Mitsuhiro Kato

Yamagata University, Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan

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Publications (100)455.31 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Objective Recently, de novo mutations in GRIN1 have been identified in patients with nonsyndromic intellectual disability and epileptic encephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis of patients with genetically unsolved epileptic encephalopathies identified four patients with GRIN1 mutations, allowing us to investigate the phenotypic spectrum of GRIN1 mutations.Methods Eighty-eight patients with unclassified early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) with an age of onset <1 year were analyzed by WES. The effect of mutations on N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors was examined by mapping altered amino acids onto three-dimensional models.ResultsWe identified four de novo missense GRIN1 mutations in 4 of 88 patients with unclassified EOEEs. In these four patients, initial symptoms appeared within 3 months of birth, including hyperkinetic movements in two patients (2/4, 50%), and seizures in two patients (2/4, 50%). Involuntary movements, severe developmental delay, and intellectual disability were recognized in all four patients. In addition, abnormal eye movements resembling oculogyric crises and stereotypic hand movements were observed in two and three patients, respectively. All the four patients exhibited only nonspecific focal and diffuse epileptiform abnormality, and never showed suppression-burst or hypsarrhythmia during infancy. A de novo mosaic mutation (c.1923G>A) with a mutant allele frequency of 16% (in DNA of blood leukocytes) was detected in one patient. Three mutations were located in the transmembrane domain (3/4, 75%), and one in the extracellular loop near transmembrane helix 1. All the mutations were predicted to impair the function of the NMDA receptor.SignificanceClinical features of de novo GRIN1 mutations include infantile involuntary movements, seizures, and hand stereotypies, suggesting that GRIN1 mutations cause encephalopathy resulting in seizures and movement disorders.
    Epilepsia 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/epi.12987 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe a novel mutation in DCX in a family in which a proband boy had classical lissencephaly and his mother had extremely mild subcortical band heterotopia. No factors that would make the mother's symptoms milder, such as somatic mosaicism or skewed X chromosome inactivation, were observed. From this family, we conclude that a DCX mutation causes a pleiotropic phenotype in the female even if X chromosome inactivation pattern is not skewed, and the novel missense mutation in DCX produced relatively mild dysfunction of the doublecortin protein. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.
    Pediatrics International 04/2015; 57(2):321-3. DOI:10.1111/ped.12502 · 0.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a useful method to identify disease-causing mutations, however, often no candidate mutations are identified using commonly available targeted probe sets. In a recent analysis, we also could not find candidate mutations for 20.9% (9/43) of our pedigrees with congenital neurological disorder using pre-designed capture probes (SureSelect V4 or V5). One possible cause for this lack of candidates is that standard WES cannot sequence all protein-coding sequences (CDS) due to capture probe design and regions of low coverage, which account for approximately 10% of all CDS regions. In this study, we combined a selective circularization-based target enrichment method (HaloPlex) with a hybrid capture method (SureSelect V5; WES), and achieved a more complete coverage of CDS regions (~97% of all CDS). We applied this approach to 7 (SureSelect V5) out of 9 pedigrees with no candidates through standard WES analysis and identified novel pathogenic mutations in one pedigree. The application of this effective combination of targeted enrichment methodologies can be expected to aid in the identification of novel pathogenic mutations previously missed by standard WES analysis.
    Scientific Reports 03/2015; 5:9331. DOI:10.1038/srep09331 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chromosome 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome involving the Nuclear factor I/A (NFIA) gene is characterized by corpus callosum hypoplasia or defects and urinary tract defects. Herein we report on a case resembling the 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome carrying a de novo truncating mutation (c.1094delC; p.Pro365Hisfs*32) in the NFIA gene, confirming that haploinsufficiency of the NFIA gene is a major determinant of this syndrome. Chromosome 1p32-p31 deletion syndrome (OMIM #613735) involving the Nuclear factor I/A (NFIA) gene is characterized by corpus callosum hypoplasia or defects, hydrocephalus or ven-tricular enlargement and urinary tract defects. 1 Only six cases of this contiguous gene-deletion syndrome have been reported in the literature. 1–5 Additionally, Lu et al. 1 reported two patients showing a similar phenotype, but with balanced translocations breakpoints in the NFIA gene. 6 These authors also demonstrated ventricular enlargement, callosal agenesis and urinary tract defects in homozygous Nfia − / − mice and heterozygous Nfia +/ − mice.
