[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mutualistic symbiosis involving Glomeromycota, a distinctive phylum of early diverging Fungi, is widely hypothesized to have promoted the evolution of land plants during the middle Paleozoic. These arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) perform vital functions in the phosphorus cycle that are fundamental to sustainable crop plant productivity. The unusual biological features of AMF have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. The coenocytic hyphae host a community of hundreds of nuclei and reproduce clonally through large multinucleated spores. It has been suggested that the AMF maintain a stable assemblage of several different genomes during the life cycle, but this genomic organization has been questioned. Here we introduce the 153-Mb haploid genome of Rhizophagus irregularis and its repertoire of 28,232 genes. The observed low level of genome polymorphism (0.43 SNP per kb) is not consistent with the occurrence of multiple, highly diverged genomes. The expansion of mating-related genes suggests the existence of cryptic sex-related processes. A comparison of gene categories confirms that R. irregularis is close to the Mucoromycotina. The AMF obligate biotrophy is not explained by genome erosion or any related loss of metabolic complexity in central metabolism, but is marked by a lack of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and of genes involved in toxin and thiamine synthesis. A battery of mycorrhiza-induced secreted proteins is expressed in symbiotic tissues. The present comprehensive repertoire of R. irregularis genes provides a basis for future research on symbiosis-related mechanisms in Glomeromycota.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2013; · 9.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database (CAZy; http://www.cazy.org) provides online and continuously updated access to a sequence-based family classification linking the sequence to the specificity and 3D structure of the enzymes that assemble, modify and breakdown oligo- and polysaccharides. Functional and 3D structural information is added and curated on a regular basis based on the available literature. In addition to the use of the database by enzymologists seeking curated information on CAZymes, the dissemination of a stable nomenclature for these enzymes is probably a major contribution of CAZy. The past few years have seen the expansion of the CAZy classification scheme to new families, the development of subfamilies in several families and the power of CAZy for the analysis of genomes and metagenomes. This article outlines the changes that have occurred in CAZy during the past 5 years and presents our novel effort to display the resolution and the carbohydrate ligands in crystallographic complexes of CAZymes.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glycoside hydrolases (GHs), the enzymes that breakdown complex carbohydrates, are a highly diversified class of key enzymes associated with the gut microbiota and its metabolic functions. To learn more about the diversity of GHs and their potential role in a variety of gut microbiomes, we used a combination of 16S, metagenomic and targeted amplicon sequencing data to study one of these enzyme families in detail. Specifically, we employed a functional gene-targeted metagenomic approach to the 1-4-α-glucan-branching enzyme (gBE) gene in the gut microbiomes of four host species (human, chicken, cow and pig). The characteristics of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and operational glucan-branching units (OGBUs) were distinctive in each of hosts. Human and pig were most similar in OTUs profiles while maintaining distinct OGBU profiles. Interestingly, the phylogenetic profiles identified from 16S and gBE gene sequences differed, suggesting the presence of different gBE genes in the same OTU across different vertebrate hosts. Our data suggest that gene-targeted metagenomic analysis is useful for an in-depth understanding of the diversity of a particular gene of interest. Specific carbohydrate metabolic genes appear to be carried by distinct OTUs in different individual hosts and among different vertebrate species' microbiomes, the characteristics of which differ according to host genetic background and/or diet.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 October 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.167.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Agaricus bisporus is commercially grown on compost, in which the available carbon sources consist mainly of plant-derived polysaccharides that are built out of various different constituent monosaccharides. The major constituent monosaccharides of these polysaccharides are glucose, xylose, and arabinose, while smaller amounts of galactose, glucuronic acid, rhamnose and mannose are also present.
In this study, genes encoding putative enzymes from carbon metabolism were identified and their expression was studied in different growth stages of A. bisporus. We correlated the expression of genes encoding plant and fungal polysaccharide modifying enzymes identified in the A. bisporus genome to the soluble carbohydrates and the composition of mycelium grown compost, casing layer and fruiting bodies.
