Sean T Duggan

Health New Zealand, Christchurch, Canterbury Region, New Zealand

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Publications (30)99.01 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx(®) [EU], Doxil(®) [USA]) represents an improved formulation of conventional doxorubicin, with reduced cardiotoxicity and an improved pharmacokinetic profile. As shown by evidence from clinical trials, intravenous pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a useful option in the treatment of various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer, ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma, and AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. It has a favourable safety profile relative to conventional doxorubicin and other available chemotherapy agents.
    BioDrugs 09/2013; · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Transdermal granisetron (Sancuso®) is effective in the prevention of nausea and vomiting in patients with cancer who are receiving moderately or highly emetogenic chemotherapy for 3-5 days. Transdermal granisetron is noninferior to oral granisetron in this indication, and is generally well tolerated in this indication. Thus, transdermal granisetron provides a convenient option for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, with the potential to improve patient compliance.
    CNS Drugs 07/2012; 26(9):787-90. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oral bazedoxifene (Conbriza®) reduces the incidence of new vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis. It also appears to reduce the risk of nonvertebral fractures in high-risk patients. Bazedoxifene is generally well tolerated and does not appear to have detrimental effects on endometrial or breast tissue.
    Drugs & Aging 04/2012; 29(4):329-34. · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan
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    ABSTRACT: Pitavastatin (Livazo®, Livalo®), an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase (statin), is indicated for the reduction of elevated total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, in adult patients with primary hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia, when response to diet and other non-pharmacological measures is inadequate. Pitavastatin has a favourable pharmacological profile following oral administration, including its long half-life (up to 12 hours), selective uptake into hepatocytes and minimal metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. This latter property decreases the likelihood of drug-drug interactions with agents that are metabolized by, inhibit or induce CYP enzymes. Pitavastatin improved the lipid profile (including LDL-C, TC and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels) in patients with hypercholesterolaemia and mixed dyslipidaemia, according to large, pivotal phase III studies of up to 60 weeks' duration. In these trials, pitavastatin for 12 weeks was noninferior to simvastatin and atorvastatin in terms of the improvement from baseline in LDL-C levels. In similarly designed trials, pitavastatin improved lipid profiles and was noninferior to simvastatin in patients with high cardiovascular risk and demonstrated significantly greater LDL-C reduction than pravastatin in elderly patients. Furthermore, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, although noninferiority criteria for the comparison with atorvastatin were not met in terms of the improvement from baseline in LDL-C levels, pitavastatin was associated with some improvements in the lipid profile. Pitavastatin also demonstrated substantial lipid-modifying effects in exclusively Asian populations in well designed clinical trials. Pitavastatin was generally well tolerated in clinical trials of up to 60 weeks' duration, with a tolerability profile generally similar to that of atorvastatin and simvastatin. Therefore, pitavastatin appears to be an attractive alternative for the treatment of patients with primary hyperlipidaemia or mixed dyslipidaemia who have not responded adequately to diet and other non-pharmacological measures, and may present a useful treatment option in patients requiring polypharmacy, such as those at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Further studies evaluating the effects of pitavastatin on clinical endpoints, such as cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, are required to confirm the longer-term benefits of pitavastatin.
    Drugs 03/2012; 72(4):565-84. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan
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    ABSTRACT: † Adapted and reproduced from the original article published in Drugs 2010; 70 (15): 1973-86.
    Paediatric Drugs 02/2012; 14(1):67-9. · 1.72 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan
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    ABSTRACT: Rivaroxaban (Xarelto®), an oral oxazolidinone-based anticoagulant, is a potent, selective, direct inhibitor of factor Xa that is used in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients after total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. In large, clinical trials, oral rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily was more effective than subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg once daily in preventing postoperative VTE in patients undergoing THR or TKR surgery. Rivaroxaban was associated with significantly lower incidences of the primary endpoint, total VTE (composite of deep vein thrombosis, non-fatal pulmonary embolism, or death from any cause) compared with enoxaparin regimens across all studies. For example, in the largest trial in patients undergoing THR, total VTE occurred in 1.1% of rivaroxaban recipients and 3.7% of enoxaparin recipients (absolute risk reduction 2.6% [95% CI 1.5, 3.7]) in the modified intent-to-treat population. Notably, the greater efficacy of rivaroxaban was achieved without a significant increase in the incidence of major bleeding episodes compared with enoxaparin; bleeding events were the most frequently reported adverse events across clinical trials. Pyrexia, vomiting, nausea, and constipation were the most frequently reported of the non-bleeding treatment-emergent adverse events in rivaroxaban recipients and occurred at a similar rate to that with enoxaparin treatment. In addition, preliminary pharmacoeconomic analyses in Canada and the US indicate that rivaroxaban is a cost-saving treatment strategy versus enoxaparin. Although the position of rivaroxaban relative to other therapies remains to be fully determined, it is an effective option for the prophylaxis of VTE following THR and TKR.
