Christoph Syldatk

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany

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Publications (175)339.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Surfactin is one of the most popular biosurfactants due to its numerous potential applications. The usually aerobic production via fermentation of Bacillus subtilis is accompanied by vigorous foaming which leads to complex constructions and great expense. Therefore it is reasonable to search for alternative foam-free production processes. The current study introduces a novel approach to produce Surfactin in a foam-free process applying a strictly anaerobic bioreactor cultivation. The process was performed several times with different glucose concentrations in mineral salt medium. The fermentations were analyzed regarding specific (qSurfactin, vol. qSurfactin) and overall product yields (YP/X, YP/S) as well as substrate utilization (YX/S). Fermentations in which 2.5 g/L glucose were employed proofed to be the most effective, reaching product yields of YP/X = 0.278 g/g. Most interesting, the product yields exceeded classical aerobic fermentations, in which foam fractionation was applied. Additionally, values for specific production rate qSurfactin (0.005 g/(g∙h)) and product yield per consumed substrate (YP/S = 0.033 g/g) surpass results of comparable foam-free processes. The current study introduces an alternative to produce a biosurfactant that overcomes the challenges of severe foaming and need for additional constructions.
    12/2015; 5(1):21. DOI:10.1186/s13568-015-0107-6
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of heavy metals on the activity of biosurfactants produced by Joostella strain A8 from the polychaete Megalomma claparedei was investigated. Biosurfactant activity was first improved by evaluating the influence of abiotic parameters. Higher E24 indices were achieved at 25 °C in mineral salt medium supplemented with 2 % glucose, 3 % sodium chloride (w/v) and 0.1 % ammonium chloride (w/v). Considerable surface tension reduction was never recorded. Heavy metal tolerance was preliminarily assayed by plate diffusion method resulting in the order of toxicity Cd > Cu > Zn. The activity of biosurfactants was then evaluated in the presence of heavy metals at different concentrations in liquid cultures that were incubated under optimal conditions for biosurfactant activity. The production of stable emulsions resulted generally higher in the presence of metals. These findings suggest that biosurfactant production could represent a bacterial adaptive strategy to defend cells from a stress condition derived from heavy metals in the bulk environment.
    Ecotoxicology 06/2015; DOI:10.1007/s10646-015-1504-y · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Globally the change towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.
    Frontiers in Microbiology 03/2015; 6:212. DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00212 · 3.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bioprocess engineering is a highly interdisciplinary field of study which is strongly benefited by practical courses where students can actively experience the interconnection between biology, engineering, and physical sciences. This work describes a lab course developed for 2nd year undergraduate students of bioprocess engineering and related disciplines, where students are challenged with a real-life bioprocess-engineering application, the production of recombinant protein in a fed-batch process. The lab course was designed to introduce students to the subject of operating and supervising an experiment in a bioreactor, along with the analysis of collected data and a final critical evaluation of the experiment. To provide visual feedback of the experimental outcome, the organism used during class was Escherichia coli which carried a plasmid to recombinantly produce enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) upon induction. This can easily be visualized in both the bioreactor and samples by using ultraviolet light. The lab course is performed with bioreactors of the simplest design, and is therefore highly flexible, robust and easy to reproduce. As part of this work the implementation and framework, the results, the evaluation and assessment of student learning combined with opinion surveys are presented, which provides a basis for instructors intending to implement a similar lab course at their respective institution.
