12C/13C ratios of some of the grains along with the presence of extreme enrichments in the Ca and Ti isotopes. This study indicates that high-density graphite grains have multiple stellar sources: SNe and born-again AGB stars, in addition to the previously established low-metallicity AGB stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 682(2):1479. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the first Fe isotopic anomalies and the first Ni isotopic ratio measurements in presolar SiC grains of separate KJG from the Murchison meteorite. With NanoSIMS, we analyzed Fe and Ni in 37 X grains from Type II supernovae and 53 SiC grains of other types. The Ni/Fe and Co/Fe ratios in grains of all types are much higher than in the gas from which the grains are believed to have condensed. A majority of the X grains and a couple of mainstream grains contain Fe-rich subgrains. Most X grains have large excesses in 57Fe,61Ni, and 62Ni.60Ni excesses are small and the 54Fe/56Fe ratios of almost all X grains are normal. These isotopic compositions are best explained by mixing of material from the He/N zone of Type II supernovae with material from the He/C zone. The lack of any 54Fe excesses is puzzling in view of the fact that the Si/S zone, whose contribution resulted in the 28Si excesses in X grains, is very rich in 54Fe. It has yet to be seen whether elemental fractionation between Si and Fe is an explanation. The 57Fe deficits observed in a few X grains remain unexplained. In comparison to the X grains, fewer mainstream and AB grains have anomalies. Observed 62Ni excesses in some mainstream grains are larger than predicted for AGB stars of solar metallicity and are not accompanied by corresponding 61Ni excesses. A Y grain and a Z grain have excesses in 54Fe and 62Ni, but close to normal 57Fe/56Fe and 60,61Ni/58Ni ratios. These isotopic compositions are not expected for grains from low-metallicity AGB stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 689(1):622. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Noble gas isotopes in presolar silicon carbide (SiC) dust grains from primitive meteorites provide, together with major element isotopic compositions, insight into the nucleosynthetic output of different types of evolved stars >4.5 Gyr ago. We report here new results from helium and neon isotopic analyses of single presolar SiC grains with sizes between 0.6 and 6.3 μm using an ultrahigh sensitivity mass spectrometer. These noble gas studies were complemented by an ion microprobe study (NanoSIMS) of Si, C, and N isotopic compositions of the same grains. About 40%, or 46 of the 110 grains analyzed, contain nucleosynthetic 22Ne and/or 4He from their parent stars above our mass spectrometer's detection limit. We discuss the possible stellar sources using isotopic ratios as constraints combined with new model predictions for low- to intermediate-mass (1.5, 2, 3, and 5 M☉) asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars of different metallicities (1, 1/2, 1/3, and 1/6 Z☉). Most SiC grains are of the mainstream type and originated in low-mass AGB stars. We find a higher-than-expected percentage of A/B type grains, with some containing 22Ne and/or 4He. In addition, we find one noble gas-rich nova grain candidate, one supernova grain (X-type grain), and one 22Ne-rich X- or Z-type grain candidate.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 656(2):1208. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Production of the short-lived nuclides 41Ca, 36Cl, 26Al, and 53Mn by solar energetic particles (SEP) interacting with dust grains of chondritic (=solar) composition is estimated considering a broad range of spectral parameters for the SEP and appropriate nuclear reaction cross sections. The dust grains are assumed to follow a power-law size distribution and to range in size from 10 μm to 1 cm. The possibility that an enhanced flux of SEP from an active early (T Tauri) Sun could have been responsible for the production of these short-lived nuclides in the early solar system is investigated. SEP production of 41Ca and 36Cl will match their abundances in the early solar system inferred from meteorite data if the SEP irradiation duration was ~ 5 × 105-106 yr and the SEP flux was higher by a factor of more than 5 × 103 than the contemporary long-term averaged value of Nproton (E > 10 MeV) ~ 100 cm-2 s-1. However, corresponding production of 26Al will be much below the level needed to match its inferred abundance in the early solar system. SEP production, therefore, fails to explain the observed correlated presence of 41Ca and 26Al with canonical initial abundances in early solar system solids. The abundance of 53Mn in the early solar system is not tightly constrained by the meteorite data, and the various estimates differ by a factor of 5. Coproduction of 41Ca, 36Cl, and 53Mn that will match the meteorite data for the higher initial abundance of 53Mn is possible if the SEP irradiation persisted for about a million years or more with a flux enhancement factor of ~ 5000-10,000. On the other hand, the lower initial value of 53Mn can also be matched by a flux enhancement factor of ~1000 and an irradiation duration of a few million years; the corresponding production of the other nuclides will be ≤10% of the level needed to match their abundances in the early solar system. Target abundance consideration rules out the possibility of SEP production of 60Fe, another short-lived nuclide present in the early solar system. Thus, SEP production as the primary source of the short-lived nuclides in the early solar system appears to be unlikely. However, the possibility that SEP production could be an important source of 53Mn as well as of the short-lived nuclide 10Be, whose presence in the early solar system solids has been recently reported, makes it difficult to completely rule out any contribution from this source to the inventory of these nuclides in the early solar system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 549(2):1151. · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract— In January 2006, the Stardust mission successfully returned dust samples from the tail of comet 81P/Wild 2 in two principal collection media, low-density silica aerogel and Al foil. While hypervelocity impacts at the Stardust encounter velocity of 6.1 km/s into Al foils are generally highly disruptive for natural, silicate-dominated impactors, previous studies have shown that many craters retain sufficient residue to allow a determination of the elemental and isotopic compositions of the original projectile. We have used two NanoSIMS ion microprobes to perform C, N, and O isotope imaging measurements on four large (59–295 μm in diameter) and on 47 small (0.32–1.9 μm in diameter) Al-foil