    American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs 02/2012; 12(1):57-72. · 2.20 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan
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    ABSTRACT: Fidaxomicin is a first-in-class macrocyclic antibacterial that primarily demonstrates activity against species of clostridia, predominantly Clostridium difficile, while having limited or no activity against normal faecal microflora. Fidaxomicin is minimally absorbed following oral administration and is excreted almost solely in the faeces. Fidaxomicin displayed a high level of antibacterial activity against C. difficile in vitro, with a minimum inhibitory concentration required to inhibit 90% of C. difficile strains of 0.125-0.5 μg/mL, and was ≈2- to 8-fold more active than vancomycin or metronidazole. Fidaxomicin demonstrated a prolonged postantibiotic effect against C. difficile relative to vancomycin and metronidazole. In two randomized, double-blind, phase III trials, oral fidaxomicin 200 mg every 12 hours for 10 days was no less effective than oral vancomycin 125 mg every 6 hours for 10 days in the treatment of C. difficile infection, based on noninferiority analyses of clinical cure rates (primary endpoint). Fidaxomicin therapy was associated with a significantly lower rate of recurrence, as well as a significantly higher rate of global cure (i.e. sustained clinical response; resolution of diarrhoea without recurrence) compared with vancomycin therapy in the two clinical trials. Fidaxomicin was generally well tolerated in patients with C. difficile infection, with a tolerability profile generally similar to that of vancomycin.
    Drugs 12/2011; 71(18):2445-56. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Gillian M Keating
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    ABSTRACT: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Caelyx™, Doxil®) represents an improved formulation of conventional doxorubicin, with reduced cardiotoxicity and an improved pharmacokinetic profile. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in metastatic breast cancer, progressive ovarian cancer, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. In three randomized, open-label, multicentre trials, monotherapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin was as effective as doxorubicin or capecitabine in the first-line treatment of metastatic breast cancer, and as effective as vinorelbine or combination mitomycin plus vinblastine in taxane-refractory metastatic breast cancer. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin alone was as effective as topotecan or gemcitabine alone in patients with progressive ovarian cancer resistant or refractory to platinum- or paclitaxel-based therapy, according to the results of three randomized multicentre trials. In addition, in patients with progressive ovarian cancer who had received prior platinum-based therapy, progression-free survival was significantly longer with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus carboplatin than with paclitaxel plus carboplatin, according to the results of a randomized, open-label multicentre trial. Combination therapy with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin plus bortezomib was more effective than bortezomib alone in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma, according to the results of a randomized, open-label, multinational trial. Randomized multinational trials also demonstrated the efficacy of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin exhibited a relatively favourable safety profile compared with conventional doxorubicin and other available chemotherapy agents. The most common treatment-related adverse events included myelosuppression, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and stomatitis, although these are manageable with appropriate supportive measures. To conclude, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is a useful option in the treatment of various malignancies, including metastatic breast cancer, ovarian cancer, multiple myeloma and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Drugs 12/2011; 71(18):2531-58. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Kate McKeage
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    ABSTRACT: Bazedoxifene (Conbriza®, Viviant®) is the first third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and it is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in the EU and Japan. Bazedoxifene contains an indole-based core binding domain that binds with high affinity to estrogen receptors and exhibits favourable effects on bone and lipid profiles, with no clinically relevant endometrial or breast stimulation. Oral bazedoxifene once daily reduced the incidence of new vertebral fractures in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis in a large, well designed trial of 3 years' duration; both bazedoxifene and raloxifene were significantly more effective than placebo. Neither bazedoxifene nor raloxifene reduced the incidence of nonvertebral fractures in the overall study population; however, bazedoxifene, but not raloxifene, reduced the rate of nonvertebral fractures in high-risk patients. Moreover, data from patients who continued to receive the drug during a 2-year extension phase of this trial indicate that bazedoxifene continues to provide protection against new vertebral fractures for up to 5 years. Bazedoxifene also increases bone mineral density and reduces the levels of bone turnover markers. Bazedoxifene was generally well tolerated and did not detrimentally affect the reproductive tract or breast tissue in clinical trials, thereby demonstrating a favourable risk-benefit profile. A pharmacoeconomic analysis conducted from an EU perspective predicted bazedoxifene to be cost effective in some EU countries. Therefore, bazedoxifene presents another useful option for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, especially in those at high risk for osteoporotic fracture.