  • Pediatric Neurology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2015.01.019 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent progress in genetic analysis reveals that a significant proportion of cryptogenic epileptic encephalopathies are single-gene disorders. Mutations in numerous genes for early-onset epileptic encephalopathies have been rapidly identified, including in SPTAN1, which encodes α-II spectrin. The aim of this review is to delineate SPTAN1 encephalopathy as a distinct clinical syndrome. To date, a total of seven epileptic patients with four different in-frame SPTAN1 mutations have been identified. The major clinical features of SPTAN1 mutations include epileptic encephalopathy with hypsarrhythmia, no visual attention, acquired microcephaly, spastic quadriplegia and severe intellectual disability. Brainstem and cerebellar atrophy and cerebral hypomyelination, as observed by magnetic resonance imaging, are specific hallmarks of this condition. A milder variant is characterized by generalized epilepsy with pontocerebellar atrophy. Only in-frame SPTAN1 mutations in the last two spectrin repeats in the C-terminal region lead to dominant negative effects and these specific phenotypes. The last two spectrin repeats are required for α/β spectrin heterodimer associations and the mutations can alter heterodimer formation between the two spectrins. From these data we suggest that SPTAN1 encephalopathy is a distinct clinical syndrome owing to specific SPTAN1 mutations. It is important that this syndrome is recognized by pediatric neurologists to enable proper diagnostic work-up for patients.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 January 2015; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.5.
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    ABSTRACT: Megalencephaly capillary malformation (MCAP) is a syndrome involving brain overgrowth, characterized by megalencephaly, capillary malformations, asymmetric growth, polymicrogyria, polydactyly, and syndactyly. Cerebellar tonsillar herniation (CTH) and ventriculomegaly are also observed in over half the patients with this syndrome. Early sudden death has been reported in MCAP, but its causes and the surgical strategies for its prevention remain unclear. Here, we report on a patient with MCAP who died suddenly at 5 months of age. He presented with progressive macrocephaly and hypotonia. MRI performed at 4 months of age showed tight posterior fossa, bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria, enlargement of the straight sinus, and a thickened corpus callosum. However, since the patient did not exhibit capillary malformation, polydactyly, or syndactyly, a definitive diagnosis of MCAP could not be made. He died suddenly while asleep at home 1 month later. The sudden death of MCAP patients was previously attributed to CTH, convulsion, or arrhythmia. In this case, progressive cerebellar enlargement appeared to be the underlying cause. After the patient's death, using his preserved DNA, a missense mutation in the AKT3 gene was identified. Vakt murine thymoma viral oncogene homologue (AKT) is a serine-threonine kinase that functions in the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and plays an important role in cell proliferation. Accurate early diagnosis, including imaging and genetic analyses, and the recognition and treatment of critical conditions are required to prevent the sudden death of patients with MCAP.
    Child s Nervous System 11/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00381-014-2589-y · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurocutaneous disorder characterized by capillary malformation (port-wine stains), and choroidal and leptomeningeal vascular malformations. Previously, the recurrent somatic mutation c.548G>A (p.R183Q) in the G-α q gene (GNAQ) was identified as causative in SWS and non-syndromic port-wine stain patients using whole-genome sequencing. In this study, we investigated somatic mutations in GNAQ by next-generation sequencing. We first performed targeted amplicon sequencing of 15 blood-brain-paired samples in sporadic SWS and identified the recurrent somatic c.548G>A mutation in 80% of patients (12 of 15). The percentage of mutant alleles in brain tissues of these 12 patients ranged from 3.6 to 8.9%. We found no other somatic mutations in any of the seven GNAQ exons in the remaining three patients without c.548G>A. These findings suggest that the recurrent somatic GNAQ mutation c.548G>A is the major determinant genetic factor for SWS and imply that other mutated candidate gene(s) may exist in SWS.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 6 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.95.
    Journal of Human Genetics 11/2014; 59(12). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.95 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Kinesins are a large superfamily of molecular motors. They move along microtubule filaments and are powered by the hydrolysis of ATP. This transport system is essential for neuronal function and survival. KIF1A belongs to the kinesin 3 family and involves in the anterograde transport of synaptic vesicle precursors along axons. Several studies confirmed that KIF1A mutations cause spastic paraplegia and sensory neuropathy in an autosomal-recessive fashion. A missense mutation in the KIF1A gene (p.Thr99Met) has been reported in a patient with intellectual disability (ID), axial hypotonia and peripheral spasticity. Mild atrophy of the cerebellar vermis was found on magnetic resonance imaging. The mutation was heterozygous and de novo. We identified the second patient with the p.T99M mutation in the KIF1A gene by whole-exome sequencing. He showed severe ID, spasticity, optic atrophy, neurogenic bladder, growth failure and progressive cerebellar atrophy. The p.T99M mutation may be a common recurrent mutation. We suppose that this specific mutation of KIF1A shows a novel neurodegenerative syndrome.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 25 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.80.
