[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract. In order to analyze the relaxation characteristics in fresh human brain tissue and blood
samples we studied the proton relaxation rate dispersion in the frequency interval from 0.01 to 10
MHz. With the Field cycling method we apply, the sample is first magnetized in a relatively high
magnetic fields (0.5 Tesla), which then by electronic means rapidly (10-3 s) is reduced to lower values
(0.0001 - 0.5 Tesla) where the excited proton spin may relax during a time interval of about 3*T1max.
Then the magnetic field is again quickly raised up to higher level for the detection of NMR-signal. In
order to analyse the relaxation characteristics we applied a model with three compartments of water
exchange. For each compartment we estimate a characteristic frequency by fitting the dispersion
curves to a sum of Lorentz distributions. The characteristic frequencies thus obyained for various
human tissues are given in kHz:
Whole blood 285; 7600
Blood plasma 37 ± 4 220 ± 10 1480 ± 40
Cerebral SpinalFluid 16±4; 2200±140
Brain Gray Matter 18.3±0.3; 159±2; 1660± 0
Brain White Matter 16±1; 170±10; 2700±100
Meningioma 23±1; 190±10: 2350 ±80
Studying the effect on the relaxation rate dispersion by heat treatment of blood plasma we found a
breakpoint in the relaxation rate at 80 ºC The relaxation rate at low frequency 0.02 MHz gives an
activation energy of 103 kJ/ mol above the breakpoint at 80 ºC and a very low value of 3.1±0.5 kJ/mol
below 80 ºC. There seems to be no effect of Mn2+ after heating to 80 oC. This support the idea that
paramagnetic ions has no effect on the firmly bound water in proteins. At room temperature,
however, we found that paramagnetic ions (Mn2+) have a great influence on the relaxation rate
dispersion in the low frequency region (10 - 20 kHz). Magnetic resonance relaxation dispersion
imaging (MARDI) might be useful for imaging of reactive oxygen radicals and oxygen distribution by
using paramagnetic or organic free-radical contrast agents.
Acta Scientiarum Lundensia ISSN 1651-5013. 03/2013; 2012-001:pp 1-22.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract. Effect of 915 MHz electromagnetic fields (EMF) on the blood brain-barrier (BBB)
permeability has been studied in Fischer 344 rats of both sexes. Male and female Fischer 344 rats
were exposed in a Transverse Electromagnetic Transmission line chamber to microwaves of 915
MHz as continuous wave (CW) and pulse-modulated with different pulse power and at various
time intervals. The CW-pulse power varied from 0.001W to 10 W and the exposure time from 2
min. to 960 min. In each experiment we randomly placed 4 rats in excited and 4 control rats in
non-excited TEM-cells respectively. The rats were not anaesthetised during the exposure.
The rats were exposed to 915 MHz microwaves, either continuous wave (CW) or pulse
modulated at 4,8,16 or 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, or pulse modulated at 50 Hz with 6.6
ms pulse width as well as from a real GSM-900 telephone.
All animals were sacrificed by perfusion-fixation of the brains under chloralhydrate
anaesthesia after the exposure. The brains were then perfused, first with saline for 3-4 minutes, and
then with 4% formaldehyde for 5-6 minutes. Whole coronal sections of the brains were dehydrated
and embedded in paraffin and sectioned at 5 μm. The degree of albumin leakage was demonstrated
immune-histo-chemically and classified in order of increased number of albumin extravasations by
a rank number: 0 - 0.5 - 1.0 - 1.5 - 2 - 3. Pathological albumin leakage was judged as albumin
extravasations equal to or larger than 1.
The frequency of pathological rats in all control groups was about 17%. Among rats exposed
to pulse modulated microwaves the ratio of pathological rats was 170/481(0.35±0.03) and among
rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW) it was 74/149 (0.50±0.07). These results are both
highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p<0.0001).
The rats were exposed to SAR various values: 0.2; 2; (20-40); (100-500); (1000-3000)
mW/kg. In the 217 Hz modulated group (GSM simulated) we found the most increased ratio of
albumin extravasations OR= 4 at 0.2 mW/kg. But no significant increased ratio at SAR 2000
mW/kg. The response curve of OR versus log(SAR) had the shape of a bathtub, with a minimum
at a100 mW/kg. A similar curve was recorded for OR versus Specific Absorbed Energy (SAE
Joule / kg) with a minimum at 100 J/kg. Similar response curves were recorded for the various
modulation frequencies 4; 8; 16; 50 Hz. We found no pronounced difference between the various
modulation frequencies other than the effect of CW exposure seems to be more effective than
pulse modulated exposure in opening the BBB at high SAR values 100-2000 mW/kg.