    Drugs 11/2011; 71(16):2193-212. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • ST Duggan, CM Chwieduk, MP Curran
    Drugs 07/2011; 71(10). · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Lesley J Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous vernakalant (Brinavess®) is an atrial-repolarization-delaying agent that is currently approved in the EU for the rapid conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Vernakalant blocks atrial-specific potassium and sodium ion channels, prolonging atrial refractory periods and rate-dependently slowing atrial conduction, without promoting ventricular arrhythmia. In pivotal, randomized, phase III trials, intravenous vernakalant 3 mg /kg administered as a 10-minute infusion, followed by a 2 mg/kg 10-minute infusion after 15 minutes if atrial fibrillation persisted, was effective in the rapid termination of recent-onset atrial fibrillation in nonsurgical patients (≥ 3 hours' to ≤ 7 days' duration) and in those with postoperative atrial fibrillation (3-72 hours' duration) following cardiac surgery. Conversion to sinus rhythm occurred rapidly following infusion of vernakalant, with the majority of patients converting after the first dose, and conversion to sinus rhythm was generally associated with a rapid resolution of symptoms. These antiarrhythmic effects of vernakalant were durable, with most responders remaining in sinus rhythm 24 hours after treatment initiation. In nonsurgical patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation of 3-48 hours' duration, vernakalant was more effective than intravenous amiodarone, with a significantly higher proportion of patients converting to sinus rhythm within the first 90 minutes of treatment. Vernakalant was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with most adverse events being of mild or moderate severity and not treatment limiting. Increases in QRS or QT intervals were transient, and there was no increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia observed with vernakalant compared with placebo. Therefore, intravenous vernakalant provides an effective option for the management of recent-onset atrial fibrillation.
    Drugs & Aging 06/2011; 28(6):501-4. · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Lesley J Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Intravenous vernakalant (Brinavess®) is an atrial-repolarization-delaying agent that is currently approved in the EU for the rapid conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm. Vernakalant blocks atrial-specific potassium and sodium ion channels, prolonging atrial refractory periods and rate-dependently slowing atrial conduction, without promoting ventricular arrhythmia. In pivotal randomized, phase III trials, intravenous vernakalant 3 mg/kg administered as a 10-minute infusion, followed by a 2 mg/kg 10-minute infusion after 15 minutes if atrial fibrillation persisted, was effective in the rapid termination of recent-onset atrial fibrillation in nonsurgical patients (≥3 hours' to ≤7 days' duration) and in those with postoperative atrial fibrillation (3-72 hours' duration) following cardiac surgery. Conversion to sinus rhythm occurred rapidly following infusion of vernakalant, with the majority of patients converting after the first dose, and conversion to sinus rhythm was generally associated with a rapid resolution of symptoms. These antiarrhythmic effects of vernakalant were durable, with most responders remaining in sinus rhythm 24 hours after treatment initiation. In nonsurgical patients with recent-onset atrial fibrillation of 3-48 hours' duration, vernakalant was more effective than intravenous amiodarone, with a significantly higher proportion of patients converting to sinus rhythm within the first 90 minutes of treatment. Vernakalant was generally well tolerated in clinical trials, with most adverse events being of mild or moderate severity and not treatment limiting. Increases in QRS or QT intervals were transient, and there was no increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia observed with vernakalant compared with placebo. Therefore, intravenous vernakalant provides an effective option for the management of recent-onset atrial fibrillation.
    Drugs 01/2011; 71(2):237-52. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Greg L Plosker
    BioDrugs 12/2010; 24(6):407-9. · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Drugs 10/2010; 70(15):2051. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan
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    ABSTRACT: The pneumococcal polysaccharide conjugate vaccine Prevenar 13® (PCV13) comprises 13 capsular Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide serotypes that are individually conjugated to nontoxic diphtheria protein (cross-reactive material [CRM(197)]). In randomized, comparator-controlled, phase III trials in healthy infants aged 2-6 months, PCV13 elicited a strong immune response against all 13 pneumococcal serotypes in terms of the proportion of vaccinees achieving reference antibody levels with a two- or three-dose primary vaccination series. Immune responses for the seven serotypes common to PCV13 and the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevenar® (PCV7) were generally similar. Antibodies to all vaccine serotypes were functional. A booster dose of PCV13 administered between 11 and 15 months of age generally boosted the immune response against all 13 serotypes, regardless of whether infants had previously received PCV13 or PCV7 during the primary vaccination phase. Robust immune responses against all serotypes were achieved when PCV13 was administered as catch-up vaccination schedules in older infants and young children aged 7-72 months. Importantly, PCV13 did not interfere with the immune responses to coadministered routine paediatric vaccines. Based on data for PCV7, it is expected that PCV13 will also display protective efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease, otitis media and pneumonia. PCV13 was generally well tolerated, with an adverse event profile similar to that of PCV7 after any vaccine dose.
    Drugs 10/2010; 70(15):1973-86. · 4.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aliskiren is an orally administered, nonpeptide direct renin inhibitor indicated for the management of hypertension. Aliskiren was effective in controlling blood pressure (BP) as monotherapy and in combination with other antihypertensives, in large, randomized trials. Aliskiren 150-300 mg/day as monotherapy was effective in lowering BP across short- (≤12 weeks) and longer-term (up to 54 weeks) periods, providing sustained and consistent effects with 24-hour BP control. Compared with other antihypertensives, aliskiren was generally as effective as hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), valsartan, losartan, irbesartan and lisinopril in reducing BP. Furthermore, short-term aliskiren was noninferior to ramipril in reducing BP, but with a longer treatment duration, a greater efficacy of aliskiren-based therapy over ramipril-based therapy was demonstrated. Additional BP-lowering effects occurred when aliskiren was coadministered (as a fixed-dose combination or separate tablets) with other antihypertensives, including HCTZ, valsartan and amlodipine, according to large, randomized trials of short- (≤12 weeks) and longer-term (up to 54 weeks) duration. Combination therapy with aliskiren plus HCTZ was effective in hypertensive patients when administered as initial therapy or to patients previously treated with HCTZ or aliskiren monotherapy. Aliskiren-based therapy was also effective in lowering BP in obese patients, patients with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, patients with metabolic syndrome and the elderly. Aliskiren efficacy was observed irrespective of patient age, sex or ethnicity. Aliskiren monotherapy or combination therapy was generally well tolerated over short- and longer-term study durations in large, randomized clinical trials. Clinical trials to evaluate the effects of aliskiren on clinical outcomes, including renoprotective and cardioprotective effects, are currently ongoing. Thus, aliskiren is a useful option for the treatment of patients with stage 1 to stage 2 (mild to moderate) hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensives, including HCTZ, valsartan or amlodipine.
    Drugs 10/2010; 70(15):2011-49. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Greg L Plosker
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    ABSTRACT: Intradermal seasonal influenza vaccine delivered by a microneedle injection system (Intanza) contains inactivated split virion antigens from influenza type A (H1N1 and H3N2) and B strains as recommended annually by the WHO and the EU for the prevention of seasonal influenza. In randomized, comparator-controlled, phase III trials in elderly volunteers, Intanza 15 microg elicited a strong immune response against influenza virus. In a pivotal trial, seroprotection rates with Intanza 15 microg were significantly greater than with the intramuscular comparator vaccine Vaxigrip (primary endpoint). A strong immune response was also observed with Intanza 15 microg following second and third annual vaccinations in consecutive seasons in terms of seroprotective antibody titres for all three strains (H1N1, H3N2 and B). In another phase III trial, Intanza 15 microg was as immunogenic as the intramuscular, adjuvanted vaccine Fluad, with noninferiority established in terms of ratios of geometric mean titres against H1N1 and B strains using the haemagglutinin inhibition method and against all three strains using the single radial haemolysis method. Intanza 15 microg was generally well tolerated in clinical trials in the elderly, with the most common adverse events observed being solicited injection-site reactions. The majority of solicited injection-site reactions were mild and spontaneously resolved within 1-3 days of onset; transient, visible injection-site reactions with the intradermal route of injection are not surprising as the vaccine is injected close to the skin surface.