    Journal of Human Genetics 09/2014; DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.80 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, de novo mutations in TBL1XR1 were found in two patients with autism spectrum disorders. Here, we report on a Japanese girl presenting with West syndrome, Rett syndrome-like and autistic features. Her initial development was normal until she developed a series of spasms at 5 months of age. Electroencephalogram at 7 months showed a pattern of hypsarrhythmia, which led to a diagnosis of West syndrome. Stereotypic hand movements appeared at 8 months of age, and autistic features such as deficits in communication, hyperactivity and excitability were observed later, at 4 years and 9 months. Whole exome sequencing of the patient and her parents revealed a de novo TBL1XR1 mutation [c.209 G>A (p.Gly70Asp)] occurring at an evolutionarily conserved amino acid in an F-box-like domain. Our report expands the clinical spectrum of TBL1XR1 mutations to West syndrome with Rett-like features, together with autistic features.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 August 2014; doi:10.1038/jhg.2014.71.
    Journal of Human Genetics 08/2014; 59(10). DOI:10.1038/jhg.2014.71 · 2.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We developed a next-generation sequencing(NGS)based mutation screening strategy for neurodevelopmental diseases. Using this system, we screened 284 genes in 40 patients. Several novel mutations were discovered. Patient 1 had a novel mutation in ACTB. Her dysmorphic feature was mild for Baraitser-Winter syndrome. Patient 2 had a truncating mutation of DYRK1A. She lacked microcephaly, which was previously assumed to be a constant feature of DYRK1A loss of function. Patient 3 had a novel mutation in GABRD gene. She showed Rett syndrome like features. Patient 4 was diagnosed with Noonan syndrome with PTPN11 mutation. He showed complete agenesis of corpus callosum. We discussed these novel findings.
    Clinical Genetics 08/2014; DOI:10.1111/cge.12492 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) therapy is the first-line therapy for infantile spasms, and is effective for many other intractable epilepsies. While spasms may respond to ACTH for weeks, a substantial proportion of patients develop recurrent seizures over a yearly period. To maintain efficacy, we treated two children with intractable epilepsy with weekly ACTH therapy for 1 year and described the changes in clinical seizures, electroencephalograms, developmental assessments and side effects. Subjects and methods: A girl with infantile spasms due to lissencephaly and a boy with atypical absence seizures were studied. In both cases, seizures were frequent and resistant to antiepileptic drugs; electroencephalograms showed continuous epileptiform activities, and the patients’ development was delayed and stagnant prior to ACTH treatment. The initial ACTH therapy (daily 0.015 mg/kg for 2 weeks, 0.015 mg/kg every 2 days for 1 week, 0.0075 mg/kg every 2 days for 1 week), was transiently effective in both cases. The second-round ACTH therapy consisted of the initial ACTH therapy protocol followed by weekly ACTH injections (0.015 mg/kg or 0.0075 mg/kg) for 1 year. Both cases were followed for at least 1 year after therapy. Results: In both patients, clinical seizures were completely controlled during and 1 year after the second-round AHCH therapy. Continuous epileptiform discharges disappeared, while intermittent interictal epileptiform discharges remained. Both patients showed some developmental gains after achieving seizure control. No serious side effects were recorded. Conclusion: Further studies are warranted to determine if a long-term weekly ACTH is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsy.
    Brain and Development 08/2014; 37(4). DOI:10.1016/j.braindev.2014.07.004 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recessive mutations in genes of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchor synthesis pathway have been demonstrated as causative of GPI deficiency disorders associated with intellectual disability, seizures, and diverse congenital anomalies. We performed whole exome sequencing in a patient with progressive encephalopathies and multiple dysmorphism with hypophosphatasia and identified novel compound heterozygous mutations, c.250G>T (p. Glu84*) and c.1342C>T (p. Arg488Trp), in PIGT encoding a subunit of the GPI transamidase complex. The surface expression of GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on patient granulocytes was lower than that of healthy controls. Transfection of the Arg488Trp mutant PIGT construct, but not the Glu84* mutant, into PIGT-deficient cells partially restored the expression of GPI-APs DAF and CD59. These results indicate that PIGT mutations caused neurological impairment and multiple congenital anomalies in this patient.
    Neurogenetics 06/2014; 15(3). DOI:10.1007/s10048-014-0408-y · 2.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective De novo SCN8A mutations have been reported in patients with epileptic encephalopathy. Herein we report seven patients with de novo heterozygous SCN8A mutations, which were found in our comprehensive genetic analysis (target capture or whole-exome sequencing) for early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs).MethodsA total of 163 patients with EOEEs without mutations in known genes, including 6 with malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy (MMPSI), and 60 with unclassified EOEEs, were analyzed by target capture (28 samples) or whole-exome sequencing (135 samples).ResultsWe identified de novo SCN8A mutations in 7 patients: 6 of 60 unclassified EOEEs (10.0%), and one of 6 MMPSI cases (16.7%). The mutations were scattered through the entire gene: four mutations were located in linker regions, two in the fourth transmembrane segments, and one in the C-terminal domain. The type of the initial seizures was variable including generalized tonic–clonic, atypical absence, partial, apneic attack, febrile convulsion, and loss of tone and consciousness. Onset of seizures was during the neonatal period in two patients, and between 3 and 7 months of age in five patients. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebellar and cerebral atrophy in one and six patients, respectively. All patients with SCN8A missense mutations showed initially uncontrollable seizures by any drugs, but eventually one was seizure-free and three were controlled at the last examination. All patients showed developmental delay or regression in infancy, resulting in severe intellectual disability.SignificanceOur data reveal that SCN8A mutations can cause variable phenotypes, most of which can be diagnosed as unclassified EOEEs, and rarely as MMPSI. Together with previous reports, our study further indicates that genetic testing of SCN8A should be considered in children with unclassified severe epilepsy.A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.
    Epilepsia 05/2014; DOI:10.1111/epi.12668 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the clinical spectrum caused by mutations in PIGA at Xp22.2, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, among patients with early-onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs). Whole-exome sequencing was performed as a comprehensive genetic analysis for a cohort of 172 patients with EOEEs including early myoclonic encephalopathy, Ohtahara syndrome, and West syndrome, and PIGA mutations were carefully investigated. We identified 4 PIGA mutations in probands showing early myoclonic encephalopathy, West syndrome, or unclassified EOEE. Flow cytometry of blood granulocytes from patients demonstrated reduced expression of GPI-anchored proteins. Expression of GPI-anchored proteins in PIGA-deficient JY5 cells was only partially or hardly restored by transient expression of PIGA mutants with a weak TATA box promoter, indicating a variable loss of PIGA activity. The phenotypic consequences of PIGA mutations can be classified into 2 types, severe and less severe, which correlate with the degree of PIGA activity reduction caused by the mutations. Severe forms involved myoclonus and asymmetrical suppression bursts on EEG, multiple anomalies with a dysmorphic face, and delayed myelination with restricted diffusion patterns in specific areas. The less severe form presented with intellectual disability and treatable seizures without facial dysmorphism. Our study confirmed that PIGA mutations are one genetic cause of EOEE, suggesting that GPI-anchor deficiencies may be an underlying cause of EOEE.
    Neurology 04/2014; 82(18). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000389 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic elongation factor 1, alpha-2 (eEF1A2) protein is involved in protein synthesis, suppression of apoptosis, and regulation of actin function and cytoskeletal structure. EEF1A2 gene is highly expressed in the central nervous system and Eef1a2 knockout mice show the neuronal degeneration. Until now, only one missense mutation (c.208G>A, p.Gly70Ser) in EEF1A2 has been reported in two independent patients with neurological disease. In this report, we described two patients with de novo mutations (c.754G>C, p.Asp252His and c.364G>A, p.Glu122Lys) in EEF1A2 found by whole exome sequencing. Common clinical features are shared by all four individuals: severe intellectual disability, autistic behavior, absent speech, neonatal hypotonia, epilepsy and progressive microcephaly. Furthermore, the two patients share the similar characteristic facial features including a depressed nasal bridge, tented upper lip, everted lower lip and downturned corners of the mouth. These data strongly indicate that a new recognizable disorder is caused by EEF1A2 mutations.
    Clinical Genetics 03/2014; 87(4). DOI:10.1111/cge.12394 · 3.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Focal cortical dysplasia is a common cortical malformation and an important cause of epilepsy. There is evidence for shared molecular mechanisms underlying cortical dysplasia, ganglioglioma, hemimegalencephaly, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor. However, there are no familial reports of typical cortical dysplasia or co-occurrence of cortical dysplasia and related lesions within the same pedigree. We report the clinical, imaging, and histologic features of six pedigrees with familial cortical dysplasia and related lesions. Twelve patients from six pedigrees were ascertained from pediatric and adult epilepsy centers, eleven of whom underwent epilepsy surgery. Pedigree data, clinical information, neuroimaging findings, and histopathologic features are presented. The families comprise brothers with focal cortical dysplasia, a male and his sister with focal cortical dysplasia, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her brother with hemimegalencephaly, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her female first cousin with ganglioglioma, a female with focal cortical dysplasia and her male cousin with dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, and a female and her nephew with focal cortical dysplasia. This series shows that focal cortical dysplasia can be familial and provides clinical evidence suggesting that cortical dysplasia, hemimegalencephaly, ganglioglioma, and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors may share common genetic determinants.