The compost grown vegetative mycelium of A. bisporus consumes a wide variety of monosaccharides. However, in fruiting bodies only hexose catabolism occurs, and no accumulation of other sugars was observed. This suggests that only hexoses or their conversion products are transported from the vegetative mycelium to the fruiting body, while the other sugars likely provide energy for growth and maintenance of the vegetative mycelium. Clear correlations were found between expression of the genes and composition of carbohydrates. Genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide degrading enzymes were mainly expressed in compost-grown mycelium, and largely absent in fruiting bodies. In contrast, genes encoding fungal cell wall polysaccharide modifying enzymes were expressed in both fruiting bodies and vegetative mycelium, but different gene sets were expressed in these samples.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, which are involved in a variety of biological processes including energy metabolism, cell proliferation, signal transduction and in pathogen-related inflammation and autoimmune diseases, are widely distributed in Bacteria and Eukaryotes, but only few examples have been found in Archaea so far. However, N-acetylgluco- and galactosamine are commonly found in the extracellular storage polymers and in the glycans decorating abundantly expressed glycoproteins from different Crenarchaeota Sulfolobus sp., suggesting that β-N-acetylglucosaminidase activities could be involved in the modification/recycling of these cellular components.
A thermophilic β-N-acetylglucosaminidase was purified from cellular extracts of S. solfataricus, strain P2, identified by mass spectrometry, and cloned and expressed in E. coli. Glycosidase assays on different strains of S. solfataricus, steady-state kinetic constants, substrate specificity analysis, and the sensitivity to two inhibitors of the recombinant enzyme were also reported.
A new β-N-acetylglucosaminidase from S. solfataricus was unequivocally identified as the product of gene sso3039. The detailed enzymatic characterization demonstrates that this enzyme is a bifunctional β-glucosidase/β-N-acetylglucosaminidase belonging to family GH116 of the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy) classification.
This study allowed us to propose that family GH116 is composed of three subfamilies, which show distinct substrate specificities and inhibitor sensitivities. General Significance The characterization of SSO3039 allows, for the first time in Archaea, the identification of an enzyme involved in the metabolism β-N-acetylhexosaminide, an essential component of glycoproteins in this domain of life, and substantially increase our knowledge on the functional role and phylogenetic relationships among GH116 CAZy family members.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 09/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to metabolise both dietary fibre constituent carbohydrates and host glycans lining the intestinal epithelium, gut bacteria produce a wide range of carbohydrate active enzymes, of which glycoside hydrolases are the main components. In this study, we describe the ability of phosphorylases to participate in the breakdown of human N-glycans, from an analysis of the substrate specificity of UhgbMP, a mannoside phosphorylase of the GH130 protein family discovered by functional metagenomics. UhgbMP is found to phosphorolyze β-D-Manp-1,4-β-D-GlcpNAc-1,4-D-GlcpNAc, and is also highly efficient enzyme to catalyze the synthesis of this precious N-glycan core oligosaccharide by reverse-phosphorolysis. Analysis of sequence conservation within family GH130, mapped on a 3D model of UhgbMP and supported by site-directed mutagenesis results, revealed two GH130 subfamilies, and allowed the identification of key residues responsible for catalysis and substrate specificity. The analysis of the genomic context of 65 known GH130 sequences belonging to human gut bacteria indicates that the enzymes of the GH130_1 subfamily would be involved in mannan catabolism, while the enzymes belonging to the GH130_2 subfamily, would rather work in synergy with glycoside hydrolases of the GH92 and GH18 families in the breakdown of N-glycans. The use of GH130 inhibitors as therapeutic agents or functional foods, could thus be considered as an innovative strategy to inhibit N-glycan degradation, with the ultimate goal of protecting, or restoring, the epithelial barrier.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2013; · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of specific gut microbes in shaping body composition remains unclear. We transplanted fecal microbiota from adult female twin pairs discordant for obesity into germ-free mice fed low-fat mouse chow, as well as diets representing different levels of saturated fat and fruit and vegetable consumption typical of the U.S. diet. Increased total body and fat mass, as well as obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes, were transmissible with uncultured fecal communities and with their corresponding fecal bacterial culture collections. Cohousing mice harboring an obese twin's microbiota (Ob) with mice containing the lean co-twin's microbiota (Ln) prevented the development of increased body mass and obesity-associated metabolic phenotypes in Ob cage mates. Rescue correlated with invasion of specific members of Bacteroidetes from the Ln microbiota into Ob microbiota and was diet-dependent. These findings reveal transmissible, rapid, and modifiable effects of diet-by-microbiota interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Loss of sexual reproduction is considered an evolutionary dead end for metazoans, but bdelloid rotifers challenge this view as they appear to have persisted asexually for millions of years. Neither male sex organs nor meiosis have ever been observed in these microscopic animals: oocytes are formed through mitotic divisions, with no reduction of chromosome number and no indication of chromosome pairing. However, current evidence does not exclude that they may engage in sex on rare, cryptic occasions. Here we report the genome of a bdelloid rotifer, Adineta vaga (Davis, 1873), and show that its structure is incompatible with conventional meiosis. At gene scale, the genome of A. vaga is tetraploid and comprises both anciently duplicated segments and less divergent allelic regions. However, in contrast to sexual species, the allelic regions are rearranged and sometimes even found on the same chromosome. Such structure does not allow meiotic pairing; instead, we find abundant evidence of gene conversion, which may limit the accumulation of deleterious mutations in the absence of meiosis. Gene families involved in resistance to oxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and defence against transposons are significantly expanded, which may explain why transposable elements cover only 3% of the assembled sequence. Furthermore, 8% of the genes are likely to be of non-metazoan origin and were probably acquired horizontally. This apparent convergence between bdelloids and prokaryotes sheds new light on the evolutionary significance of sex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To degrade the polysaccharides, wood-decay fungi secrete a variety of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs) classified into various sequence-based families of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys) and their appended carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM). Oxidative enzymes, such as cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO, formerly GH61), also have been implicated in cellulose degradation. To examine polysaccharide-degrading potential between white- and brown-rot fungi, we performed genomewide analysis of CAZys and these oxidative enzymes in 11 Polyporales, including recently sequenced monokaryotic strains of Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma sp. and Phlebia brevispora. Furthermore, we conducted comparative secretome analysis of seven Polyporales grown on wood culture. As a result, it was found that genes encoding cellulases belonging to families GH6, GH7, GH9 and carbohydrate-binding module family CBM1 are lacking in genomes of brown-rot polyporales. In addition, the presence of CDH and the expansion of LPMO were observed only in white-rot genomes. Indeed, GH6, GH7, CDH and LPMO peptides were identified only in white-rot polypores. Genes encoding aldose 1-epimerase (ALE), previously detected with CDH and cellulases in the culture filtrates, also were identified in white-rot genomes, suggesting a physiological connection between ALE, CDH, cellulase and possibly LPMO. For hemicellulose degradation, genes and peptides corresponding to GH74 xyloglucanase, GH10 endo-xylanase, GH79 β-glucuronidase, CE1 acetyl xylan esterase and CE15 glucuronoyl methylesterase were significantly increased in white-rot genomes compared to brown-rot genomes. Overall, relative to brown-rot Polyporales, white-rot Polyporales maintain greater enzymatic diversity supporting lignocellulose attack.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans synthesizes a complex family of glycosylinositolphosphoceramide (GIPC) structures. These glycosphingolipids consist of mannosylinositolphosphoceramide (MIPC) extended by β1-6 linked galactose, a unique structure that has to date only been identified in basidiomycetes. Further extension by up to five mannose residues and a branching xylose has been described. In this study we identified and determined the gene structure of the enzyme Ggt1, which catalyzes the transfer of a galactose residue to MIPC. Deletion of the gene in C. neoformans resulted in complete loss of GIPCs containing galactose, a phenotype that could be restored by episomal expression of Ggt1 in the deletion mutant. The entire annotated open reading frame, encoding a C-terminal GT31 galactosyltransferase domain and a large N-terminal domain of unknown function, was required for complementation. Notably, this gene does not encode a predicted signal sequence or transmembrane domain. The demonstration that Ggt1 is responsible for the transfer of a galactose residue to a glycosphingolipid thus raises questions regarding the topology of this biosynthetic pathway and the function of the N-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analysis of the GGT1 gene shows conservation in hetero- and homobasidiomycetes but no homologues in ascomycetes or outside of the fungal kingdom.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The human gut microbiota is an important metabolic organ, yet little is known about how its individual species interact, establish dominant positions, and respond to changes in environmental factors such as diet. In this study, gnotobiotic mice were colonized with an artificial microbiota comprising 12 sequenced human gut bacterial species and fed oscillating diets of disparate composition. Rapid, reproducible, and reversible changes in the structure of this assemblage were observed. Time-series microbial RNA-Seq analyses revealed staggered functional responses to diet shifts throughout the assemblage that were heavily focused on carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. High-resolution shotgun metaproteomics confirmed many of these responses at a protein level. One member, Bacteroides cellulosilyticus WH2, proved exceptionally fit regardless of diet. Its genome encoded more carbohydrate active enzymes than any previously sequenced member of the Bacteroidetes. Transcriptional profiling indicated that B. cellulosilyticus WH2 is an adaptive forager that tailors its versatile carbohydrate utilization strategy to available dietary polysaccharides, with a strong emphasis on plant-derived xylans abundant in dietary staples like cereal grains. Two highly expressed, diet-specific polysaccharide utilization loci (PULs) in B. cellulosilyticus WH2 were identified, one with characteristics of xylan utilization systems. Introduction of a B. cellulosilyticus WH2 library comprising >90,000 isogenic transposon mutants into gnotobiotic mice, along with the other artificial community members, confirmed that these loci represent critical diet-specific fitness determinants. Carbohydrates that trigger dramatic increases in expression of these two loci and many of the organism's 111 other predicted PULs were identified by RNA-Seq during in vitro growth on 31 distinct carbohydrate substrates, allowing us to better interpret in vivo RNA-Seq and proteomics data. These results offer insight into how gut microbes adapt to dietary perturbations at both a community level and from the perspective of a well-adapted symbiont with exceptional saccharolytic capabilities, and illustrate the value of artificial communities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The recently isolated bacterial strain 80/3 represents one of the most abundant 16S rRNA phylotypes detected in the healthy human large intestine and belongs to the Ruminococcaceae family of Firmicutes. The completed genome sequence reported here is the first for a member of this important family of bacteria from the human colon. The genome comprises two large chromosomes of 2.24 and 0.73 Mbp, leading us to propose the name Ruminococcus bicirculans for this new species. Analysis of the carbohydrate active enzyme complement suggests an ability to utilize certain hemicelluloses, especially β-glucans and xyloglucan, for growth that was confirmed experimentally. The enzymatic machinery enabling the degradation of cellulose and xylan by related cellulolytic ruminococci is however lacking in this species. While the genome indicated the capacity to synthesize purines, pyrimidines and all 20 amino acids, only genes for the synthesis of nicotinate, NAD+, NADP+ and coenzyme A were detected among the essential vitamins and co-factors, resulting in multiple growth requirements. In vivo, these growth factors must be supplied from the diet, host or other gut microorganisms. Other features of ecological interest include two type IV pilins, multiple extracytoplasmic function-sigma factors, a urease and a bile salt hydrolase.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The limited knowledge we have about red algal genomes comes from the highly specialized extremophiles, Cyanidiophyceae. Here, we describe the first genome sequence from a mesophilic, unicellular red alga, Porphyridium purpureum. The 8,355 predicted genes in P. purpureum, hundreds of which are likely to be implicated in a history of horizontal gene transfer, reside in a genome of 19.7 Mbp with 235 spliceosomal introns. Analysis of light-harvesting complex proteins reveals a nuclear-encoded phycobiliprotein in the alga. We uncover a complex set of carbohydrate-active enzymes, identify the genes required for the methylerythritol phosphate pathway of isoprenoid biosynthesis, and find evidence of sexual reproduction. Analysis of the compact, function-rich genome of P. purpureum suggests that ancestral lineages of red algae acted as mediators of horizontal gene transfer between prokaryotes and photosynthetic eukaryotes, thereby significantly enriching genomes across the tree of photosynthetic life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are capable of synthesizing intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, that are membrane-bounded magnetite or greigite crystals arranged in chains. Although MTB are widely spread in various ecosystems, few axenic cultures are available, and only freshwater Magnetospirillum spp. have been genetically analysed. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of a marine magnetotactic spirillum, Magnetospira sp. QH-2. The high number of repeats and transposable elements account for the differences in QH-2 genome structure compared with other relatives. Gene cluster synteny and gene correlation analyses indicate that the insertion of the magnetosome island in the QH-2 genome occurred after divergence between freshwater and marine magnetospirilla. The presence of a sodium-quinone reductase, sodium transporters and other functional genes are evidence of the adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to the marine ecosystem. Genes well conserved among freshwater magnetospirilla for nitrogen fixation and assimilatory nitrate respiration are absent from the QH-2 genome. Unlike freshwater Magnetospirillum spp., marine Magnetospira sp. QH-2 neither has TonB and TonB-dependent receptors nor does it grow on trace amounts of iron. Taken together, our results show a distinct, adaptive evolution of Magnetospira sp. QH-2 to marine sediments in comparison with its closely related freshwater counterparts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Descriptions of the microbial communities that live on and in the human body have progressed at a spectacular rate over the past 5 years, fuelled primarily by highly parallel DNA-sequencing technologies and associated advances in bioinformatics, and by the expectation that understanding how to manipulate the structure and functions of our microbiota will allow us to affect health and prevent or treat diseases. Among the myriad of genes that have been identified in the human gut microbiome, those that encode carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) are of particular interest, as these enzymes are required to digest most of our complex repertoire of dietary polysaccharides. In this Analysis article, we examine the carbohydrate-digestive capacity of a simplified but representative mini-microbiome in order to highlight the abundance and variety of bacterial CAZymes that are represented in the human gut microbiota.