[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IntroductionVariably protease sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr) is a recently described, sporadic human prion disease that is pathologically and biochemically distinct from the currently recognised sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes. The defining biochemical features of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrPSc) in VPSPr are increased sensitivity to proteolysis and the presence of an N- and C-terminally cleaved ~8 kDa protease resistant PrPSc (PrPres) fragment. The biochemical and neuropathological profile of VPSPr has been proposed to resemble either Gerstmann¿Sträussler¿Scheinker syndrome (GSS) or familial CJD with the PRNP-V180I mutation. However, in some cases of VPSPr two protease resistant bands have been observed in Western blots that co-migrate with those of type 2 PrPres, suggesting that a proportion of the PrPSc present in VPSPr has properties similar to those of sCJD.ResultsHere, we have used conformation dependent immunoassay to confirm the presence of PrPSc in VPSPr that is more protease sensitive compared with sCJD. However, CDI also shows that a proportion of PrPSc in VPSPr resists PK digestion of its C-terminus, distinguishing it from GSS associated with ~8 kDa PrPres, and showing similarity to sCJD. Intensive investigation of a single VPSPr case with frozen tissue from multiple brain regions shows a broad, region-specific spectrum of protease sensitivity and differential stability of PrPSc in the absence of PK treatment. Finally, using protein misfolding cyclic amplification and real-time quaking induced conversion, we show that VPSPr PrPSc has the potential to seed conversion in vitro and that seeding activity is dispersed through a broad range of aggregate sizes. We further propose that seeding activity is associated with the ~19 and ~23 kDa PrPres rather than the ~8 kDa fragment.Conclusions
Therefore, PrPSc in VPSPr is heterogeneous in terms of protease sensitivity and stability to denaturation with the chaotrope GdnHCl and includes a proportion with similar properties to that found in sCJD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion diseases are rare fatal neurological conditions of humans and animals, one of which (variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) is known to be a zoonotic form of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). What makes one animal prion disease zoonotic and others not, is poorly understood, but it appears to involve compatibility between the prion strain and the host prion protein sequence. Concerns have been raised that the UK sheep flock may have been exposed to BSE early in the cattle BSE epidemic and that serial BSE transmission in sheep might have resulted in adaptation of the agent, which may have come to phenotypically resemble scrapie, whilst maintaining its pathogenicity for humans. We have modelled this scenario in vitro. Extrapolation from our results suggest that if BSE were to infect sheep in the field it may, with time and in some sheep genotypes, become scrapie-like at the molecular level. However, the results also suggest that if BSE in sheep were to come to resemble scrapie, it would lose its ability to affect humans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Following the discovery of a causal link between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, several experimental approaches have been used to try to assess the potential risk of transmission of other animal transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) to humans. Experimental challenge of non-human primates, humanised transgenic mice and cell-free conversion systems have all been used as models to explore the susceptibility of humans to animal TSEs. In this review we compare and contrast in vivo and in vitro evidence of the zoonotic risk to humans from sheep, cattle and deer prions, focusing primarily on chronic wasting disease and our own recent studies using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a technique that takes advantage of the nucleation-dependent prion replication process to accelerate the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) in the test tube. PMCA uses ultrasound waves to fragment the PrP(Sc) polymers, increasing the amount of seeds present in the infected sample without affecting their ability to act as conversion nuclei. Over the past 5 years, PMCA has become an invaluable technique to study diverse aspects of prions. The PMCA technology has been used by several groups to understand the molecular mechanism of prion replication, the cellular factors involved in prion propagation, the intriguing phenomena of prion strains and species barriers, to detect PrP(Sc) in tissues and biological fluids, and to screen for inhibitors against prion replication. In this chapter, we describe a detailed protocol of the PMCA technique, highlighting some of the important technical aspects to obtain a successful and reproducible application of the technology.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders that affect humans and animals and that result from the conversion of normal prion protein (PrP(C)) into the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)). Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disorder of increasing prevalence within the United States that affects a large population of wild and captive deer and elk. Determining the risk of transmission of CWD to humans is of utmost importance, considering that people can be infected by animal prions, resulting in new fatal diseases. To study the possibility that human PrP(C) can be converted into the misfolded form by CWD PrP(Sc), we performed experiments using the protein misfolding cyclic amplification technique, which mimics in vitro the process of prion replication. Our results show that cervid PrP(Sc) can induce the conversion of human PrP(C) but only after the CWD prion strain has been stabilized by successive passages in vitro or in vivo. Interestingly, the newly generated human PrP(Sc) exhibits a distinct biochemical pattern that differs from that of any of the currently known forms of human PrP(Sc). Our results also have profound implications for understanding the mechanisms of the prion species barrier and indicate that the transmission barrier is a dynamic process that depends on the strain and moreover the degree of adaptation of the strain. If our findings are corroborated by infectivity assays, they will imply that CWD prions have the potential to infect humans and that this ability progressively increases with CWD spreading.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2011; 286(9):7490-5. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prions, the proteinaceous infectious agent responsible for prion diseases, can be detected with high sensitivity by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology. Here we describe a quantitative PMCA procedure to calculate the concentration of very low levels of prions in biological samples. Using this procedure, we determined the quantities of misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)) in brain, spleen, blood and urine of scrapie-affected hamsters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) offer a great promise in biomedicine. Currently, there is no data available regarding the accumulation of nanoparticles in vivo after repeated administration. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the bioaccumulation and toxic effects of different doses (40, 200, and 400 microg/kg/day) of 12.5 nm GNPs upon intraperitoneal administration in mice every day for 8 days. The gold levels in blood did not increase with the dose administered, whereas in all the organs examined there was a proportional increase on gold, indicating efficient tissue uptake. Although brain was the organ containing the lowest quantity of injected GNPs, our data suggest that GNPs are able to cross the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the neural tissue. Importantly, no evidence of toxicity was observed in any of the diverse studies performed, including survival, behavior, animal weight, organ morphology, blood biochemistry and tissue histology. The results indicate that tissue accumulation pattern of GNPs depend on the doses administered and the accumulation of the particles does not produce sub-acute physiological damage.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2010; 393(4):649-55. · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prions are the proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies. Compelling evidence supports the hypothesis that prions are composed exclusively of a misfolded version of the prion protein (PrP(Sc)) that replicates in the body in the absence of nucleic acids by inducing the misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). The most common form of human prion disease is sporadic, which appears to have its origin in a low frequency event of spontaneous misfolding to generate the first PrP(Sc) particle that then propagates as in the infectious form of the disease. The main goal of this study was to mimic an early event in the etiology of sporadic disease by attempting de novo generation of infectious PrP(Sc)in vitro. For this purpose we analyzed in detail the possibility of spontaneous generation of PrP(Sc) by the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) procedure. Under standard PMCA conditions, and taking precautions to avoid cross-contamination, de novo generation of PrP(Sc) was never observed, supporting the use of the technology for diagnostic applications. However, we report that PMCA can be modified to generate PrP(Sc) in the absence of pre-existing PrP(Sc) in different animal species at a low and variable rate. De novo generated PrP(Sc) was infectious when inoculated into wild type hamsters, producing a new disease phenotype with unique clinical, neuropathological and biochemical features. Our results represent additional evidence in support of the prion hypothesis and provide a simple model to study the mechanism of sporadic prion disease. The findings also suggest that prion diversity is not restricted to those currently known, and that likely new forms of infectious protein foldings may be produced, resulting in novel disease phenotypes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prions are the infectious agents responsible for prion diseases, which appear to be composed exclusively by the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc). Disease is transmitted by the autocatalytic propagation of PrPSc misfolding at the expense of the normal prion protein. The biggest challenge of the prion hypothesis has been to explain the molecular mechanism by which prions can exist as different strains, producing diseases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, we show that PrPSc generated in vitro by protein misfolding cyclic amplification from five different mouse prion strains maintains the strain-specific properties. Inoculation of wild-type mice with in vitro-generated PrPSc caused a disease with indistinguishable incubation times as well as neuropathological and biochemical characteristics as the parental strains. Biochemical features were also maintained upon replication of four human prion strains. These results provide additional support for the prion hypothesis and indicate that strain characteristics can be faithfully propagated in the absence of living cells, suggesting that strain variation is dependent on PrPSc properties. This research was supported in part by NIH grants NS0549173 and AG014359 to CS.
The EMBO Journal 09/2008; 27:2557-2566. · 9.82 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prions are the infectious agents responsible for prion diseases, which appear to be composed exclusively by the misfolded prion protein (PrP(Sc)). The mechanism of prion transmission is unknown. In this study, we attempted to detect prions in urine of experimentally infected animals. PrP(Sc) was detected in approximately 80% of the animals studied, whereas no false positives were observed among the control animals. Semi-quantitative calculations suggest that PrP(Sc) concentration in urine is around 10-fold lower than in blood. Interestingly, PrP(Sc) present in urine maintains its infectious properties. Our data indicate that low quantities of infectious prions are excreted in the urine. These findings suggest that urine is a possible source of prion transmission.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To report a novel prion disease characterized by distinct histopathological and immunostaining features, and associated with an abnormal isoform of the prion protein (PrP) that, contrary to the common prion diseases, is predominantly sensitive to protease digestion.
Eleven subjects were investigated at the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center for clinical, histopathological, immunohistochemical, genotypical, and PrP characteristics.
Patients presented with behavioral and psychiatric manifestations on average at 62 years, whereas mean disease duration was 20 months. The type of spongiform degeneration, the PrP immunostaining pattern, and the presence of microplaques distinguished these cases from those with known prion diseases. Typical protease-resistant PrP was undetectable in the cerebral neocortex with standard diagnostic procedures. After enrichment, abnormal PrP was detected at concentrations 16 times lower than common prion diseases; it included nearly 4 times less protease-resistant PrP, which formed a distinct electrophoretic profile. The subjects examined comprised about 3% of sporadic cases evaluated by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center. Although several subjects had family histories of dementia, no mutations were found in the PrP gene open reading frame.
The distinct histopathological, PrP immunohistochemical, and physicochemical features, together with the homogeneous genotype, indicate that this is a previously unidentified type of disease involving the PrP, which we designated "protease-sensitive prionopathy" (or PSPr). Protease-sensitive prionopathy is not rare among prion diseases, and it may be even more prevalent than our data indicate because protease-sensitive prionopathy cases are likely also to be classified within the group of non-Alzheimer's dementias.
Annals of Neurology 07/2008; 63(6):697-708. · 11.19 Impact Factor