[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Brain hypoxia (BH) can aggravate outcome after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Whether BH or reduced brain oxygen (Pbto(2)) is an independent outcome predictor or a marker of disease severity is not fully elucidated.
To analyze the relationship between Pbto(2), intracranial pressure (ICP), and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) and to examine whether BH correlates with worse outcome independently of ICP and CPP.
We studied 103 patients monitored with ICP and Pbto(2) for > 24 hours. Durations of BH (Pbto(2) < 15 mm Hg), ICP > 20 mm Hg, and CPP < 60 mm Hg were calculated with linear interpolation, and their associations with outcome within 30 days were analyzed.
Duration of BH was longer in patients with unfavorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale score, 1-3) than in those with favorable (Glasgow Outcome Scale, 4-5) outcome (8.3 ± 15.9 vs 1.7 ± 3.7 hours; P < .01). In patients with intracranial hypertension, those with BH had fewer favorable outcomes (46%) than those without (81%; P < .01); similarly, patients with low CPP and BH were less likely to have favorable outcome than those with low CPP but normal Pbto(2) (39% vs 83%; P < .01). After ICP, CPP, age, Glasgow Coma Scale score, Marshall computed tomography grade, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score were controlled for, BH was independently associated with poor prognosis (adjusted odds ratio for favorable outcome, 0.89 per hour of BH; 95% confidence interval, 0.79-0.99; P = .04).
Brain hypoxia is associated with poor short-term outcome after severe traumatic brain injury independently of elevated ICP, low CPP, and injury severity. Pbto(2) may be an important therapeutic target after severe traumatic brain injury.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transport of critically ill intensive care unit patients may be hazardous. We examined whether brain oxygen (brain tissue oxygen partial pressure [PbtO2]) is influenced by transport to and from a follow-up head computed tomography (transport head computed tomography [tHCT]) scan.
Forty-five patients (24 men, 21 women; Glasgow Coma Scale score < or =8; mean age, 47.3 +/- 19.0 years) who had a traumatic brain injury (n = 26) or subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 19) were retrospectively identified from a prospective observational cohort of PbtO2 monitoring in a neurosurgical intensive care unit at a university-based level I trauma center. PbtO2, intracranial pressure, and cerebral perfusion pressure were monitored continuously and compared during the 3 hours before and after 100 tHCT scans.
The mean PbtO2 before and after the tHCT scans for all 100 scans was 37.9 +/- 19.8 mm Hg and 33.9 +/- 17.2 mm Hg, respectively (P = .0001). A decrease in PbtO2 (>5%) occurred after 54 tHCTs (54%) and in 36 patients (80%). In instances in which a decrease occurred, the average decrease in mean, minimum, and maximum PbtO2 was 23.6%, 29%, and 18.1%, respectively. This decrease was greater when PbtO2 was compromised (<25 mm Hg) before tHCT. An episode of brain hypoxia (<15 mm Hg) was identified in the 3 hours before tHCT in 9 and after tHCT in 19 instances. On average, an episode of brain hypoxia was 46.6 +/- 16.0 (standard error) minutes longer after tHCT than before tHCT (P = .008). Multivariate analysis suggests that changes in lung function (PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2] ratio) may account for the reduced PbtO2 after tHCT (parameter estimate 0.45, 95% confidence interval: 0.024-0.871; P = .04).
These data suggest that transport to and from the intensive care unit may adversely affect PbtO2. This deleterious effect is greater when PbtO2 is already compromised and may be associated with lung function.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transport of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients may be hazardous. In this study, we examined the use of a portable head CT scanner (CereTom) in the ICU to assess its feasibility, safety, and radiological quality. Two hundred and twenty-five portable head CT scans were obtained from 114 patients (mean age = 57 +/- 18 years) treated in a neurosurgical intensive care unit at a university-based Level I trauma center. Patient radiological and ICU records were retrospectively reviewed. The vast majority of portable CT scans were performed after an intracranial procedure (24%) due to neurological deterioration (16%) or in routine follow-up (16%). Diagnostic quality was judged to be adequate, and no scans needed to be repeated because of poor quality. No scans were complicated by accidental disconnection of an intravenous line. In ventilated patients, there were no interruptions in mechanical ventilation and no inadvertent extubations. In addition, continuous intracranial monitoring, when in use, remained connected. The average total time to perform a portable head CT scan was 19.5 +/- 3.5 min. The actual scan time was 2.5 +/- 0.7 min. These results suggest that the portable CT scanner (CereTom) is feasible, easy to use, and safe and provides adequate radiological quality for diagnostic decisions.
Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 04/2010; 42(2):109-16. · 0.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The optimal hemoglobin (Hgb) target after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is not precisely known. We sought to examine the threshold of Hgb concentration associated with an increased risk of cerebral metabolic dysfunction in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Twenty consecutive patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage who underwent multimodality neuromonitoring (intracranial pressure, brain tissue oxygen tension, cerebral microdialysis) were studied prospectively. Brain tissue oxygen tension and extracellular lactate/pyruvate ratio were used as markers of cerebral metabolic dysfunction and the relationship between Hgb concentrations and the incidence of brain hypoxia (defined by a brain tissue oxygen tension <20 mm Hg) and cell energy dysfunction (defined by a lactate/pyruvate ratio >40) was analyzed.
Compared with higher Hgb concentrations, a Hgb concentration <9 g/dL was associated with lower brain tissue oxygen tension (27.2 [interquartile range, 21.2 to 33.1] versus 19.9 [interquartile range, 7.1 to 33.1] mm Hg, P=0.02), higher lactate/pyruvate ratio (29 [interquartile range, 25 to 38] versus 36 [interquartile range, 26 to 59], P=0.16), and an increased incidence of brain hypoxia (21% versus 52%, P<0.01) and cell energy dysfunction (23% versus 43%, P=0.03). On multivariable analysis, a Hgb concentration <9 g/dL was associated with a higher risk of brain hypoxia (OR, 7.92; 95% CI, 2.32 to 27.09; P<0.01) and cell energy dysfunction (OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 1.33 to 13.55; P=0.02) after adjusting for cerebral perfusion pressure, central venous pressure, PaO(2)/FIO(2) ratio, and symptomatic vasospasm.
A Hgb concentration <9 g/dL is associated with an increased incidence of brain hypoxia and cell energy dysfunction in patients with poor-grade subarachnoid hemorrhage.