impact craters as part of the Stardust preliminary examination (PE). Most analyzed residues in and around these craters are isotopically normal (solar) in their C, N, and O isotopic compositions. However, the debris in one large crater shows an average 15N enrichment of ˜450‰, which is similar to the bulk composition of some isotopically primitive interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and to components of some primitive meteorites. A 250 nm grain in another large crater has an 17O enrichment with ˜2.65 times the solar 17O/16O ratio. Such an O isotopic composition is typical for circumstellar oxide or silicate grains from red giant or asymptotic giant branch stars. The discovery of this circumstellar grain clearly establishes that there is authentic stardust in the cometary samples returned by the Stardust mission. However, the low apparent abundance of circumstellar grains in Wild 2 samples and the preponderance of isotopically normal material indicates that the cometary matter is a diverse assemblage of presolar and solar system materials.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2008; 43(1‐2):299 - 313.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract— Aluminum foils of the Stardust cometary dust collector are peppered with impact features of a wide range of sizes and shapes. By comparison to laboratory shots of known particle dimensions and density, using the same velocity and incidence geometry as the Stardust Wild 2 encounter, we can derive size and mass of the cometary dust grains. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of foil samples (both flown on the mission and impacted in the laboratory) we have recognized a range of impact feature shapes from which we interpret particle density and internal structure. We have documented composition of crater residues, including stoichiometric material in 3 of 7 larger craters, by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Wild 2 dust grains include coarse (>10 μm) mafic silicate grains, some dominated by a single mineral species of density around 3–4 g cm−3 (such as olivine). Other grains were porous, low-density aggregates from a few nanometers to 100 μm, with an overall density that may be lower than 1 g cm−3, containing mixtures of silicates and sulfides and possibly both alkali-rich and mafic glass. The mineral assemblage is very similar to the most common species reported from aerogel tracks. In one large aggregate crater, the combined diverse residue composition is similar to CI chondrites. The foils are a unique collecting substrate, revealing that the most abundant Wild 2 dust grains were of sub-micrometer size and of complex internal structure. Impact residues in Stardust foil craters will be a valuable resource for future analyses of cometary dust.
    Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 01/2008; 43(1‐2):41 - 73.
  • Source
    [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Approximately 1% of presolar SiC grains found in primitive meteorites condensed in the ejecta of Type II supernovae. To explain the isotopic signatures of these so-called X grains, material from different SN zones had to contribute to the mix from which the grains formed. We measured the Fe and Ni isotopic ratios of individual X grains with the NanoSIMS. Most grains have enhanced
    01/2008;
  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The NASA Stardust mission (1) to comet 81P/Wild-2 returned to Earth in January 2006 carrying a cargo of dust captured intact in aerogel and as residue rich craters in aluminium foils (2). Although the aerogel (and its content of dust grains) has gathered most attention, the foils have also been subject to extensive analysis. Many groups contributed to the dimensional characterization of representative populations of foilcraters in the Preliminary Examination and combined with a laboratory calibration this yielded a particle size distribution of the dust encountered during the fly by of the comet (3). The calibration experiments will be described in this paper in detail. They involved using the two stage light gas gun at the University of Kent (4) to impact Stardust grade aluminium foils (from the same batch as used on Stardust) with projectiles at 6.1 km/s (the cometary encounter speed). A variety of projectiles were used to simulate possible cometary dust grain composition, morphology and structure. Prior to the return of Stardust, glass beads were used to provide the initial calibration (5) which was used to obtain the size distribution reported in (3). A range of projectiles of differing density were then used (6) to determine the sensitivity of the results to impactor density (also allowed for in (5)). Subsequently this work has been significantly extended (7) to allow for a greater range of projectile densities and strengths. The work has now been extended further to allow for aggregate impactors which have a high individual grain density, but a low overall bulk density. In addition, the results have been extended down in impactor size from the previous lower limit of 10 microns to 1.5 micron impactor diameter. The application of these new calibration results to the measurement of the cometary dust size distribution will be discussed. It will be shown that the changes are within the range originally presented in (3). The results will be compared to the dust size distribution obtained from the tracks in the aerogel and the combined results contrasted to those obtained with active impact detectors in real time during the cometary encounter (8, 9). At small dust grain sizes (a few microns and below) a significant discrepancy is seen which is still unexplained. References (1) Brownlee D.E. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 108, E10, 8111, 2003. (2) Brownlee D.E. et al., Science 314, 1711 - 1716, 2006. (3) Hörz F. et al., Science 314, 1716 - 1719, 2006. (4) Burchell M.J. et al., Meas. Sci. Technol. 10, 41 - 50, 1999. (5) Kearsley A.T. et al., MAPS 41, 167 - 180, 2006. (6) Kearsley A.T. et al., MAPS 42, 191 - 210, 2007. (7) Kearsley A.T. et al., MAPS submitted, 2007. (8) Tuzzolino A.J. et al., Science 304, 1776 - 1780. (9) Green, S.F. et al., J. Geophys. Res. 109, E12S04, 2004.
    08/2007;
  • K. K. Marhas, S. Amari, F. Gyngard, E. Zinner
    Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. 08/2007;
  • Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. 08/2007;

Publication Stats

687 Citations
338.18 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2013
    • Washington University in St. Louis
      • Department of Physics
      San Luis, Missouri, United States
  • 2003–2004
    • Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
      Mayence, Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany