Bertrand Rochat

University Hospital of Lausanne, Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland

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Publications (45)151.44 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: A simple method for the measurement of testosterone in male saliva samples using liquid chromatography coupled with a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed here. Testosterone and its d-3-labeled internal standard (IS) were extracted from 0.5 mL of the saliva sample after pretreatment with acetonitrile (ACN) + 1% formic acid (FA). After centrifugation, the supernatant was diluted and underwent a dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME) treatment. The resulting sedimented phase was then dried under a gentle steam of nitrogen gas followed by a reconstitution step before liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. Testosterone and its IS were ionized via electrospray in the positive ionization mode. Testosterone and the IS [M + H]+ parent ions (m/z 289.2 and 292.2, respectively) and the same product ions (m/z 97.1) were used for the ion transitions in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 0.15 to 5.0 nM. Intra-day accuracy was in the range of 82% to 107%. Intra- and inter-day precision varied in the range of 1.9% to 8.7% and 7.0% to 17.5%, respectively. Finally, testosterone in male saliva samples taken from four healthy adult volunteers was successfully measured and quantified.
    Journal of Liquid Chromatography &amp Related Technologies 05/2014; 37(9). · 0.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liquid-chromatography (LC) high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis can record HR full scans, a technique of detection that shows comparable selectivity and sensitivity to ion transitions (SRM) performed with triple-quadrupole (TQ)-MS but that allows de facto determination of "all" ions including drug metabolites. This could be of potential utility in in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacovigilance studies in order to have a more comprehensive insight in drug biotransformation profile differences in patients. This simultaneous quantitative and qualitative (Quan/Qual) approach has been tested with 20 patients chronically treated with tamoxifen (TAM). The absolute quantification of TAM and three metabolites in plasma was realized using HR- and TQ-MS and compared. The same LC-HR-MS analysis allowed the identification and relative quantification of 37 additional TAM metabolites. A number of new metabolites were detected in patients' plasma including metabolites identified as didemethyl-trihydroxy-TAM-glucoside and didemethyl-tetrahydroxy-TAM-glucoside conjugates corresponding to TAM with six and seven biotransformation steps, respectively. Multivariate analysis allowed relevant patterns of metabolites and ratios to be associated with TAM administration and CYP2D6 genotype. Two hydroxylated metabolites, α-OH-TAM and 4'-OH-TAM, were newly identified as putative CYP2D6 substrates. The relative quantification was precise (<20 %), and the semiquantitative estimation suggests that metabolite levels are non-negligible. Metabolites could play an important role in drug toxicity, but their impact on drug-related side effects has been partially neglected due to the tremendous effort needed with previous MS technologies. Using present HR-MS, this situation should evolve with the straightforward determination of drug metabolites, enlarging the possibilities in studying inter- and intra-patients drug metabolism variability and related effects.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 03/2014; · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have investigated in vitro the metabolic capability of 3 extrahepatic cytochromes P-450, CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2J2, known to be over-expressed in various tumors, to biotransform 5 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI): dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, sorafenib and sunitinib. Moreover, mRNA expression of CYP1A1, 1B1, 2J2 and 3A4 in 6 hepatocellular and 14 renal cell carcinoma tumor tissues and their surrounding healthy tissues, was determined. Our results show that CYP1A1, 1B1 and especially 2J2 can rapidly biotransform the studied TKIs with a metabolic efficiency similar to that of CYP3A4. The mRNA expression of CYP1A1, 1B1, 2J2 and 3A4 in tumor biopsies has shown i) the strong variability of CYP expression and ii) distinct outliers showing high expression levels (esp. CYP2J2) that are compatible with high intratumoral CYP activity and tumor-specific TKI degradation. CYP2J2 inhibition could be a novel clinical strategy to specifically increase the intratumoral rather than plasma TKI levels, improving TKI efficacy and extending the duration before relapse. Such an approach would be akin to beta-lactamase inhibition, a classical strategy to avoid antibiotic degradation and resistance.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e95532. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Hepcidin, a 25 amino acid peptide, plays an important role in iron homeostasis. Some hepcidin truncated peptides have antibiotic effects. Results: A new analytical method for hepcidin determination in human plasma using LC-HRMS operating in full-scan acquisition mode has been validated. The extraction consists of protein precipitation and a drying reconstitution step; a 2.1 x 50 mm (idxL) C18 analytical column was used. Detection specificity, stability, accuracy, precision and recoveries were determined. The LOQ/LOD were 0.25/0.1 nM, respectively. More than 600 injections of plasma extracts were performed, allowing evaluation of the assay robustness. Hepcidin-20, hepcidin-22 and a new isoform, hepcidin-24, were detected in patients. Conclusion: The data underscore the usefulness of LC-HRMS for in-depth investigations related to hepcidin levels and pathways.
