Anthony S Manoguerra

American University Washington D.C., Washington, Washington, D.C., United States

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Publications (46)122.89 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The use of nonprescription cough and cold medicines is widespread, but their use has been sporadically associated with severe toxicity and death. We evaluate the role of these medications in pediatric fatalities and identified factors that contributed to the death. Fatalities that involved a child younger than 12 years and mentioned a cough and cold ingredient were obtained from 5 sources. An independent panel of 8 experts (pediatrics, pediatric critical care, pediatric toxicology, clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, forensic pathology) used explicit definitions to assess the causal relationship between medication ingestion and death. Contributing factors were identified. Of 189 cases included, 118 were judged possibly, likely, or definitely related to a cough and cold ingredient. Of these 118 cases, 103 involved a nonprescription drug, whereas 15 cases involved a prescription medication alone. Of 103 cases associated with nonprescription drugs, the evidence indicated that 88 involved an overdosage. A dosage could not be assessed in the remaining 15 cases. Several contributing factors were identified: age younger than 2 years, use of the medication for sedation, use in a daycare setting, use of 2 medicines with the same ingredient, failure to use a measuring device, product misidentification, and use of a nonprescription product intended for adult use. All cases that occurred in a daycare setting involved a child younger than 2 years. In our sample, pediatric fatalities caused by nonprescription cough and cold medications were uncommon, involved overdose, and primarily affected children younger than 2 years. The intent of caregivers appears to be therapeutic to relieve symptoms in some cases and nontherapeutic to induce sedation or to facilitate child maltreatment in other cases.
    Annals of emergency medicine 01/2009; 53(4):411-7. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 9000 ingestions of valproic acid. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with a suspected ingestion of valproic acid by 1) describing the process by which an ingestion of valproic acid might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of valproic acid ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to the acute ingestion and acute-on-chronic ingestion of immediate-release and extended-release dosage forms of valproic acid, divalproex, and valproate sodium alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose and the effects of an overdose. Although therapeutic doses of valproic acid can cause adverse effects in adults and children, some idiosyncratic and some dose-dependent, these cases are not considered. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions might be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in whom a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) Patients who are symptomatic (more than somnolence or exhibiting coma or seizures) after a valproic acid ingestion should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 3) Asymptomatic patients with an unintentional acute ingestion of 50 mg/kg or more or asymptomatic patients who are taking the drug therapeutically and who take an additional single acute ingestion of 50 mg/kg or more of any valproic acid formulation should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). 4) Patients with unintentional ingestions of immediate-release valproic acid formulations, who are asymptomatic, and more than 6 hours has elapsed since the time of ingestion, can be observed at home (Grade C). 5) Patients with unintentional ingestions of delayed-release or extended-release formulations of valproic acid who are asymptomatic, and more than 12 hours has elapsed since the time of ingestion, can be observed at home (Grade C). 6) Pregnant women who ingest below the dose for emergency department referral and do not have other referral conditions should be directed to their primary care obstetrical provider for evaluation of potential maternal and fetal risk. Routine referral to an emergency department for immediate care is not required (Grade D). 7) Do not induce emesis (Grade C). 8) Activated charcoal can be administered to asymptomatic patients who have ingested valproic acid within the preceding hour (Grade C). Prehospital activated charcoal administration, if available, should only be carried out by health professionals and only if no contraindications are present. Poison centers should follow local protocols and experience with its use. Do not delay transportation in order to administer activated charcoal (Grades D). 9) In patients who have ingested valproic acid and who are comatose, naloxone can be considered for prehospital administration in the doses used for treatment of opioid overdose, particularly if the patient has respiratory depression (Grade C). 10) A benzodiazepine can be administered by EMS personnel if convulsions are present and if authorized by EMS medical direction, expressed by written treatment protocol or policy, or if there is direct medical oversight (Grade C).
    Clinical Toxicology 07/2008; 46(7):661-76. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected exposures to elemental mercury. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. It is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. Recommendations: 1) Patients with exposure due to suspected self-harm, abuse, misuse, or potentially malicious administration should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the exposure reported (Grade D). 2) Patients with symptoms of acute elemental mercury poisoning (e.g., cough, dyspnea, chest pain) should be referred immediately to an emergency department for evaluation regardless of the reported dose. Patients with symptoms of chronic toxicity (rash, tremor, weight loss, etc.) should be referred for healthcare evaluation, the timing and location of which is guided by the severity of illness and circumstances of the exposure (Grade C). 3) If the elemental mercury was recently heated (e.g., from stove top, oven, furnace) in an enclosed area, all people within the exposure area should be evaluated at a healthcare facility due to the high risk of toxicity (Grade C). 4) If the elemental mercury was vacuumed or swept with a broom, the health department should be contacted to perform an environmental assessment for mercury contamination. Consider healthcare referral for those exposed to documented high air mercury concentrations (Grade C). 5) Patients ingesting more mercury than in a household fever thermometer or those with abdominal pain after ingestion should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). Do not induce emesis or administer activated charcoal. 6) Asymptomatic patients with brief, unintentional, low-dose vapor exposures can be observed at home. Asymptomatic patients can be evaluated as non-urgent outpatients if there is concern for exposures to high doses (e.g., more than contained in a thermometer) or for chronic duration (Grade D). 7) Pregnant patients unintentionally exposed to elemental mercury and who are asymptomatic should be evaluated by their obstetrician or primary care provider as an outpatient. Immediate referral to an ED is not required (Grade D). 8) Patients with elemental mercury deposited or injected into soft tissue should be referred for evaluation of surgical removal (Grade C). 9) All elemental mercury spills should be properly cleaned up, including the small amount of mercury from a broken thermometer. Brooms and vacuum cleaners should not be used to clean up elemental mercury. The clean-up of any spill larger than a broken thermometer should be performed by a professional company, state health department, or the EPA. Detailed instructions are provided on the EPA website: www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hazwaste/mercury/faq/spills.htm (Grade D). 10) Patients with dermal exposures should remove all jewelry and wash the affected area with mild soap and water. Remove all contaminated clothing and place these items in a sealed plastic double-bag for proper disposal (Grade D). 11) Do not discard elemental mercury in household trash, plumbing drains, or sewer systems. Consult local authorities for the proper disposal of low-level elemental mercury-contaminated household items and thermometers (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2008; 46(1):1-21. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and out-of-hospital management of patients with suspected acute ingestions of atypical antipsychotic medications by 1) describing the process by which an ingestion of an atypical antipsychotic medication might be evaluated, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of atypical antipsychotic medication ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of atypical antipsychotic medications alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions might be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or the recipient of a potentially malicious administration of an atypical antipsychotic medication should be referred to an emergency department immediately. This activity should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the precise dose ingested, presence of signs or symptoms of toxicity, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants (Grade C). 3) Asymptomatic patients without evidence of attempted self-harm are unlikely to develop symptoms if the interval between the ingestion and the call is greater than 6 hours. These patients do not need referral and should receive follow-up based on local poison center protocols (Grade C). 4) All patients less than 12 years of age who are naïve to atypical antipsychotic medications and are experiencing no more than mild drowsiness (lightly sedated and can be aroused with speaking voice or light touch) can be observed at home unless they have ingested more than four times the initial adult dose for the implicated antipsychotic medication or a dose that is equal to or more than the lowest reported acute dose that resulted in at least moderate toxicity, whichever dose is smaller (i.e., aripiprazole 15 mg, clozapine 50 mg, olanzapine 10 mg, quetiapine 100 mg, risperidone 1 mg, ziprasidone 80 mg) (Grade D). 5) All patients 12 years of age or older who are naïve to atypical antipsychotic medications and are experiencing no more than mild drowsiness can be observed at home unless they have ingested more than five times the initial adult dose for the implicated antipsychotic medication (i.e., aripiprazole 50 mg, clozapine 62.5 mg, olanzapine 25 mg, quetiapine 125 mg, risperidone 5 mg, ziprasidone 100 mg) (Grade D). 6) Patients who use atypical antipsychotic medications on a chronic basis can be observed at home unless they have acutely ingested more than 5 times their current single dose (not daily dose) of the implicated antipsychotic medication (Grade C). 7) Patients who have ingested less than a threshold dose (see Recommendations 4-6) and are exhibiting no more than mild drowsiness can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center if symptoms develop or worsen. If mild drowsiness is present at the time of the initial call, the poison center should make follow-up calls until at least 6 hours after ingestion. Consideration should be given to the time of day that home observation will take place. Observation during normal sleep hours might not be reliable. Depending on local poison center policy, patients could be referred to an emergency department if the observation would take place during normal sleeping hours of the patient or caretaker (Grade D). 8) Any patient already experiencing any signs or symptoms, other than mild drowsiness, thought to be related to atypical antipsychotic medication toxicity should be transported to an emergency department. Transportation via ambulance should be considered based on the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take the patient to arrive at the emergency department (Grade D). 9) Do not induce emesis (Grade D). 10) There are no specific data to suggest benefit from out-of-hospital administration of activated charcoal in patients exposed to atypical antipsychotic medications. Poison centers should follow local protocols and experience with the out-of-hospital use of activated charcoal in this context. Do not delay transportation in order to administer charcoal (Grade D). 11) For patients who merit evaluation in an emergency department, transportation via ambulance should be considered based on the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take the patient to arrive at the emergency department. Continuous cardiac monitoring should be implemented given reports of conduction disturbances associated with this class of medications. Provide usual supportive care en route to the hospital, including airway management and intravenous fluids for hypotension (Grade D). 12) Depending on the specific circumstances, follow-up calls should be made to determine outcome at appropriate intervals based on the clinical judgment of the poison center staff (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 01/2008; 45(8):918-42. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with a suspected ingestion of dextromethorphan by 1) describing the process by which an ingestion of dextromethorphan might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of dextromethorphan ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to the ingestion of dextromethorphan alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions might be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) Patients who exhibit more than mild effects (e.g., infrequent vomiting or somnolence [lightly sedated and arousable with speaking voice or light touch]) after an acute dextromethorphan ingestion should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 3) Patients who have ingested 5-7.5 mg/kg should receive poison center-initiated follow-up approximately every 2 hours for up to 4 hours after ingestion. Refer to an emergency department if more than mild symptoms develop (Grade D). 4) Patients who have ingested more than 7.5 mg/kg should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). 5) If the patient is taking other medications likely to interact with dextromethorphan and cause serotonin syndrome, such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, poison center-initiated follow-up every 2 hours for 8 hours is recommended (Grade D). 6) Patients who are asymptomatic and more than 4 hours have elapsed since the time of ingestion can be observed at home (Grade C). 7) Do not induce emesis (Grade D). 8) Do not use activated charcoal at home. Activated charcoal can be administered to asymptomatic patients who have ingested overdoses of dextromethorphan within the preceding hour. Its administration, if available, should only be carried out by health professionals and only if no contraindications are present. Do not delay transportation in order to administer activated charcoal (Grade D). 9) For patients who have ingested dextromethorphan and are sedated or comatose, naloxone, in the usual doses for treatment of opioid overdose, can be considered for prehospital administration, particularly if the patient has respiratory depression (Grade C). 10) Use intravenous benzodiazepines for seizures and benzodiazepines and external cooling measures for hyperthermia (>104 degrees F, >40 degrees C) for serotonin syndrome. This should be done in consultation with and authorized by EMS medical direction, by a written treatment protocol or policy, or with direct medical oversight (Grade C). 11) Carefully ascertain by history whether other drugs, such as acetaminophen, were involved in the incident and assess the risk for toxicity or for a drug interaction.
    Clinical Toxicology 09/2007; 45(6):662-77. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 48,000 exposures to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with a suspected ingestion of an SSRI by 1) describing the process by which an ingestion of an SSRI might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of SSRI ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of immediate-release forms of SSRIs alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances might require different referral and management recommendations depending on their combined toxicities. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department. This activity should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) Any patient already experiencing any symptoms other than mild effects (mild effects include vomiting, somnolence [lightly sedated and arousable with speaking voice or light touch], mydriasis, or diaphoresis) should be transported to an emergency department. Transportation via ambulance should be considered based on the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take the patient to arrive at the emergency department (Grade D). 3) Asymptomatic patients or those with mild effects (defined above) following isolated unintentional acute SSRI ingestions of up to five times an initial adult therapeutic dose (i.e., citalopram 100 mg, escitalopram 50 mg, fluoxetine 100 mg, fluvoxamine 250 mg, paroxetine 100 mg, sertraline 250 mg) can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop. For patients already on an SSRI, those with ingestion of up to five times their own single therapeutic dose can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop (Grade D). 4) The poison center should consider making follow-up calls during the first 8 hours after ingestion, following its normal procedure. Consideration should be given to the time of day when home observation will take place. Observation during normal sleep hours might not reliably identify the onset of toxicity. Depending on local poison center policy, patients could be referred to an emergency department if the observation would take place during normal sleeping hours of the patient or caretaker (Grade D). 5) Do not induce emesis (Grade C). 6) The use of oral activated charcoal can be considered since the likelihood of SSRI-induced loss of consciousness or seizures is small. However, there are no data to suggest a specific clinical benefit. The routine use of out-of-hospital oral activated charcoal in patients with unintentional SSRI overdose cannot be advocated at this time (Grade C). 7) Use intravenous benzodiazepines for seizures and benzodiazepines and external cooling measures for hyperthermia (>104 degrees F [>40 degrees C]) for SSRI-induced serotonin syndrome. This should be done in consultation with and authorized by EMS medical direction, by a written treatment protocol or policy, or with direct medical oversight (Grade C).
    Clinical Toxicology 06/2007; 45(4):315-32. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of U.S. poison center data for 2004 showed over 40,000 exposures to salicylate-containing products. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and pre-hospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with a suspected exposure to salicylates by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to salicylates, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of salicylate exposure, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses: 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the victims of a potentially malicious administration of a salicylate, should be referred to an emergency department immediately. This referral should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) The presence of typical symptoms of salicylate toxicity such as hematemesis, tachypnea, hyperpnea, dyspnea, tinnitus, deafness, lethargy, seizures, unexplained lethargy, or confusion warrants referral to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade C). 3) Patients who exhibit typical symptoms of salicylate toxicity or nonspecific symptoms such as unexplained lethargy, confusion, or dyspnea, which could indicate the development of chronic salicylate toxicity, should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 4) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the dose, time of ingestion, presence of symptoms, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants. The acute ingestion of more than 150 mg/kg or 6.5 g of aspirin equivalent, whichever is less, warrants referral to an emergency department. Ingestion of greater than a lick or taste of oil of wintergreen (98% methyl salicylate) by children under 6 years of age and more than 4 mL of oil of wintergreen by patients 6 years of age and older could cause systemic salicylate toxicity and warrants referral to an emergency department (Grade C). 5) Do not induce emesis for ingestions of salicylates (Grade D). 6) Consider the out-of-hospital administration of activated charcoal for acute ingestions of a toxic dose if it is immediately available, no contraindications are present, the patient is not vomiting, and local guidelines for its out-of-hospital use are observed. However, do not delay transportation in order to administer activated charcoal (Grade D). 7) Women in the last trimester of pregnancy who ingest below the dose for emergency department referral and do not have other referral conditions should be directed to their primary care physician, obstetrician, or a non-emergent health care facility for evaluation of maternal and fetal risk. Routine referral to an emergency department for immediate care is not required (Grade C). 8) For asymptomatic patients with dermal exposures to methyl salicylate or salicylic acid, the skin should be thoroughly washed with soap and water and the patient can be observed at home for development of symptoms (Grade C). 9) For patients with an ocular exposure of methyl salicylate or salicylic acid, the eye(s) should be irrigated with room-temperature tap water for 15 minutes. If after irrigation the patient is having pain, decreased visual acuity, or persistent irritation, referral for an ophthalmological examination is indicated (Grade D). 10) Poison centers should monitor the onset of symptoms whenever possible by conducting follow-up calls at periodic intervals for approximately 12 hours after ingestion of non-enteric-coated salicylate products, and for approximately 24 hours after the ingestion of enteric-coated aspirin (Grade C).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2007; 45(2):95-131. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of U.S. poison center data for 2004 showed over 12,000 exposures to tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce healthcare costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate prehospital triage and management of patients with suspected ingestions of TCAs by 1) describing the manner in which an ingestion of a TCA might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of TCA ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of TCAs alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances could require different referral and management recommendations depending on their combined toxicities. This guideline is based on the assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with suspected self-harm or who are the victims of malicious administration of a TCA should be referred to an emergency department immediately (Grade D). 2) Patients with acute TCA ingestions who are less than 6 years of age and other patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation including standard history taking and determination of the presence of co-ingestants (especially other psychopharmaceutical agents) and underlying exacerbating conditions, such as convulsions or cardiac arrhythmias. Ingestion of a TCA in combination with other drugs might warrant referral to an emergency department. The ingestion of a TCA by a patient with significant underlying cardiovascular or neurological disease should cause referral to an emergency department at a lower dose than for other individuals. Because of the potential severity of TCA poisoning, transportation by EMS, with close monitoring of clinical status and vital signs en route, should be considered (Grade D). 3) Patients who are symptomatic (e.g., weak, drowsy, dizzy, tremulous, palpitations) after a TCA ingestion should be referred to an emergency department (Grade B). 4) Ingestion of either of the following amounts (whichever is lower) would warrant consideration of referral to an emergency department: an amount that exceeds the usual maximum single therapeutic dose or an amount equal to or greater than the lowest reported toxic dose. For all TCAs except desipramine, nortriptyline, trimipramine, and protriptyline, this dose is >5 mg/kg. For despiramine it is >2.5 mg/kg; for nortriptyline it is >2.5 mg/kg; for trimipramine it is >2.5 mg/kg; and for protriptyline it is >1 mg/kg. This recommendation applies to both patients who are naïve to the specific TCA and to patients currently taking cyclic antidepressants who take extra doses, in which case the extra doses should be added to the daily dose taken and then compared to the threshold dose for referral to an emergency department (Grades B/C). 5) Do not induce emesis (Grade D). 6) The risk-to-benefit ratio of prehospital activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination in TCA poisoning is unknown. Prehospital activated charcoal administration, if available, should only be carried out by health professionals and only if no contraindications are present. Do not delay transportation in order to administer activated charcoal (Grades B/D). 7) For unintentional poisonings, asymptomatic patients are unlikely to develop symptoms if the interval between the ingestion and the initial call to a poison center is greater than 6 hours. These patients do not need referral to an emergency department facility (Grade C). 8) Follow-up calls to determine the outcome for a TCA ingestions ideally should be made within 4 hours of the initial call to a poison center and then at appropriate intervals thereafter based on the clinical judgment of the poison center staff (Grade D). 9) An ECG or rhythm strip, if available, should be checked during the prehospital assessment of a TCA overdose patient. A wide-complex arrhythmia with a QRS duration longer than 100 msec is an indicator that the patient should be immediately stabilized, given sodium bicarbonate if there is a protocol for its use, and transported to an emergency department (Grade B). 10) Symptomatic patients with TCA poisoning might require prehospital interventions, such as intravenous fluids, cardiovascular agents, and respiratory support, in accordance with standard ACLS guidelines (Grade D). 11) Administration of sodium bicarbonate might be beneficial for patients with severe or life-threatening TCA toxicity if there is a prehospital protocol for its use (Grades B/D). 12) For TCA-associated convulsions, benzodiazepines are recommended (Grade D). 13) Flumazenil is not recommended for patients with TCA poisoning (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2007; 45(3):203-33. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected exposure to long-acting anticoagulant rodenticides (LAAR). An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. It is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with exposure due to suspected self-harm, abuse, misuse, or potentially malicious administration should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the doses reported (Grade D). 2) Patients with symptoms of LAAR poisoning (e.g., bleeding, bruising) should be referred immediately to an emergency department for evaluation regardless of the doses reported (Grade C). 3) Patients with chronic ingestion of LAAR should be referred immediately to an emergency department for evaluation of intent and potential coagulopathy (Grade B). 4) Patients taking anticoagulants therapeutically and who ingest any dose of a LAAR should have a baseline prothrombin time measured and then again at 48-72 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 5) Patients with unintentional ingestion of less than 1 mg of LAAR active ingredient can be safely observed at home without laboratory monitoring. This includes practically all unintentional ingestions in children less than 6 years of age (Grade C). 6) Pregnant patients with unintentional exposure to less than 1 mg of LAAR active ingredient should be evaluated by their obstetrician or primary care provider as an outpatient. Immediate referral to an ED or clinic is not required (Grade D). 7) Patients with unintentional ingestion of 1 mg or more of active ingredient and are asymptomatic should be evaluated for coagulopathy at 48-72 hours after exposure (Grade B). 8) Physicians' offices or outpatient clinics must be able to obtain coagulation study results in a timely manner, preferably in less than 24 hours, for patients who require outpatient monitoring (Grade D). 9) Gastrointestinal decontamination with ipecac syrup or gastric lavage is not recommended (Grade D). 10) Transportation to an emergency department should not be delayed for administration of activated charcoal (Grade D). 11) Patients with dermal exposures should be decontaminated by washing the skin with mild soap and water (Grade D). 12) The administration of vitamin K is not recommended prior to evaluation for coagulopathy (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2007; 45(1):1-22. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 8,000 ingestions of methylphenidate. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with suspected ingestions of methylphenidate by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to methylphenidate, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of methylphenidate ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate and the effects of an overdose and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) In patients without evidence of self-harm, abuse, or malicious intent, poison center personnel should elicit additional information including the time of the ingestion, the precise dose ingested, and the presence of coingestants (Grade D). 3) Patients who are chronically taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor and who have ingested any amount of methylphenidate require referral to an emergency department (Grade D). 4) Patients experiencing any changes in behavior other than mild stimulation or agitation should be referred to an emergency department. Examples of moderate to severe symptoms that warrant referral include moderate-to-severe agitation, hallucinations, abnormal muscle movements, headache, chest pain, loss of consciousness, or convulsions (Grade D). 5) For patients referred to an emergency department, transportation via ambulance should be considered based on several factors including the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take for the patient to arrive at the emergency department (Grade D). 6) If the patient has no symptoms, and more than 3 hours have elapsed between the time of ingestion and the call to the poison center, referral to an emergency department is not recommended (Grade D). 7) Patients with acute or acute-on-chronic ingestions of less than a toxic dose (see recommendations 8, 9, and 10) or chronic exposures to methylphenidate with no or mild symptoms can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop or worsen. For acute-on-chronic ingestions, the caller should be instructed not to administer methylphenidate to the patient for the next 24 hours. The poison center should consider making a follow-up call at approximately 3 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 8) Patients who ingest more than 2 mg/kg or 60 mg, whichever is less, of an immediate-release formulation (or the equivalent amount of a modified-release formulation that has been chewed) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade C). 9) If a patch has been swallowed, consider the entire contents of the patch (not just the labeled dose of the patch) to have been ingested. Patients who ingest more than 2 mg/kg or 60 mg, whichever is less should be referred to an emergency department. If it is known that the patch has been chewed only briefly, and the patch remains intact, significant toxicity is unlikely and emergency department referral is not necessary (Grade D). 10) Patients who ingest more than 4 mg/kg or 120 mg, whichever is less, of an intact modified-release formulation should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 11) For oral exposures, do not induce emesis (Grade D). 12) Pre-hospital activated charcoal administration, if available, should only be carried out by health professionals and only if no contraindications are present. Do not delay transportation in order to administer activate charcoal (Grade D). 13) Benzodiazepines can be administered by EMS personnel if agitation, dystonia, or convulsions are present and if authorized by EMS medical direction expressed by written treatment protocol or policy or direct medical oversight (Grade C). 14) Standard advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) measures should be administered by EMS personnel if respiratory arrest, cardiac dysrhythmias, or cardiac arrest are present and if authorized by EMS medical direction expressed by written treatment protocol or policy or direct medical oversight (Grade C).
    Clinical Toxicology 01/2007; 45(7):737-52. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A review of national poison center data from 1990 through 2003 showed approximately 10,000 annual ingestion exposures to camphor-containing products. A guideline that determines the threshold dose for emergency department referral and need for pre-hospital decontamination could potentially avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, optimize patient outcome, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected exposures to camphor-containing products by 1) describing the manner in which an exposure to camphor might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of camphor exposure, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to camphor exposure alone. Co-ingestion of additional substances, such as in commercial products of camphor combined with other ingredients, could require different referral and management recommendations depending on the combined toxicities of the substances. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline, and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the recipients of malicious administration of a camphor-containing product should be referred to an emergency department immediately, regardless of the amount ingested (Grade D). 2) Patients who have ingested more than 30 mg/kg of a camphor-containing product or who are exhibiting symptoms of moderate to severe toxicity (e.g., convulsions, lethargy, ataxia, severe nausea and vomiting) by any route of exposure should be referred to an emergency department for observation and treatment (Grade D). 3) Patients exhibiting convulsions following a camphor exposure should be transported to an emergency department by pre-hospital emergency medical care providers (Grade D). A benzodiazepine should be used to control convulsions (Grade C). 4) Patients who have been exposed to a camphor product and who remain asymptomatic after 4 hours can be safely observed at home (Grade C). 5) Induction of emesis with ipecac syrup should not be performed in patients who have ingested camphor products (Grade C). 6) Activated charcoal administration should not be used for the ingestion of camphor products. However, it could be considered if there are other ingredients in the product that are effectively adsorbed by activated charcoal or if other substances have been co-ingested. (Grade C). 7) For asymptomatic patients with topical exposures to camphor products, the skin should be thoroughly washed with soap and water and the patient can be observed at home for development of symptoms (Grade C). 8) For patients with topical splash exposures of camphor to the eye(s), the eye(s) should be irrigated in accordance with usual poison center procedures and that referral take place based on the presence and severity of symptoms (Grade D). 9) Patients with camphor inhalation exposures should be moved to a fresh air environment and referred for medical care based on the presence and severity of symptoms. It is unlikely that symptoms will progress once the patient is removed from the exposure environment (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2006; 44(4):357-70. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected ingestions of acetaminophen. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. This guideline applies to ingestion of acetaminophen alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care. The panel's recommendations follow. These recommendations are provided in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is provided in parentheses. 1) The initial history obtained by the specialist in poison information should include the patient's age and intent (Grade B), the specific formulation and dose of acetaminophen, the ingestion pattern (single or multiple), duration of ingestion (Grade B), and concomitant medications that might have been ingested (Grade D). 2) Any patient with stated or suspected self-harm or who is the recipient of a potentially malicious administration of acetaminophen should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the amount ingested. This referral should be guided by local poison center procedures (Grade D). 3) Activated charcoal can be considered if local poison center policies support its prehospital use, a toxic dose of acetaminophen has been taken, and fewer than 2 hours have elapsed since the ingestion (Grade A). Gastrointestinal decontamination could be particularly important if acetylcysteine cannot be administered within 8 hours of ingestion. Acute, single, unintentional ingestion of acetaminophen: 1) Any patient with signs consistent with acetaminophen poisoning (e.g., repeated vomiting, abdominal tenderness in the right upper quadrant or mental status changes) should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade D). 2) Patients less than 6 years of age should be referred to an emergency department if the estimated acute ingestion amount is unknown or is 200 mg/kg or more. Patients can be observed at home if the dose ingested is less than 200 mg/kg (Grade B). 3) Patients 6 years of age or older should be referred to an emergency department if they have ingested at least 10 g or 200 mg/kg (whichever is lower) or when the amount ingested is unknown (Grade D). 4) Patients referred to an emergency department should arrive in time to have a stat serum acetaminophen concentration determined at 4 hours after ingestion or as soon as possible thereafter. If the time of ingestion is unknown, the patient should be referred to an emergency department immediately (Grade D). 5) If the initial contact with the poison center occurs more than 36 hours after the ingestion and the patient is well, the patient does not require further evaluation for acetaminophen toxicity (Grade D). Repeated supratherapeutic ingestion of acetaminophen (RSTI): 1) Patients under 6 years of age should be referred to an emergency department immediately if they have ingested: a) 200 mg/kg or more over a single 24-hour period, or b) 150 mg/kg or more per 24-hour period for the preceding 48 hours, or c) 100 mg/kg or more per 24-hour period for the preceding 72 hours or longer (Grade C). 2) Patients 6 years of age or older should be referred to an emergency department if they have ingested: a) at least 10 g or 200 mg/kg (whichever is less) over a single 24-hour period, or b) at least 6 g or 150 mg/kg (whichever is less) per 24-hour period for the preceding 48 hours or longer. In patients with conditions purported to increase susceptibility to acetaminophen toxicity (alcoholism, isoniazid use, prolonged fasting), the dose of acetaminophen considered as RSTI should be greater than 4 g or 100 mg/kg (whichever is less) per day (Grade D). 3) Gastrointestinal decontamination is not needed (Grade D). Other recommendations: 1) The out-of-hospital management of extended-release acetaminophen or multi-drug combination products containing acetaminophen is the same as an ingestion of acetaminophen alone (Grade D). However, the effects of other drugs might require referral to an emergency department in accordance with the poison center's normal triage criteria. 2) The use of cimetidine as an antidote is not recommended (Grade A).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2006; 44(1):1-18. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2003, there were 28,092 human exposures to diphenhydramine reported to poison centers in the US. A related drug, dimenhydrinate, is a less frequent cause of poisonings. Between January 2000 and June 2004, there were 2,534 reported dimenhydrinate ingestions in children less than 6 years of age. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with a suspected ingestion of diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate, or a dermal exposure to diphenhydramine. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. The panel's recommendations for dermal or oral exposures to diphenhydramine or oral exposures to dimenhydrinate follow. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses: 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which a malicious intent is suspected (e.g., child abuse or neglect) should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 2) In patients without evidence of self-harm, abuse, or malicious intent, poison center personnel should elicit additional information including the time of the ingestion or dermal exposure, determination of the precise dose ingested, and the presence of co-ingestants (Grade D). 3) Patients experiencing any changes in behavior other than mild drowsiness or mild stimulation should be referred to an emergency department. Examples of moderate to severe symptoms that warrant referral include agitation, staring spells, inconsolable crying, hallucinations, abnormal muscle movements, loss of consciousness, seizures, or respiratory depression (Grade D). 4) For patients referred to the emergency department, transportation via ambulance should be considered based on several factors including the condition of the patient and the length of time it will take the patient to arrive at the emergency department (Grade D). 