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/bmb.20860 · 0.59 Impact Factor
  • Siegmund Lang, Christoph Syldatk, Udo Rau
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    ABSTRACT: A review on the chemo-enzymic synthesis of glycolipids using lipases, glycolipidases and proteases, and the enzymic modification of naturally occurring glycolipids. Important advantages of the biocatalysts are mild reaction conditions, their regioselectivities and, in some cases, their stereoselectivities. These methods are well established for preparative use, and may also have a significant impact on the industrial prodn. of glycolipids for use as surfactants, sweeteners, food ingredients, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals. Some recommendations to overcome the limitations assocd. with these methods are given. Novel methods such as the lipase-catalyzed solid-phase synthesis, including addn. of adjuvants, which can successfully be applied at the preparative scale, may not easily be used on an industrial scale. [on SciFinder(R)]
    02/2015
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of hydrocarbon contamination in marine polar areas is constantly increasing. Autochthonous bacteria, due to their ability to cope and survive under extreme environmental conditions, can play a fundamental role in the hydrocarbon degradation. The degradation process is often enhanced by the production of biosurfactant molecules. The present study reports for the first time on the isolation of biosurfactant-producing bacteria from Arctic and Antarctic shoreline sediments. A total of 199 psychrotolerant bacterial isolates were obtained from hydrocarbon-amended (with crude or diesel oil) microcosms. A total of 18 isolates were selected for their ability to grow in the presence of crude oil and produce biosurfactants, as it was revealed by the production of good E24 values (≥50 %) and/or reduction in the surface tension (under 30 mN/m). The positive response of the isolates to both tests suggests a possible production of biosurfactants with emulsifying and interfacial activities. Biosurfactant-producing isolates were mainly affiliated to the genera Rhodococcus (14 isolates), followed by Pseudomonas (two isolates), Pseudoalteromonas (one isolate) and Idiomarina (one isolate). Thin-layer chromatography of biosurfactant crude extracts revealed that the majority of the selected isolates were able to produce glycolipidic surfactants. Our results enlarge the knowledge, which is still poor and fragmentary, on biosurfactant producers from polar areas and indicate marine polar sediments as a source of bacteria with potential applications in the remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated cold environments.
    Polar Biology 01/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00300-015-1717-9 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Globally, the drive towards the establishment of a bio-based economy has resulted in an increased need for bio-based applications. This, in turn, has served as a driving force for the discovery and application of novel biosurfactants. The class Actinobacteria represents a vast group of microorganisms with the ability to produce a diverse range of secondary metabolites, including surfactants. Understanding the extensive nature of the biosurfactants produced by actinobacterial strains can assist in finding novel biosurfactants with new potential applications. This review therefore presents a comprehensive overview of the knowledge available on actinobacterial surfactants, the chemical structures that have been completely or partly elucidated, as well as the identity of the biosurfactant-producing strains. Producer strains of not yet elucidated compounds are discussed, as well as the original habitats of all the producer strains, which seems to indicate that biosurfactant production is environmentally driven. Methodology applied in the isolation, purification and structural elucidation of the different types of surface active compounds, as well as surfactant activity tests, are also discussed. Overall, actinobacterial surfactants can be summarized to include the dominantly occurring trehalose-comprising surfactants, other non-trehalose containing glycolipids, lipopeptides and the more rare actinobacterial surfactants. The lack of structural information on a large proportion of actinobacterial surfactants should be considered as a driving force to further explore the abundance and diversity of these compounds. This would allow for a better understanding of actinobacterial surface active compounds and their potential for biotechnological application.
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    ABSTRACT: A microtiter plate-based assay was developed to evaluate the ability of lipases to perform transesterifications when employed in different organic solvents. A 4-nitrophenol assay was carried out employing seven different lipase formulations and two fatty acid methyl esters with different chain lengths in a total of six organic solvents with logP values approximately between 1 and -1. This assay delivered results within comparatively short times measured by a color reaction and thus facilitates the choice of an enzyme-solvent combination for the synthesis of glycolipids. To validate the findings, glycolipid syntheses were performed using the same lipase formulation in the same solvents. When comparing the results obtained using the microtiter plate-based assay to the results of the glycolipid syntheses using the same lipases and solvents, matching results were obtained.