    Drugs & Aging 07/2010; 27(7):597-605. · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Lesley J Scott
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    ABSTRACT: Oral morphine/naltrexone extended release capsules comprise the selective mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine in a sustained-release formulation combined with a sequestered core of the mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone for use in the management of moderate to severe pain. When morphine/naltrexone is taken as intended, naltrexone exerts no clinically significant effect. However, when the capsule contents are taken after being tampered with by crushing, chewing or dissolution, naltrexone is rapidly released and absorbed, thereby mitigating the effects of morphine. Morphine/naltrexone was effective in the treatment and management of moderate to severe chronic pain in patients with pain due to osteoarthritis of the hip or knee participating in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study (n = 344). Changes in mean Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) average scores from baseline of the double-blind maintenance phase to 12 weeks were significantly better with morphine/naltrexone (20 mg/0.8 mg to 80 mg/3.2 mg twice daily) than with placebo. In a 12-month, open-label safety study, morphine/naltrexone also provided effective pain relief and sustained pain control in patients with chronic, moderate to severe, nonmalignant pain (n = 465 at baseline; 162 at study end). Furthermore, significant mean changes from baseline in BPI worst, least, average and current pain scores were seen from week 1 onwards. Morphine/naltrexone treatment was generally well tolerated in adult patients with chronic moderate to severe nonmalignant pain in clinical trials of up to 1-year duration.
    CNS Drugs 06/2010; 24(6):527-38. · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Lesley J Scott, Greg L Plosker
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    ABSTRACT: Rivaroxaban (Xarelto), an oral oxazolidinone-based anticoagulant, is a potent, selective direct inhibitor of factor Xa that is used in the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients after total hip replacement (THR) or total knee replacement (TKR) surgery. In four large, clinical trials, oral rivaroxaban was more effective than subcutaneous enoxaparin in preventing postoperative VTE in patients undergoing THR or TKR surgery. Notably, the superior efficacy of rivaroxaban was achieved with a low but not significant increase in the incidence of major bleeding episodes. In addition, preliminary pharmacoeconomic analyses in several countries indicate that rivaroxaban is a cost-effective treatment strategy versus enoxaparin. Although the position of rivaroxaban relative to other therapies remains to be fully determined, it is an effective emerging option for the prevention of VTE following THR and TKR.
    Drugs 02/2009; 69(13):1829-51. · 4.13 Impact Factor
  • Sean T Duggan, Gillian M Keating
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    ABSTRACT: Prasugrel (Efient) is a potent, selective and irreversible inhibitor of adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-mediated platelet aggregation that is indicated for the prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) [comprising unstable angina pectoris/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (unstable angina/NSTEMI) and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)] undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Oral prasugrel provides rapid, potent inhibition of platelet aggregation and is an effective antiplatelet agent for the management of patients with ACS who are undergoing PCI. In these patients, prasugrel was associated with a significantly lower incidence of ischaemic events than clopidogrel, and was particularly effective in specific subgroups of patients, such as those with diabetes mellitus. However, the efficacy of prasugrel was offset by a higher risk of bleeding than clopidogrel, with patients aged > or =75 years, those weighing <60 kg and those with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack at the greatest risk. A lower dose of prasugrel in patients aged > or =75 years and those weighing <60 kg may help to minimize the bleeding risk, although more data are needed to establish this; prasugrel is contraindicated in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Thus, prasugrel provides a new option for the management of patients with ACS who are undergoing PCI; the risk-benefit ratio should be carefully assessed before intensive antiplatelet therapy with prasugrel is initiated.
    Drugs 02/2009; 69(12):1707-26. · 4.13 Impact Factor