Conclusion: The opening of the BBB is most effective at SAR values in the range of 0.1-0.5
mW.kg-1 and less effective in the range of 50-500 mW.kg-1. In this low SAR range thermal effects
are unlikely. Thus there seems to be a non-thermal mechanism involved triggering the opening of
Keywords: Blood-brain barrier, Albumin leakage, Fischer rats, electromagnetic field,
microwaves, non-thermal effects, Mobile phone GSM-900, GSM.1800
Acta Scientiarum Lundensia ISSN 1651-5013. 03/2013; 012-006(006):pp. 1-39.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate whether mobile phone radiation might affect snail nociception, employing radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) which, to our knowledge, have hitherto not been studied in a snail model. Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has however been shown to significantly affect nociceptive responses.
In the present study, we exposed 29 land snails of the strain Helix pomatia to global system for mobile communications (GSM) EMF at 1900 MHz at the non-thermal level 48 mW/kg for 1 hour each and 29 snails were sham controls. The experiments took place during the onset of summer, with all snails being well out of hibernation. Before and after GSM or sham exposure, the snails were subjected to thermal pain by being placed on a hot plate. The reaction time for retraction from the hot plate was measured by two blinded observers.
Comparing the reaction pattern of each snail before and after exposure, the GSM-exposed snails were less sensitive to thermal pain as compared to the sham controls, indicating that RF exposure induces a significant analgesia (Mann-Whitney p < 0.001).
This study might support earlier findings, describing beneficial effects of EMF exposure upon nociception.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 11/2011; 88(3):245-52. · 1.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemias and tumors, including gliomas. Objectives: We studied whether microwaves from mobile telephones of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and the Universal Global Telecommunications System (UMTS) induce DSBs or affect DSB repair in stem cells. Methods: We analyzed tumor suppressor TP53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci that are typically formed at the sites of DSB location (referred to as DNA repair foci) by laser confocal microscopy. Results: Microwaves from mobile phones inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. These data parallel our previous findings for human lymphocytes. Importantly, the same GSM carrier frequency (915 MHz) and UMTS frequency band (1947.4 MHz) were effective for all cell types. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks. Conclusions: The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.
Environmental Health Perspectives 10/2009; · 7.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microwaves were for the first time produced by humans in 1886 when radio waves were broadcasted and received. Until then microwaves had only existed as a part of the cosmic background radiation since the birth of universe. By the following utilization of microwaves in telegraph communication, radars, television and above all, in the modern mobile phone technology, mankind is today exposed to microwaves at a level up to 10(20) times the original background radiation since the birth of universe. Our group has earlier shown that the electromagnetic radiation emitted by mobile phones alters the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), resulting in albumin extravasation immediately and 14 days after 2h of exposure. In the background section of this report, we present a thorough review of the literature on the demonstrated effects (or lack of effects) of microwave exposure upon the BBB. Furthermore, we have continued our own studies by investigating the effects of GSM mobile phone radiation upon the blood-brain barrier permeability of rats 7 days after one occasion of 2h of exposure. Forty-eight rats were exposed in TEM-cells for 2h at non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs) of 0mW/kg, 0.12mW/kg, 1.2mW/kg, 12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. Albumin extravasation over the BBB, neuronal albumin uptake and neuronal damage were assessed. Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher's exact probability test, p=0.04 and Kruskal-Wallis, p=0.012), at the SAR-value of 12mW/kg (Mann-Whitney, p=0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12mW/kg and 120mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r(s)=0.33; p=0.04). The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure. We here discuss the present findings as well as the previous results of altered BBB permeability from our and other laboratories.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have earlier shown that radio frequency electromagnetic fields can cause significant leakage of albumin through the blood–brain
barrier of exposed rats as compared to non-exposed rats, and alsosignificant neuronal damage in rat brains several weeks
after a 2h exposure to a mobile phone, at 915MHz with a global system for mobile communications (GSM) frequency modulation,
at whole-body specific absorption rate values (SAR) of 200, 20, 2, and 0.2mW/kg. We have now studied whether 6h of exposure
to the radiation from a GSM mobile test phone at 1,800MHz (at a whole-body SAR-value of 13mW/kg, corresponding to a brain
SAR-value of 30mW/kg) has an effect upon the gene expression pattern in rat brain cortex and hippocampus—areas where we have
observed albumin leakage from capillaries into neurons and neuronal damage. Microarray analysis of 31,099 rat genes, including
splicing variants, was performed in cortex and hippocampus of 8 Fischer 344 rats, 4 animals exposed to global system for mobile
communications electromagnetic fields for 6h in an anechoic chamber, one rat at a time, and 4 controls kept as long in the
same anechoic chamber without exposure, also in this case one rat at a time. Gene ontology analysis (using the gene ontology
categories biological processes, molecular functions, and cell components) of the differentially expressed genes of the exposed
animals versus the control group revealed the following highly significant altered gene categories in both cortex and hippocampus:
extracellular region, signal transducer activity, intrinsic to membrane, and integral to membrane.The fact that most of these
categories are connected with membrane functions may have a relation to our earlier observation of albumin transport through
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have recently described frequency-dependent effects of mobile phone microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) on human lymphocytes from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields and healthy persons. Contrary to GSM, universal global telecommunications system (UMTS) mobile phones emit wide-band MW signals. Hypothetically, UMTS MWs may result in higher biological effects compared to GSM signal because of eventual "effective" frequencies within the wideband. Here, we report for the first time that UMTS MWs affect chromatin and inhibit formation of DNA double-strand breaks co-localizing 53BP1/gamma-H2AX DNA repair foci in human lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy persons and confirm that effects of GSM MWs depend on carrier frequency. Remarkably, the effects of MWs on 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci persisted up to 72 h following exposure of cells, even longer than the stress response following heat shock. The data are in line with the hypothesis that the type of signal, UMTS MWs, may have higher biological efficiency and possibly larger health risk effects compared to GSM radiation emissions. No significant differences in effects between groups of healthy and hypersensitive subjects were observed, except for the effects of UMTS MWs and GSM-915 MHz MWs on the formation of the DNA repair foci, which were different for hypersensitive (P < 0.02[53BP1]//0.01[gamma-H2AX]) but not for control subjects (P > 0.05). The non-parametric statistics used here did not indicate specificity of the differences revealed between the effects of GSM and UMTS MWs on cells from hypersensitive subjects and more data are needed to study the nature of these differences.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to mimic the real life situation, with often life-long exposure to the electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones, we have investigated in a rat model the effects of repeated exposures under a long period to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed once weekly in a 2-h period, for totally 55 weeks, at different average whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) (of in average 0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period). The animals were exposed in a transverse electromagnetic transmission line chamber (TEM-cell) to radiation emitted by a GSM-900 test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After behavioural tests, 5-7 weeks after the last exposure, the brains were evaluated for histopathological alterations such as albumin extravasation, dark neurons, lipofuscin aggregation and signs of cytoskeletal and neuritic neuronal changes of the type seen in human ageing. In this study, no significant alteration of any these histopathological parameters was found, when comparing the GSM exposed animals to the sham exposed controls.
Brain research bulletin 10/2008; 77(5):257-63. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During the last century, mankind has introduced electricity and during the very last decades, the microwaves of the modern communication society have spread a totally new entity--the radiofrequency fields--around the world. How does this affect biology on Earth? The mammalian brain is protected by the blood-brain barrier, which prevents harmful substances from reaching the brain tissue. There is evidence that exposure to electromagnetic fields at non thermal levels disrupts this barrier. In this review, the scientific findings in this field are presented. The result is a complex picture, where some studies show effects on the blood-brain barrier, whereas others do not. Possible mechanisms for the interactions between electromagnetic fields and the living organisms are discussed. Demonstrated effects on the blood-brain barrier, as well as a series of other effects upon biology, have caused societal anxiety. Continued research is needed to come to an understanding of how these possible effects can be neutralized, or at least reduced. Furthermore, it should be kept in mind that proven effects on biology also should have positive potentials, e.g., for medical use.