    Biotechnology Letters 11/2014; 37(3). DOI:10.1007/s10529-014-1721-0 · 1.74 Impact Factor
  • Marius Henkel, Christoph Syldatk, Rudolf Hausmann
    Biosurfactants: Production and Utilization - Processes, Technologies, and Economics, Edited by Naim Kosaric, Fazilet Vardar Sukan, 11/2014: chapter 6: pages 83-100; CRC Press., ISBN: 978-1-4665-9669-6
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymatic synthesis of sugar fatty acid esters in organic solvents is a well-described procedure to synthesize glycolipids. This study aims at replacing these solvents with deep eutectic solvents (DES), a group of solvents that gained more and more interest during the last years, since they can be easily produced from non-toxic resources. Enzymatic glycolipid synthesis in deep eutectic solvents was investigated, employing Candida antarctica lipase B (Novozyme 435) in various deep eutectic solvents. A successful lipase-catalyzed synthesis of glucose fatty acid esters gave proof of this concept, while using the two deep eutectic solvents consisting of choline chloride and urea (CC : U) and choline chloride and glucose (CC : Glc). Additionally the DES consisting of choline chloride and glucose was observed to act as solvent and substrate for the synthesis at the same time.Practical application:Glycolipids find applications in many every-day products like cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations, food and classic cleaning products, utilizing their good detergent or emulsification properties. Glycolipids can, among other routes, be synthesized via lipase-catalyzed reactions, which are often carried out in organic solvents. By replacing these organic solvents with more ecologically friendly solvents like deep eutectic solvents, the reaction might be improved and the amount of waste produced could be reduced.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 11/2014; DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201400459 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 09/2014; 86(9). DOI:10.1002/cite.201450032 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 09/2014; 86(9). DOI:10.1002/cite.201450017 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    C. Slomka, U. Engel, C. Syldatk, J. Rudat
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 09/2014; 86(9). DOI:10.1002/cite.201450367 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    S. Dold, C. Syldatk, J. Rudat
    Chemie Ingenieur Technik 09/2014; 86(9). DOI:10.1002/cite.201450368 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biosurfactants increasingly gain attention due to the manifold of possible applications and production on the basis of renewable resources. Owing to its various characteristics, Surfactin is one of the most studied biosurfactants. Since its discovery, several Surfactin producers have been identified, but their capacity to produce Surfactin has not been evaluated in a comparison. Six different Bacillus strains were analyzed regarding their ability to produce Surfactin in model fermentations with integrated foam fractionation, for in situ product enrichment and removal. Three of the investigated strains are commonly used in Surfactin production (ATCC 21332, DSM 3256, DSM 3258), whereas two Bacillus strains are described for the first time (DSM 1090, LM43a50°C) as Surfactin producers. Additionally, the Bacillus subtilis type strain DSM 10(T) was included in the evaluation. Interestingly, all strains, except DSM 3256, featured high values for Surfactin recovered from foam in comparison to other studies, ranging between 0.4 and 1.05 g. The fermentation process was characterized by calculating procedural parameters like substrate yield Y X/S, product yield Y P/X, specific growth rate μ, specific productivity q Surfactin, volumetric productivity q Surfactin, Surfactin and bacterial enrichment as well as Surfactin recovery. The strains differ most in specific and volumetric productivity; nevertheless, it is evident that it is not possible to name a Bacillus strain that is the most appropriate for the production of Surfactin under these conditions. In contrast, it becomes apparent that the choice of a specific strain should depend on the applied fermentation conditions.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-6010-2 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Actinomycetales are known to produce various secondary metabolites including products with surface-active and emulsifying properties known as biosurfactants. In this study, the nonpathogenic actinomycetes Tsukamurella spumae and Tsukamurella pseudospumae are described as producers of extracellular trehalose lipid biosurfactants when grown on sunflower oil or its main component glyceryltrioleate. Crude extracts of the trehalose lipids were purified using silica gel chromatography. The structure of the two trehalose lipid components (TL A and TL B) was elucidated using a combination of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight/tandem mass spectroscopy (MALDI-ToF-ToF/MS/MS) and multidimensional NMR experiments. The biosurfactants were identified as 1-α-glucopyranosyl-1-α-glucopyranosid carrying two acyl chains varying of C4 to C6 and C16 to C18 at the 2' and 3' carbon atom of one sugar unit. The trehalose lipids produced demonstrate surface-active behavior and emulsifying capacity. Classified as risk group 1 organisms, T. spumae and T. pseudospumae hold potential for the production of environmentally friendly surfactants.