5) If the patient has no symptoms, and more than 4 hours have elapsed between the time of diphenhydramine ingestion and the call to the poison center, referral to an emergency department is not recommended. For dermal exposures to diphenhydramine, if the patient has no symptoms and it has been more than 8 hours since the diphenhydramine was thoroughly removed from the skin, referral to an emergency department is not recommended (Grade D). 6) Patients with acute ingestions of less than a toxic dose of diphenhydramine, or chronic exposures to diphenhydramine and no or mild symptoms, can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop or worsen. The poison center should consider making a follow-up call at approximately 4 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 7) Children less than 6 years of age who ingest at least 7.5 mg/kg of diphenhydramine should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 8) Patients 6 years of age and older who ingest at least 7.5 mg/kg or 300 mg of diphenhydramine (whichever is less), should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 9) If the patient has no symptoms, and more than 6 hours have elapsed between the time of dimenhydrinate ingestion and the call to the poison center, referral to an emergency department is not recommended (Grade D). 10) Patients with acute ingestions of less than a toxic dose of dimenhydrinate, or chronic exposures to dimenhydrinate and no or mild symptoms, can be observed at home with instructions to call the poison center back if symptoms develop or worsen. The poison center should consider making a follow-up call at approximately 6 hours after ingestion (Grade D). 11) Children less than 6 years of age ingesting at least 7.5 mg/kg of dimenhydrinate should be referred to an emergency department (Grade D). 12) Patients 6 years of age and older ingesting at least 7.5 mg/kg or 300 mg of dimenhydrinate (whichever is less), should be referred to an emergency department for evaluation (Grade D). 13) Following oral exposures of diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate, do not induce emesis. Because of the potential for diphenhydramine or dimenhydrinate to cause loss of consciousness or seizures, activated charcoal should not be administered en route to an emergency department (Grade D). 14) For chronic dermal exposures of diphenhydramine, skin decontamination (with water or soap and water) should be attempted prior to transporting a patient to an emergency department unless moderate to severe symptoms are already present. In this circumstance, transportation should not be delayed, and EMS personnel should attempt skin decontamination en route to the emergency department (Grade D). 15) Intravenous sodium bicarbonate may be administered by EMS personnel if QRS widening (QRS >0.10 msec) is present and if authorized by EMS medical direction (Grade D). 16) Physostigmine should be reserved for administration in a hospital (Grade D). 17) Benzodiazepines may be administered by EMS personnel if agitation or seizures are present, and if authorized by EMS medical direction (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 01/2006; 44(3):205-23. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2003, US poison centers were contacted regarding ingestion of beta-blockers by 15,350 patients including 3766 (25%) under 6 years of age; 7415 (48%) were evaluated in healthcare facilities and 33 died. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before its distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes in response to comments received. The objective of this guideline is to assist US poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and management of patients with suspected ingestions of beta-blockers by describing the process by which a beta-blocker ingestion might be managed, identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of beta-blocker ingestion, providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of beta-blockers alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use; the grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the victims of a potentially malicious administration of beta-blocker should be referred to an emergency department immediately. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the precise dose ingested, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants. Ingestion of either an amount that exceeds the usual maximum single therapeutic dose or an amount equal to or greater than the lowest reported toxic dose (whichever is lower) warrants consideration of referral to an emergency department. Ingestion of any excess dose of any beta-blocker in combination with a calcium channel blocker or the ingestion of any excess dose by an individual with serious underlying cardiovascular disease also warrants referral to an emergency department (Grade C). 3) Do not induce emesis. Consider the oral administration of activated charcoal if it is available and no contraindications are present but do not delay transportation to administer charcoal (Grade A). 4) Asymptomatic patients who ingest more than the referral dose should be sent to an emergency department if the ingestion occurred within 6 hours of contacting the poison center for an immediate-release product other than sotalol, within 8 hours of contacting the poison center for a sustained-release product, and 12 hours if they took sotalol (Grade C). 5) Ambulance transportation is recommended for patients who are referred to emergency departments because of the potential for life-threatening complications of beta-blocker overdose. Provide usual supportive care en route to the hospital, including intravenous fluids for hypotension (Grade D). 6) Follow-up calls should be made to determine outcome at appropriate intervals for up to 12-24 hours based on the judgment of the poison center staff (Grade D). 7) Asymptomatic patients who are referred to healthcare facilities should be monitored for at least 6 hours after ingestion if they took an immediate-release preparation other than sotalol, 8 hours if they took a sustained-release preparation, and 12 hours if they took sotalol. Routine 24-hour admission of an asymptomatic patient who has unintentionally ingested a sustained-release preparation is not warranted (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(3):131-46. · 3.12 Impact Factor
  • Anthony S Manoguerra, Daniel J Cobaugh
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    ABSTRACT: The use of gastric emptying techniques, including ipecac-induced emesis, in the management of poisoned patients has declined significantly in recent years. Historically, poison centers used ipecac syrup in two ways. Ipecac syrup was administered to patients prior to referral to the emergency department in attempts to start the gastric emptying process as early as possible. Additionally, poison centers used ipecac syrup in attempts to keep patients from requiring referral to medical facilities. In these situations, ipecac syrup was administered in the home and poison center staff performed follow-up telephone calls to gauge progress and outcome. Studies to determine the effectiveness of ipecac syrup demonstrate that it induces vomiting in a high percentage of people to whom it is administered and that it decreases the gastrointestinal absorption of ingested substances in a time-dependent fashion. However, the effectiveness of ipecac syrup in affecting patient outcome has not been studied in adequate clinical trials. Its effectiveness in preventing drug absorption has only been documented for a limited number of substances and is substantially reduced if it is given more than 30-90 minutes following ingestion of the toxic material. There are potentially significant contraindications, adverse effects and related problems associated with the use of ipecac syrup. It is the consensus of the panel that the circumstances in which ipecac-induced emesis is the appropriate or desired method of gastric decontamination are rare. The panel concluded that the use of ipecac syrup might have an acceptable benefit-to-risk ratio in rare situations in which: there is no contraindication to the use of ipecac syrup; and there is substantial risk of serious toxicity to the victim; and there is no alternative therapy available or effective to decrease gastrointestinal absorption (e.g., activated charcoal); and there will be a delay of greater than 1 hour before the patient will arrive at an emergency medical facility and ipecac syrup can be administered within 30-90 minutes of the ingestion; and ipecac syrup administration will not adversely affect more definitive treatment that might be provided at a hospital. In such circumstances, the administration of ipecac syrup should occur only in response to a specific recommendation from a poison center, emergency department physician, or other qualified medical personnel. The panel decided not to address the issue of whether ipecac should remain a nonprescription, over-the-counter product. The panel does not support the routine stocking of ipecac in all households with young children but was unable to reach consensus on which households with young children might benefit from stocking ipecac. Instead, the panel concluded that individual practitioners and poison control centers are best able to determine the particular patient population, geographic and other variables that might influence the decision to recommend having ipecac on hand.
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(1):1-10. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: From 1983 to 1991, iron caused over 30% of the deaths from accidental ingestion of drug products by children. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before its distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes in response to comments received. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected ingestions of iron by 1) describing the manner in which an ingestion of iron might be managed, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of iron ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of iron alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. The panel's recommendations follow; the grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are victims of malicious administration of an iron product should be referred to an acute care medical facility immediately. This activity should be guided by local poison center procedures. In general, this should occur regardless of the amount ingested (Grade D). 2) Pediatric or adult patients with a known ingestion of 40 mg/kg or greater of elemental iron in the form of adult ferrous salt formulations or who have severe or persistent symptoms related to iron ingestion should be referred to a healthcare facility for medical evaluation. Patients who have ingested less than 40 mg/kg of elemental iron and who are having mild symptoms can be observed at home. Mild symptoms such as vomiting and diarrhea occur frequently. These mild symptoms should not necessarily prompt referral to a healthcare facility. Patients with more serious symptoms, such as persistent vomiting and diarrhea, alterations in level of consciousness, hematemesis, and bloody diarrhea require referral. The same dose threshold should be used for pregnant women, however, when calculating the mg/kg dose ingested, the pre-pregnancy weight of the woman should be used (Grade C). 3) Patients with ingestions of children's chewable vitamins plus iron should be observed at home with appropriate follow-up. The presence of diarrhea should not be the sole indicator for referral as these products are often sweetened with sorbitol. Children may need referral for the management of dehydration if vomiting or diarrhea is severe or prolonged (Grade C). 4) Patients with unintentional ingestions of carbonyl iron or polysaccharide-iron complex formulations should be observed at home with appropriate follow-up (Grade C). 5) Ipecac syrup, activated charcoal, cathartics, or oral complexing agents, such as bicarbonate or phosphate solutions, should not be used in the out-of-hospital management of iron ingestions (Grade C). 6) Asymptomatic patients are unlikely to develop symptoms if the interval between ingestion and the call to the poison center is greater than 6 hours. These patients should not need referral or prolonged observation. Depending on the specific circumstances, follow-up calls might be indicated (Grade C).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(6):553-70. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    F Lee Cantrell, Richard F Clark, Anthony S Manoguerra
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    ABSTRACT: Calcium channel antagonists (CCAs) are known to cause significant toxicity in overdose. Determining triage guidelines for CCAs is an important but difficult task. This study was designed to determine if an unintentional overdose of a patient's CCA could result in clinically significant cardiovascular (CV) symptoms (hypotension, bradycardia, conduction disturbances). Poison center records over a 3-year period were reviewed for adults ingesting at least double their prescribed dose of CCAs and who were evaluated in an emergency department (ED). Cases were reviewed for: patient age and gender, co-ingestants, CCA involved, dosage form, dose taken, usual dose, symptoms, available vital signs, and medical outcomes. 225 cases were identified; 161 cases met study criteria. There were 51 cases involving co-ingestants and 13 in which the usual dose was unknown. These were excluded. One hundred twenty-two patients (76%) were female and the mean age of all patients was 64 years. One hundred and four (65%) cases involved ingestions equal to double the usual dose (DD), 57 (35%) involved more than a DD. For DD cases, nine (9%) developed clinically significant CV signs or symptoms; while in cases with more than DD, eight (14%) did. This retrospective review demonstrated that the toxicity of CCAs following a therapeutic overdose can be highly variable and that the dose producing a toxic effect on the cardiovascular system may be within the maximum range of therapeutic doses. This may be the result of a number of factors, including the broad range of therapeutic doses as well as the pre-existing conditions in patients taking these medications. This variability makes home management of these cases difficult and therefore, poison centers should be conservative in their evaluation of these cases.
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(7):849-53. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2003, U.S. poison control centers were consulted after 9650 ingestions of calcium channel blockers (CCBs), including 57 deaths. This represents more than one-third of the deaths reported to the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Toxic Exposure Surveillance System database that were associated with cardiovascular drugs and emphasizes the importance of developing a guideline for the out-of-hospital management of calcium channel blocker poisoning. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with suspected ingestions of calcium channel blockers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. This guideline applies to ingestion of calcium channel blockers alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. The panel's recommendations follow. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with stated or suspected self-harm or the recipient of a potentially malicious administration of a CCB should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the amount ingested (Grade D). 2) Asymptomatic patients are unlikely to develop symptoms if the interval between the ingestion and the call is greater than 6 hours for immediate-release products, 18 hours for modified-release products other than verapamil, and 24 hours for modified-release verapamil. These patients do not need referral or prolonged observation (Grade D). 3) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the precise dose ingested, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants. Ingestion of either an amount that exceeds the usual maximum single therapeutic dose or an amount equal to or greater than the lowest reported toxic dose, whichever is lower (see Table 5), would warrant consideration of referral to an emergency department (Grade D). 4) Do not induce emesis (Grade D). 5) Consider the administration of activated charcoal orally if available and no contraindications are present. However, do not delay transportation in order to administer charcoal (Grade D). 6) For patients who merit evaluation in an emergency department, ambulance transportation is recommended because of the potential for life-threatening complications. Provide usual supportive care en route to the hospital, including intravenous fluids for hypotension. Consider use of intravenous calcium, glucagon, and epinephrine for severe hypotension during transport, if available (Grade D). 7) Depending on the specific circumstances, follow-up calls should be made to determine outcome at appropriate intervals based on the clinical judgment of the poison center staff (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 02/2005; 43(7):797-822. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2002, poison centers in the US reported 5816 human exposures to ethylene glycol. A guideline that effectively determines the threshold dose for emergency department referral and need for pre-hospital decontamination could potentially avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, optimize patient outcome, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the out-of-hospital triage and initial management of patients with a suspected exposure to ethylene glycol by (1) describing the process by which the exposure might be evaluated, (2) identifying the key decision elements in managing the case, (3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and (4) identifying needs for research. This guideline is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. (1) A patient with exposure due to suspected self-harm, misuse, or potentially malicious administration should be referred to an emergency department immediately regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). (2) Patients with inhalation exposures will not develop systemic toxicity and can be managed out-of-hospital if asymptomatic (Grade B). Patients with clinically significant mucous membrane irritation should be referred for evaluation (Grade D). (3) Decontamination of dermal exposures should include routine cleansing with mild soap and water. Removal of contact lenses and immediate irrigation with room temperature tap water is recommended for ocular exposures. All patients with symptoms of eye injury should be referred for an ophthalmologic exam (Grade D). (4) Patients with symptoms of ethylene glycol poisoning should be referred immediately for evaluation regardless of the reported dose (Grade C). (5) The absence of symptoms shortly after ingestion does not exclude a potentially toxic dose and should not be used as a triage criterion (Grade C). (6) Adults who ingest a "swallow" (10-30 mL), children who ingest more than a witnessed taste or lick, or if the amount is unknown of most ethylene glycol products should be referred immediately for evaluation. The potential toxic volume of dilute solutions (e.g., concentration <20%) is larger and can be estimated by a formula in the text (Grade C). (7) A witnessed taste or lick only by a child, or an adult who unintentionally drinks and then expectorates the product without swallowing, does not need referral (Grade C). (8) Referral is not needed if it has been >24 hours since a potentially toxic unintentional exposure, the patient has been asymptomatic, and no alcohol was co-ingested (Grade D). (9) Gastrointestinal decontamination with ipecac syrup, gastric lavage or activated charcoal is not recommended. Transportation to an emergency department should not be delayed for any decontamination procedures (Grade D). (10) Patients meeting referral criteria should be evaluated at a hospital emergency department rather than a clinic. A facility that can quickly obtain an ethylene glycol serum concentration and has alcohol or fomepizole therapy available is preferred. This referral should be guided by local poison center procedures and community resources (Grade D). (11) The administration of alcohol, fomepizole, thiamine, or pyridoxine is not recommended in the out-of-hospital setting (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 01/2005; 43(5):327-45. · 3.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In 2003, US poison centers were contacted regarding ingestion of β-blockers by 15,350 patients including 3766 (25%) under 6 years of age; 7415 (48%) were evaluated in healthcare facilities and 33 died. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create this guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the primary author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before its distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes in response to comments received. The objective of this guideline is to assist US poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and management of patients with suspected ingestions of β-blockers by describing the process by which a β-blocker ingestion might be managed, identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of β-blocker ingestion, providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and identifying needs for research. This guideline applies to ingestion of β-blockers alone and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use; the grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) Patients with stated or suspected self-harm or who are the victims of a potentially malicious administration of β-blocker should be referred to an emergency department immediately. In general, this should occur regardless of the dose reported (Grade D). 2) Patients without evidence of self-harm should have further evaluation, including determination of the precise dose ingested, history of other medical conditions, and the presence of co-ingestants. Ingestion of either an amount that exceeds the usual maximum single therapeutic dose or an amount equal to or greater than the lowest reported toxic dose (whichever is lower) warrants consideration of referral to an emergency department. Ingestion of any excess dose of any β-blocker in combination with a calcium channel blocker or the ingestion of any excess dose by an individual with serious underlying cardiovascular disease also warrants referral to an emergency department (Grade C). 3) Do not induce emesis. Consider the oral administration of activated charcoal if it is available and no contraindications are present but do not delay transportation to administer charcoal (Grade A). 4) Asymptomatic patients who ingest more than the referral dose should be sent to an emergency department if the ingestion occurred within 6 hours of contacting the poison center for an immediate-release product other than sotalol, within 8 hours of contacting the poison center for a sustained-release product, and 12 hours if they took sotalol (Grade C). 5) Ambulance transportation is recommended for patients who are referred to emergency departments because of the potential for life-threatening complications of β-blocker overdose. Provide usual supportive care en route to the hospital, including intravenous fluids for hypotension (Grade D). 6) Follow-up calls should be made to determine outcome at appropriate intervals for up to 12–24 hours based on the judgment of the poison center staff (Grade D). 7) Asymptomatic patients who are referred to healthcare facilities should be monitored for at least 6 hours after ingestion if they took an immediate-release preparation other than sotalol, 8 hours if they took a sustained-release preparation, and 12 hours if they took sotalol. Routine 24-hour admission of an asymptomatic patient who has unintentionally ingested a sustained-release preparation is not warranted (Grade D).
    Clinical Toxicology 01/2005; 43(3):131-146. · 3.12 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

553 Citations
122.89 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2006
    • American University Washington D.C.
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 1998–2005
    • University of California, San Diego
      • Department of Emergency Medicine
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • National University (California)
      San Diego, California, United States
  • 2000
    • Dublin Business School
      Dublin, Leinster, Ireland
    • University of Maryland, Baltimore
      • School of Pharmacy
      Baltimore, MD, United States