    Bioanalysis 10/2013; 5(20):2509-20. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The response of Arabidopsis to stress caused by mechanical wounding was chosen as a model to compare the performances of high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) and single stage Orbitrap (Exactive Plus) mass spectrometers in untargeted metabolomics. Both instruments were coupled to ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems set under identical conditions. The experiment was divided in two steps: the first analyses involved sixteen unwounded plants, half of which were spiked with pure standards that are not present in Arabidopsis. The second analyses compared the metabolomes of mechanically wounded plants to unwounded plants. Data from both systems were extracted using the same feature detection software and submitted to unsupervised and supervised multivariate analysis methods. Both mass spectrometers were compared in terms of number and identity of detected features, capacity to discriminate between samples, repeatability and sensitivity. Although analytical variability was lower for the UHPLC-Q-TOF, generally the results for the two detectors were quite similar, both of them proving to be highly efficient at detecting even subtle differences between plant groups. Overall, sensitivity was found to be comparable, although the Exactive Plus Orbitrap provided slightly lower detection limits for specific compounds. Finally, to evaluate the potential of the two mass spectrometers for the identification of unknown markers, mass and spectral accuracies were calculated on selected identified compounds. While both instruments showed excellent mass accuracy (<2.5ppm for all measured compounds), better spectral accuracy was recorded on the Q-TOF. Taken together, our results demonstrate that comparable performances can be obtained at acquisition frequencies compatible with UHPLC on Q-TOF and Exactive Plus MS, which may thus be equivalently used for plant metabolomics.
    Journal of Chromatography A 05/2013; 1292:151-159. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the work was to develop and validate a method for the quantification of vitamin D metabolites in serum using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and to validate a high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) approach against a tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) approach using a large clinical sample set. A fast, accurate and reliable method for the quantification of the vitamin D metabolites, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OH-D2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3), in human serum was developed and validated. The C3 epimer of 25OH-D3 (3-epi-25OH-D3) was also separated from 25OH-D3. The samples were rapidly prepared via a protein precipitation step followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using an HLB μelution plate. Quantification was performed using both LC/MS/MS and LC/HRMS systems. Recovery, matrix effect, inter- and intra-day reproducibility were assessed. Lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were determined for both 25OH-D2 and 25OH-D3 for the LC/MS/MS approach (6.2 and 3.4 µg/L, respectively) and the LC/HRMS approach (2.1 and 1.7 µg/L, respectively). A Passing & Bablok fit was determined between both approaches for 25OH-D3 on 662 clinical samples (1.11 + 1.06x). It was also shown that results can be affected by the inclusion of the isomer 3-epi-25OH-D3. Quantification of the relevant vitamin D metabolites was successfully developed and validated here. It was shown that LC/HRMS is an accurate, powerful and easy to use approach for quantification within clinical laboratories. Finally, the results here suggest that it is important to separate 3-epi-25OH-D3 from 25OH-D3. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2013; 27(1):200-6. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Existing antifungal agents are still confronted to activities limited to specific fungal species and to the development of resistance. Several improvements are possible either by tackling and overcoming resistance or exacerbating the activity of existing antifungal agents. In Candida glabrata, azole resistance is almost exclusively mediated by ABC transporters (including CgCDR1, CgCDR2) via gain of function mutations in the transcriptional activator CgPDR1 or by mitochondrial dysfunctions. We also observed that azole resistance was correlating with increasing virulence and fitness of C. glabrata in animal models of infection. This observation motivated the re-exploitation of ABC-transporter inhibitors as possible therapeutic intervention to decrease not only the development of azole resistance but also to interfere with the virulence of C. glabrata. Milbemycins are known ABC transporter inhibitors and here we used commercially available milbemycin A3/A4 oxim derivatives to verify this effect. As expected, the derivatives were inhibiting C. glabrata efflux with highest activity for A3 oxim below 1 μg/ml. More surprising was that oxim derivatives had intrinsic fungicidal activity above 3.2 μg/ml, thus highlighting effects additional to the efflux inhibition. Similar values were obtained with C. albicans. Our data show that the fungicidal activity could be related to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation in these species. Transcriptional analysis performed both in C. glabrata and C. albicans exposed to A3 oxim highlighted a core of commonly regulated genes involved in stress responses including genes involved in oxido-reductive processes, protein ubiquitination and vesicle trafficking, as well as MAP kinases. However, the transcript profiles contained also species-specific signatures. Following these observations, experimental treatments of invasive infections were performed in mice treated with the commercial A3/A4 oxim preparation alone or in combination with fluconazole. Tissue burden analysis revealed that oxims on their own were able to decrease fungal burdens in both Candida species. In azole-resistant isolates, oxims acted synergistically in vivo with fluconazole to reduce fungal burden to levels of azole-susceptible isolates. In conclusion, this work showed the potential of milbemycins not only as drug efflux inhibitors but also as effective fungal growth inhibitors in C. glabrata and C. albicans.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2012; · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the last decade, high-resolution (HR)-MS has been associated with qualitative analyses while triple quadrupole MS has been associated with routine quantitative analyses. However, a shift of this paradigm is taking place: quantitative and qualitative analyses will be increasingly performed by HR-MS, and it will become the common 'language' for most mass spectrometrists. Most analyses will be performed by full-scan acquisitions recording 'all' ions entering the HR-MS with subsequent construction of narrow-width extracted-ion chromatograms. Ions will be available for absolute quantification, profiling and data mining. In parallel to quantification, metabotyping will be the next step in clinical LC-MS analyses because it should help in personalized medicine. This article is aimed to help analytical chemists who perform targeted quantitative acquisitions with triple quadrupole MS make the transition to quantitative and qualitative analyses using HR-MS. Guidelines for the acceptance criteria of mass accuracy and for the determination of mass extraction windows in quantitative analyses are proposed.
    Bioanalysis 12/2012; 4(24):2939-58. · 3.25 Impact Factor
  • Bertrand Rochat
    Bioanalysis 07/2012; 4(14):1709-11. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The capabilities of a high-resolution (HR), accurate mass spectrometer (Exactive-MS) operating in full scan MS mode was investigated for the quantitative LC/MS analysis of drugs in patients' plasma samples. A mass resolution of 50,000 (FWHM) at m/z 200 and a mass extracted window of 5 ppm around the theoretical m/z of each analyte were used to construct chromatograms for quantitation. The quantitative performance of the Exactive-MS was compared with that of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQ-MS), TSQ Quantum Discovery or Quantum Ultra, operating in the conventional selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The study consisted of 17 therapeutic drugs including 8 antifungal agents (anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole posaconazole, voriconazole and voriconazole-N-oxide), 4 immunosuppressants (ciclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus and tacrolimus) and 5 protein kinase inhibitors (dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, sorafenib and sunitinib). The quantitative results obtained with HR-MS acquisition show comparable detection specificity, assay precision, accuracy, linearity and sensitivity to SRM acquisition. Importantly, HR-MS offers several benefits over TQ-MS technology: absence of SRM optimization, time saving when changing the analysis from one MS to another, more complete information of what is in the samples and easier troubleshooting. Our work demonstrates that U/HPLC coupled to Exactive HR-MS delivers comparable results to TQ-MS in routine quantitative drug analyses. Considering the advantages of HR-MS, these results suggest that, in the near future, there should be a shift in how routine quantitative analyses of small molecules, particularly for therapeutic drugs, are performed.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 03/2012; 26(5):499-509. · 2.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A generic LC-MS approach for the absolute quantification of undigested peptides in plasma at mid-picomolar levels is described. Nine human peptides namely, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), substance P (SubP), parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH), C-peptide, orexines A and B (Orex-A and -B), oxytocin (Oxy), gonadoliberin-1 (gonadothropin releasing-hormone or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH) and α-melanotropin (α-MSH) were targeted. Plasma samples were extracted via a 2-step procedure: protein precipitation using 1vol of acetonitrile followed by ultrafiltration of supernatants on membranes with a MW cut-off of 30 kDa. By applying a specific LC-MS setup, large volumes of filtrates (e.g., 2×750 μL) were injected and the peptides were trapped on a 1mm i.d.×10 mm length C8 column using a 10× on-line dilution. Then, the peptides were back-flushed and a second on-line dilution (2×) was applied during the transfer step. The refocalized peptides were resolved on a 0.3mm i.d. C18 analytical column. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and limits of detection were evaluated. Our comprehensive protocol demonstrates a simple and efficient sample preparation procedure followed by the analysis of peptides with limits of detection in the mid-picomolar range. This generic approach can be applied for the determination of most therapeutic peptides and possibly for endogenous peptides with latest state-of-the-art instruments.
    Journal of Chromatography A 11/2011; 1218(47):8536-43. · 4.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The applicability of hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was evaluated for the extraction and determination of tamoxifen (TAM) in biological fluids including human urine and plasma. The drug was extracted from a 15 mL aqueous sample (source phase; SP) into an organic phase impregnated in the pores of the hollow fiber (membrane phase; MP) followed by the back-extraction into a second aqueous solution (receiving phase; RP) located in the lumen of the hollow fiber. The effects of several factors such as the nature of organic solvent, compositions of SP and RP solutions, extraction time, ionic strength and stirring rate on the extraction efficiency were examined and optimized. An enrichment factor of 360 along with substantial sample clean up was obtained under the optimized conditions. The calibration curve showed linearity in the range of 1 - 500 ng·mL–1 and the limit of detection was found to be 0.5 ng·mL–1 in aqueous medium. A reasonable relative recovery (≥89%) and satisfactory intra-assay (3.7% - 4.2%, n = 3) and inter-assay (7.5% - 7.8%, n = 3) precision illustrated good performance of the analytical procedure in spiked human urine and plasma samples
    American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may contribute to optimizing the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy because of the large variability in drug pharmacokinetics. Rapid, sensitive, and selective laboratory methods are needed for efficient TDM. Quantification of several antifungals in a single analytical run may best fulfill these requirements. We therefore developed a multiplex ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method requiring 100 μl of plasma for simultaneous quantification within 7 min of fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, voriconazole-N-oxide, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used in a single extraction procedure for eight analytes. After reverse-phase chromatographic separation, antifungals were quantified by electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection using the positive mode. Deuterated isotopic compounds of azole antifungals were used as internal standards. The method was validated based on FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yields, matrix effect variability (<9.2%), and analytical recovery (80.1 to 107%). The method is sensitive (lower limits of azole quantification, 0.01 to 0.1 μg/ml; those of echinocandin quantification, 0.06 to 0.1 μg/ml), accurate (intra- and interassay biases of -9.9 to +5% and -4.0 to +8.8%, respectively), and precise (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of 1.2 to 11.1% and 1.2 to 8.9%, respectively) over clinical concentration ranges (upper limits of quantification, 5 to 50 μg/ml). Thus, we developed a simple, rapid, and robust multiplex UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of plasma concentrations of six antifungals and two metabolites. This offers, by optimized and cost-effective lab resource utilization, an efficient tool for daily routine TDM aimed at maximizing the real-time efficacy and safety of different recommended single-drug antifungal regimens and combination salvage therapies, as well as a tool for clinical research.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2010; 54(12):5303-15. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posaconazole (POS) is a new antifungal agent for prevention and therapy of mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Variable POS pharmacokinetics after oral dosing may influence efficacy: a trough threshold of 0.5 μg/ml has been recently proposed. Measurement of POS plasma concentrations by complex chromatographic techniques may thus contribute to optimize prevention and management of life-threatening infections. No microbiological analytical method is available. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new simplified ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method and a sensitive bioassay for quantification of POS over the clinical plasma concentration range. The UPLC-MS/MS equipment consisted of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, and a C(18) analytical column. The Candida albicans POS-hypersusceptible mutant (MIC of 0.002 μg/ml) Δcdr1 Δcdr2 Δflu Δmdr1 Δcan constructed by targeted deletion of multidrug efflux transporters and calcineurin genes was used for the bioassay. POS was extracted from plasma by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (75%/25%, vol/vol). Reproducible standard curves were obtained over the range 0.014 to 12 (UPLC-MS/MS) and 0.028 to 12 μg/ml (bioassay). Intra- and interrun accuracy levels were 106% ± 2% and 103% ± 4% for UPLC-MS/MS and 102% ± 8% and 104% ± 1% for bioassay, respectively. The intra- and interrun coefficients of variation were 7% ± 4% and 7% ± 3% for UPLC-MS/MS and 5% ± 3% and 4% ± 2% for bioassay, respectively. An excellent correlation between POS plasma concentrations measured by UPLC-MS/MS and bioassay was found (concordance, 0.96). In 26 hemato-oncological patients receiving oral POS, 27/69 (39%) trough plasma concentrations were lower than 0.5 μg/ml. The UPLC-MS/MS method and sensitive bioassay offer alternative tools for accurate and precise quantification of the plasma concentrations in patients receiving oral posaconazole.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 10/2010; 54(12):5074-81. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In addition to the importance of sample preparation and extract separation, MS detection is a key factor in the sensitive quantification of large undigested peptides. In this article, a linear ion trap MS (LIT-MS) and a triple quadrupole MS (TQ-MS) have been compared in the detection of large peptides at subnanomolar concentrations. Natural brain natriuretic peptide, C-peptide, substance P and D-Junk-inhibitor peptide, a full D-amino acid therapeutic peptide, were chosen. They were detected by ESI and simultaneous MS(1) and MS(2) acquisitions. With direct peptide infusion, MS(2) spectra revealed that fragmentation was peptide dependent, milder on the LIT-MS and required high collision energies on the TQ-MS to obtain high-intensity product ions. Peptide adsorption on surfaces was overcome and peptide dilutions ranging from 0.1 to 25 nM were injected onto an ultra high-pressure LC system with a 1 mm id analytical column and coupled with the MS instruments. No difference was observed between the two instruments when recording in LC-MS(1) acquisitions. However, in LC-MS(2) acquisitions, a better sensitivity in the detection of large peptides was observed with the LIT-MS. Indeed, with the three longer peptides, the typical fragmentation in the TQ-MS resulted in a dramatic loss of sensitivity (> or = 10x).
    Journal of Separation Science 08/2010; 33(16):2478-88. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information on how neuropeptide Y (NPY) proteolysis by peptidases occurs in serum, in part because reliable techniques are lacking to distinguish different NPY immunoreactive forms and also because the factors affecting the expression of these enzymes have been poorly studied. In the present study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify NPY fragments resulting from peptidolytic cleavage of NPY1–36 upon incubation with human serum. Kinetic studies indicated that NPY1–36 is rapidly cleaved in serum into 3 main fragments with the following order of efficacy: NPY3–36 ≫ NPY3–35 > NPY2–36. Trace amounts of additional NPY forms were identified by accurate mass spectrometry. Specific inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, kallikrein, and aminopeptidase P prevented the production of NPY3–36, NPY3–35, and NPY2–36, respectively. Plasma kallikrein at physiological concentrations converted NPY3–36 into NPY3–35. Receptor binding assays revealed that NPY3–35 is unable to bind to NPY Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors; thus NPY3–35 may represent the major metabolic clearance product of the Y2/Y5 agonist, NPY3–36.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2009; 284(37):24715-24724. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    B Rochat
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    ABSTRACT: In this review, intratumoral drug disposition will be integrated into the wide range of resistance mechanisms to anticancer agents with particular emphasis on targeted protein kinase inhibitors. Six rules will be established: 1. There is a high variability of extracellular/intracellular drug level ratios; 2. There are three main systems involved in intratumoral drug disposition that are composed of SLC, ABC and XME enzymes; 3. There is a synergistic interplay between these three systems; 4. In cancer subclones, there is a strong genomic instability that leads to a highly variable expression of SLC, ABC or XME enzymes; 5. Tumor-expressed metabolizing enzymes play a role in tumor-specific ADME and cell survival and 6. These three systems are involved in the appearance of resistance (transient event) or in the resistance itself. In addition, this article will investigate whether the overexpression of some ABC and XME systems in cancer cells is just a random consequence of DNA/chromosomal instability, hypo- or hypermethylation and microRNA deregulation, or a more organized modification induced by transposable elements. Experiments will also have to establish if these tumor-expressed enzymes participate in cell metabolism or in tumor-specific ADME or if they are only markers of clonal evolution and genomic deregulation. Eventually, the review will underline that the fate of anticancer agents in cancer cells should be more thoroughly investigated from drug discovery to clinical studies. Indeed, inhibition of tumor expressed metabolizing enzymes could strongly increase drug disposition, specifically in the target cells resulting in more efficient therapies.