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 08/2014; 98(21). DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-5972-4 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oligopeptides are of high importance for various industrial applications, e.g. cosmetical or medical. Homooligomerizations and co-oligomerizations with anionic amino acid esters are well described but a successful synthesis of cationic heterooligopeptides has been missing so far. The present study reports the ficain-catalyzed heterooligomerizations of LysOEt with MetOEt, leading to cationic heterooligopeptides with a yield up to 49.5% (w/w). MALDI-ToF/ToF-MS analyses proved successful syntheses of cationic heterooligopeptides with a DP between 7 and 10 amino acid residues, with the enzyme exhibiting a clear preference for methionine. Copyright © 2014 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Peptide Science 08/2014; 20(8). DOI:10.1002/psc.2639 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Economic and ecological reasons cause the industry to develop new innovative bio-based processes for the production of oil as renewable feedstock. Petroleum resources are expected to be depleted in the near future. Plant oils as sole substituent are highly criticized because of the competitive utilization of the agricultural area for food and energy feedstock production. Microbial lipids of oleaginous microorganisms are therefore a suitable alternative. To decrease production costs of microbial lipids and gain spatial independence from industrial sites of CO2 emission, a combination of heterotrophic and phototrophic cultivation with integrated CO2 recycling was investigated in this study. A feasibility study on a semi-pilot scale was conducted and showed that the cultivation of the oleaginous yeast Cryptococcus curvatus on a 1.2-L scale was sufficient to supply a culture of the oleaginous microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum in a 21-L bubble column reactor with CO2 while single cell oils were produced in both processes due to a nutrient limitation.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-5867-4 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The production of rhamnolipid biosurfactants by Pseudomonas aeruginosa is under complex control of a quorum sensing-dependent regulatory network. Due to a lack of understanding of the kinetics applicable to the process and relevant interrelations of variables, current processes for rhamnolipid production are based on heuristic approaches. To systematically establish a knowledge-based process for rhamnolipid production, a deeper understanding of the time-course and coupling of process variables is required. By combining reaction kinetics, stoichiometry, and experimental data, a process model for rhamnolipid production with P. aeruginosa PAO1 on sunflower oil was developed as a system of coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs). In addition, cell density-based quorum sensing dynamics were included in the model. The model comprises a total of 36 parameters, 14 of which are yield coefficients and 7 of which are substrate affinity and inhibition constants. Of all 36 parameters, 30 were derived from dedicated experimental results, literature, and databases and 6 of them were used as fitting parameters. The model is able to describe data on biomass growth, substrates, and products obtained from a reference batch process and other validation scenarios. The model presented describes the time-course and interrelation of biomass, relevant substrates, and products on a process level while including a kinetic representation of cell density-dependent regulatory mechanisms.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 04/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00253-014-5750-3 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: N-acetyl-glucosamine fatty acid esters were synthesized by a lipase-catalyzed transesterification with methyl hexanoate and N-acetyl-glucosamine, which resulted in the formation of 2-(Acetylamino)-2-deoxy-6-O-hexanoate-D-glucose, a novel glycolipid. Additionally N-butyryl-glucosamine was used for a similar synthesis, leading to the formation of 2-(Butyrylamino)-2-deoxy-6-O-hexanoate-D-glucose. The higher hydrophobicity of GlcNBu led to an increase in the overall yield and the initial reaction rate when compared to the reaction with GlcNAc. By pre-dissolving GlcNAc and GlcNBu in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), it was possible to completely dissolve both sugars in the organic solvent, thus further enhancing the initial reaction rate and yield respectively.Practical applicationsGlycolipids are used in a wide range of applications, ranging from food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations, where they can be used as emulsifiers or foaming agents to classic cleaning products, utilizing their good detergent properties. Further applications may include fields like membrane protein extraction, bioremediation or tertiary oil recovery. Novel glycolipids with tailor-made properties might be useful to improve any of the named applications and widen the diversity of available environmentally friendly surfactants, often termed “green surfactants”. Glycolipids are the most prominent example therefrom.
    European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 04/2014; 116(4). DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201300380 · 2.03 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
339.96 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2015
    • Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
      • • Institute of Process Engineering in Life Sciences
      • • Chair of Technical Biology
      • • Institute of Food and Biotechnology (IBLT)
      • • Engler Bunte Institute
      Carlsruhe, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • BIOLOG Life Science Institute
      Bremen, Bremen, Germany
  • 2010
    • Klinikum Stuttgart
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2008
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Physiology
      Dortmund, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
  • 1994–2006
    • Universität Stuttgart
      • • Institute for Biochemical Engineering
      • • Institute of Industrial Genetics
      Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 1986–2006
    • Technische Universität Braunschweig
      • Institute of technical chemistry
      Brunswyck, Lower Saxony, Germany
  • 2005
    • University of Greifswald
      • Institute of Biochemistry
      Griefswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany