[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although the prognostic value of the ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (ABCC) transporters in childhood neuroblastoma is usually attributed to their role in cytotoxic drug efflux, certain observations have suggested that these multidrug transporters might contribute to the malignant phenotype independent of cytotoxic drug efflux.
A v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN)-driven transgenic mouse neuroblastoma model was crossed with an Abcc1-deficient mouse strain (658 hMYCN(1/-), 205 hMYCN(+/1) mice) or, alternatively, treated with the ABCC1 inhibitor, Reversan (n = 20). ABCC genes were suppressed using short interfering RNA or overexpressed by stable transfection in neuroblastoma cell lines BE(2)-C, SH-EP, and SH-SY5Y, which were then assessed for wound closure ability, clonogenic capacity, morphological differentiation, and cell growth. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to examine the clinical significance of ABCC family gene expression in a large prospectively accrued cohort of patients (n = 209) with primary neuroblastomas. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression were used to test for associations with event-free and overall survival. Except where noted, all statistical tests were two-sided.
Inhibition of ABCC1 statistically significantly inhibited neuroblastoma development in hMYCN transgenic mice (mean age for palpable tumor: treated mice, 47.2 days; control mice, 41.9 days; hazard ratio [HR] = 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.65 to 32; P < .001). Suppression of ABCC1 in vitro inhibited wound closure (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .006); suppression of ABCC4 enhanced morphological differentiation (P < .001) and inhibited cell growth (P < .001). Analysis of 209 neuroblastoma patient tumors revealed that, in contrast with ABCC1 and ABCC4, low rather than high ABCC3 expression was associated with reduced event-free survival (HR of recurrence or death = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.2; P = .001), with 23 of 53 patients with low ABCC3 expression experiencing recurrence or death compared with 31 of 155 patients with high ABCC3. Moreover, overexpression of ABCC3 in vitro inhibited neuroblastoma cell migration (P < .001) and clonogenicity (P = .03). The combined expression of ABCC1, ABCC3, and ABCC4 was associated with patients having an adverse event, such that of the 12 patients with the "poor prognosis" expression pattern, 10 experienced recurrence or death (HR of recurrence or death = 12.3, 95% CI = 6 to 27; P < .001).
ABCC transporters can affect neuroblastoma biology independently of their role in chemotherapeutic drug efflux, enhancing their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents remains one of the major impediments to a successful treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Misregulation of the activity of a specific group of ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC) is responsible for reducing the intracellular concentration of drugs in leukemic cells. Moreover, a consistent body of evidence also suggests that ABC transporters play a role in cancer progression beyond the efflux of cytotoxic drugs. Despite a large number of studies that investigated the function of the ABC transporters, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of the ABC genes. Here, we present data showing that the oncoprotein c-MYC is a direct transcriptional regulator of a large set of ABC transporters in CML. Furthermore, molecular analysis carried out in CD34+ hematopoietic cell precursors of 21 CML patients reveals that the overexpression of ABC transporters driven by c-MYC is a peculiar characteristic of the CD34+ population in CML and was not found either in the population of mononuclear cells from which they had been purified nor in CD34+ cells isolated from healthy donors. Finally, we describe how the methylation state of CpG islands may regulate the access of c-MYC to ABCG2 gene promoter, a well-studied gene associated with multidrug resistance in CML, hence, affecting its expression. Taken together, our findings support a model in which c-MYC-driven transcriptional events, combined with epigenetic mechanisms, direct and regulate the expression of ABC genes with possible implications in tumor malignancy and drug efflux in CML.
Molecular Cancer Research 06/2011; 9(8):1054-66. · 4.35 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood. One important factor that predicts a favorable prognosis is the robust expression of the TRKA and p75NTR neurotrophin receptor genes. Interestingly, TRKA and p75NTR expression is often attenuated in aggressive MYCN-amplified tumors, suggesting a causal link between elevated MYCN activity and the transcriptional repression of TRKA and p75NTR, but the precise mechanisms involved are unclear. Here, we show that MYCN acts directly to repress TRKA and p75NTR gene transcription. Specifically, we found that MYCN levels were critical for repression and that MYCN targeted proximal/core promoter regions by forming a repression complex with transcription factors SP1 and MIZ1. When bound to the TRKA and p75NTR promoters, MYCN recruited the histone deacetylase HDAC1 to induce a repressed chromatin state. Forced re-expression of endogenous TRKA and p75NTR with exposure to the HDAC inhibitor TSA sensitized neuroblastoma cells to NGF-mediated apoptosis. By directly connecting MYCN to the repression of TRKA and p75NTR, our findings establish a key pathway of clinical pathogenicity and aggressiveness in neuroblastoma.