    Current cancer drug targets 09/2009; 9(5):652-74. · 5.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is little information on how neuropeptide Y (NPY) proteolysis by peptidases occurs in serum, in part because reliable techniques are lacking to distinguish different NPY immunoreactive forms and also because the factors affecting the expression of these enzymes have been poorly studied. In the present study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify NPY fragments resulting from peptidolytic cleavage of NPY(1-36) upon incubation with human serum. Kinetic studies indicated that NPY(1-36) is rapidly cleaved in serum into 3 main fragments with the following order of efficacy: NPY(3-36) > NPY(3-35) > NPY(2-36). Trace amounts of additional NPY forms were identified by accurate mass spectrometry. Specific inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, kallikrein, and aminopeptidase P prevented the production of NPY(3-36), NPY(3-35), and NPY(2-36), respectively. Plasma kallikrein at physiological concentrations converted NPY(3-36) into NPY(3-35). Receptor binding assays revealed that NPY(3-35) is unable to bind to NPY Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors; thus NPY(3-35) may represent the major metabolic clearance product of the Y2/Y5 agonist, NPY(3-36).
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2009; 284(37):24715-24. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Raltegravir (RAL), maraviroc (MVC), darunavir (DRV), and etravirine (ETV) are new antiretroviral agents with significant potential for drug interactions. This work describes a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of plasma drug levels. Single-step extraction of RAL, MVC, DRV, ETV and RTV from plasma (100 microl) is performed by protein precipitation using 600 microl of acetonitrile, after the addition of 100 microl darunavir-d(9) (DRV-d(9)) at 1000 ng/ml in MeOH/H(2)O 50/50 as internal standard (I.S.). The mixture is vortexed, sonicated for 10 min, vortex-mixed again and centrifuged. An aliquot of supernatant (150 microl) is diluted 1:1 with a mixture of 20 mM ammonium acetate/MeOH 40/60 and 10 microl is injected onto a 2.1 x 50 mm Waters Atlantis-dC18 3 microm analytical column. Chromatographic separations are performed using a gradient program with 2 mM ammonium acetate containing 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid. Analytes quantification is performed by electrospray ionisation-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry using the selected reaction monitoring detection in the positive mode. The method has been validated over the clinically relevant concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 5000 ng/ml, 2.5 to 1000 ng/ml, 25 to 10,000 ng/ml, 10 to 4000 ng/ml, and 5 to 2000 ng/ml for RAL, MRV, DRV, ETV and RTV, respectively. The extraction recovery for all antiretroviral drugs is always above 91%. The method is precise, with mean inter-day CV% within 5.1-9.8%, and accurate (range of inter-day deviation from nominal values -3.3 to +5.1%). In addition our method enables the simultaneous assessment of raltegravir-glucuronide. This is the first analytical method allowing the simultaneous assay of antiretroviral agents targeted to four different steps of HIV replication. The proposed method is suitable for the Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Service of these new regimen combinations administered as salvage therapy to patients having experienced treatment failure, and for whom exposure, tolerance and adherence assessments are critical.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 05/2009; 877(11-12):1057-69. · 2.78 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

748 Citations
151.44 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • University Hospital of Lausanne
      • • Division de pharmacologie et toxicologie cliniques
      • • Département de médecine
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 2012
    • University of Lausanne
      • Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV)
      Lausanne, Vaud, Switzerland
  • 1999
    • University of Kansas
      • Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
      Lawrence, KS, United States