    Epilepsia 02/2014; 55(3). DOI:10.1111/epi.12533 · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The hallmark of neuronopathic Gaucher disease (GD) is oculomotor abnormalities, but ophthalmological assessment is difficult in uncooperative patients. Chromatic pupillometry is a quantitative method to assess the pupillary light reflex (PLR) with minimal patient cooperation. Thus, we investigated whether chromatic pupillometry could be useful for neurological evaluations in GD. In our neuronopathic GD patients, red light-induced PLR was markedly impaired, whereas blue light-induced PLR was relatively spared. In addition, patients with non-neuronopathic GD showed no abnormalities. These novel findings show that chromatic pupillometry is a convenient method to detect neurological signs and monitor the course of disease in neuronopathic GD.
    02/2014; 1(2). DOI:10.1002/acn3.33
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare, genetically determined, early onset progressive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune manifestations. AGS is usually inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. The disease is rare, therefore the clinical manifestations and genotype-phenotype correlations, particularly with regard to autoimmune diseases, are still unclear. Here we performed a nationwide survey of AGS patients in Japan and analysed the genetic and clinical data.Methods. Patients were recruited via questionnaires sent to paediatric or adult neurologists in Japanese hospitals and institutions. Genetic analysis was performed and clinical data were collected.Results. Fourteen AGS patients were identified from 13 families; 10 harboured genetic mutations. Three patients harboured dominant-type TREX1 mutations. These included two de novo cases: one caused by a novel heterozygous p.His195Tyr mutation and the other by a novel somatic mosaicism resulting in a p.Asp200Asn mutation. Chilblain lesions were observed in all patients harbouring dominant-type TREX1 mutations. All three patients harbouring SAMHD1 mutations were diagnosed with autoimmune diseases, two with SLE and one with SS. The latter is the first reported case.Conclusion. This study is the first to report a nationwide AGS survey, which identified more patients with sporadic AGS carrying de novo dominant-type TREX1 mutations than expected. There was a strong association between the dominant-type TREX1 mutations and chilblain lesions, and between SAMHD1 mutations and autoimmunity. These findings suggest that rheumatologists should pay attention to possible sporadic AGS cases presenting with neurological disorders and autoimmune manifestations.
    Rheumatology (Oxford, England) 12/2013; 53(3). DOI:10.1093/rheumatology/ket372 · 4.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEE) are severe neurological disorders characterized by frequent seizures accompanied by developmental regression or retardation. Whole-exome sequencing of 12 patients together with five pairs of parents and subsequent Sanger sequencing in additional 328 EOEE patients identified two de novo frameshift and one missense mutations in SLC35A2 at Xp11.23, respectively. The three patients are all females. X-inactivation analysis of blood leukocyte DNA and mRNA analysis using lymphoblastoid cells derived from two patients with a frameshift mutation indicated that only the wild-type SLC35A2 allele was expressed in these cell types, at least in part likely as a consequence of skewed X-inactivation. SLC35A2 encodes a UDP-galactose transporter, which selectively supplies UDP-galactose from the cytosol to the Golgi lumen. Transient expression experiments revealed that the missense mutant protein was correctly localized in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, the two frameshift mutant proteins were not properly expressed, suggesting that their function is severely impaired. Defects in the UDP-galactose transporter can cause congenital disorders of glycosylation. Of note, no abnormalities of glycosylation were observed in three serum glycoproteins, which is consistent with favorably skewed X-inactivation. We hypothesize that a substantial number of neurons might express the mutant SLC35A2 allele and suffer from defective galactosylation, resulting in EOEE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Human Mutation 12/2013; 34(12). DOI:10.1002/humu.22446 · 5.05 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
455.31 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1998–2015
    • Yamagata University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Ямагата, Yamagata, Japan
  • 2013
    • University of Fukui
      • Division of Pediatrics
      Hukui, Fukui, Japan
  • 2008–2013
    • Yokohama City University
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2005
    • Kanagawa Children's Medical Center
      Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan
  • 2002–2004
    • University of Chicago
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
    • Teikyo University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1993
    • Tottori University
      • Institute of Neurological Sciences
      Tottori, Tottori-ken, Japan