Cancer Research 01/2011; 71(2):404-12. · 8.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increased expression of specific ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is known to mediate the efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells. Therefore, establishing how ABC transporter genes are controlled at their transcription level may help provide insight into the role of these multifaceted transporters in the malignant phenotype. We have investigated ABC transporter gene expression in a large neuroblastoma data set of 251 tumor samples. Clustering analysis demonstrated a strong association between differential ABC gene expression patterns in tumor samples and amplification of the MYCN oncogene, suggesting a correlation with MYCN function. Using expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies, we show that MYCN oncoprotein coordinately regulates transcription of specific ABC transporter genes, by acting as either an activator or a repressor. Finally, we extend these notions to c-MYC showing that it can also regulate the same set of ABC transporter genes in other tumor cells through similar dynamics. Overall our findings provide insight into MYC-driven molecular mechanisms that contribute to coordinate transcriptional regulation of a large set of ABC transporter genes, thus affecting global drug efflux.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2010; 285(25):19532-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) exerts its function in several cell and organ compartments. Recently, several lines of evidence have been accrued showing that NO can play a critical role in oncogenesis. Here we summarize some of these findings and highlight the role of NO as a possible target for antineoplastic drugs. Specifically, NO appears to affect some aspects of neuronal tumour progression, particularly the chemoresistance phenotype, through inhibition of MYC activity and expression of a large set of ATP binding cassette transporters. Here we provide lines of evidence supporting the view that MYCN can alter expression of several members of the ABC transporter family thus influencing the chemoresistance phenotype of neuroblastoma cells. Furthermore, we show that increased intracellular NO concentration either through addition of NO donors to culture medium or through forced expression of nNOS in neuroblastoma cells leads to decreased expression of MYCN and ABC drug transporter genes. Overall, data reviewed here and novel results presented, unveil a NO-MYCN-ABC transporters axis with important implication on development and control of the chemoresistance phenotype in neuronal tumours.
Current pharmaceutical design 01/2010; 16(4):431-9. · 4.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reactivate tumor suppressor gene transcription; induce cancer cell differentiation, growth arrest, and programmed cell death; and are among the most promising new classes of anticancer drugs. Myc oncoproteins can block cell differentiation and promote cell proliferation and malignant transformation, in some cases by modulating target gene transcription. Here, we show that tissue transglutaminase (TG2) was commonly reactivated by HDAC inhibitors in neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells but not normal cells and contributed to HDAC inhibitor-induced growth arrest. TG2 was the gene most significantly repressed by N-Myc in neuroblastoma cells in a cDNA microarray analysis and was commonly repressed by N-Myc in neuroblastoma cells and c-Myc in breast cancer cells. Repression of TG2 expression by N-Myc in neuroblastoma cells was necessary for the inhibitory effect of N-Myc on neuroblastoma cell differentiation. Dual step cross-linking chromatin immunoprecipitation and protein coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that N-Myc acted as a transrepressor by recruiting the HDAC1 protein to an Sp1-binding site in the TG2 core promoter in a manner distinct from it's action as a transactivator at E-Box binding sites. HDAC inhibitor treatment blocked the N-Myc-mediated HDAC1 recruitment and TG2 repression in vitro. In neuroblastoma-bearing N-Myc transgenic mice, HDAC inhibitor treatment induced TG2 expression and demonstrated marked antitumor activity in vivo. Taken together, our data indicate the critical roles of HDAC1 and TG2 in Myc-induced oncogenesis and have significant implications for the use of HDAC inhibitor therapy in Myc-driven oncogenesis.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 12/2007; 104(47):18682-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological complexity of NGF action is achieved by binding two distinct neurotrophin receptors, TrkA and p75NTR. While several reports have provided lines of evidence on the interaction between TrkA and p75NTR at the plasma membrane, much fewer data are available on the consequence of such an interaction in terms of intracellular signaling.In this study, we have focused on how p75NTR may affect TrkA downstream signaling with respect to neuronal differentiation. Here, we have shown that cooperation between p75NTR and TrkA results in an increased NGF-mediated TrkA autophosphorylation, leads to a sustained activation of ERK1/2 and accelerates neurite outgrowth. Interestingly, neurite outgrowth is concomitant with a selective enhancement of the AP-1 activity and the transcriptional activation of genes such as GAP-43 and p21(CIP/WAF), known to be involved in the differentiation process.Collectively, our results unveil a functional link between the specific expression profile of neurotrophin receptors in neuronal cells and the NGF-mediated regulation of the differentiation process possibly through a persistent ERKs activation and the selective control of the AP-1 activity.
Experimental Cell Research 09/2007; 313(14):2980-2992. · 3.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-Myc is a transcription factor that forms heterodimers with the protein Max and binds gene promoters by recognizing a DNA sequence, CACGTG, called E-box. The identification of N-myc target genes is an important step for understanding N-Myc biological functions in both physiological and pathological contexts. In this study, we describe the identification of N-Myc-responsive genes through chromatin immunoprecipitation and methylation-sensitive restriction analysis. Results show that N-Myc is a direct regulator of several identified genes, and that methylation of the CpG dinucleotide within the E-box prevents the access of N-Myc to gene promoters in vivo. Furthermore, methylation profile of the E-box within the promoters of EGFR and CASP8, two genes directly controlled by Myc, is cell type-specific, suggesting that differential E-box methylation may contribute to generating unique patterns of Myc-dependent transcription. This study illuminates a central role of DNA methylation in controlling N-Myc occupancy at gene promoters and modulating its transcriptional activity in cancer cells.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2005; 102(34):12117-22. · 9.74 Impact Factor