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 02/2008; 27(2):103-26. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier and signs of neuronal damage in rats using a real GSM programmable mobile phone in the 900 MHz band. Ninety-six non-anaesthetized rats were either exposed to microwaves or sham exposed in TEM-cells for 2 h at specific absorption rates of average whole-body Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) of 0.12, 1.2, 12, or 120 mW/kg. The rats were sacrificed after a recovery time of either 14 or 28 d, following exposure and the extravazation of albumin, its uptake into neurons, and occurrence of damaged neurons was assessed. Albumin extravazation and also its uptake into neurons was seen to be enhanced after 14 d (Kruskal Wallis test: p = 0.02 and 0.002, respectively), but not after a 28 d recovery period. The occurrence of dark neurons in the rat brains, on the other hand, was enhanced later, after 28 d (p = 0.02). Furthermore, in the 28-d brain samples, neuronal albumin uptake was significantly correlated to occurrence of damaged neurons (Spearman r = 0.41; p < 0.01).
Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 02/2008; 27(3):215-29. · 0.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Life oil earth was formed during billions of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation, atmospheric electric fields and the terrestrial magnetism. The Schumann resonances at 7.4 Hz are all example of oscillations possibly important for life.(1)) The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century mankind introduced the use of electricity, in the early 20th century long-wave radio and in the 1940-ies short-wave radio. High frequency RF was introduced in the 50-ies as FM and television and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society spread around the world. Today, however, one third of the world's population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones and an even larger number is exposed to the cordless RF emitting systems. To what; extent are all living organisms affected by these, almost everywhere present radio frequency fields? And what will be the effects of many years of continuing exposure? Since 1989 Our group has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) in rats by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). These have been shown to cause significantly increased leak-age of the rats' own blood albumin through the BBB of exposed rats, at energy levels of 1W/kg and below, as compared to non-exposed animals in a total series of about two thousand animals.(2)-6)) One remarkable observation is the fact that the lowest energy levels, with whole-body average power densities below 10mW/kg, give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low energy levels, causes the users' own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz, at non-thermal SAB-values of 0.2, 2 and 200 mW/kg, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen not only 50 days after the exposure 7) but also after 28 days but not after 14 days. Albumin extravasations and uptake into neurons was enhanced after 14 clays, but not after 28.(8)) in our continued research, also the non-thermal effects oil tissue structure and memory function of long-term exposure for 13 months are studied.(9)) We have also performed microarray analysis of brains from rats exposed to short term GSM both at 1,800 MHz and at 900MHz and have found significant effects upon gene expression of membrane associated genes as compared to control animals.(10),11)) Most of our findings support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Some other Studies agree while others find no effects. The mechanisms by which the EMFs may alter BBB permeability are not Well Understood. At low field strengths, the effects on body temperature are negligible and thus heating effects are not involved. A change in the physicochemical characteristics of membranes has been suggested as a cause.(12)) We have performed experiments to verify a quantum mechanical model for interaction with protein-bound ions. Our results show that controlled frequency and amplitude of ELF EM fields upon spinach plasma vesicles can steer transport over the membrane.(13)) This may be a first proof of a resonance phenomenon where appropriate levels of frequency and amplitude in the right combination have the potency to communicate with the biology of membranes and transport systems. Our study has prompted Lis to elaborate on magnetic resonance models; the Ion Cyclotron Resonance (ICR) model and the Ion Parametric Resonance (IPR) Model in an attempt to explain the occurrence of resonance frequencies. This is extensively described here under the heading: Mechanisms behind the effects of electromagnetical fields upon biology. We also bring forward the concept of solitons being active in membranes and DNA/RNA-transcription as a, possible mean to understand and prove the biological effects of EMF. The Nishinomiya-Yukawa International and Interdisciplinary Symposium 2007 raised the question: What is Life? An obvious and simple answer could be: It is DNA! The DNA strand can be looked upon as an antenna resonating in the microwave band 6GHz with its harmonics and subharmonics.(14)-18)) If this holds true, the dramatic situation might exist, that all living organisms have a receptor for the newly constructed and world-wide man-made microvaves, leading to a direct effect upon the function of DNA - in concordance with our experimental findings! Our generation invented the microwave emitters. We now have in imperative obligation to further investigate the links between EMF and biology in order to prevent possible detrimental effects of the microwaves.
22nd Nishinomiya-Yukawa Memorial Symposium; 01/2008 · 1.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The environment in which biology exists has dramatically changed during the last decades. Life was formed during billions
of years, exposed to, and shaped by the original physical forces such as gravitation, cosmic irradiation and the terrestrial
magnetism. The existing organisms are created to function in harmony with these forces. However, in the late 19th century
mankind introduced the use of electricity and during the very last decades, microwaves of the modern communication society
spread around the world. Today one third of the world’s population is owner of the microwave-producing mobile phones. The
question is: to what extent are living organisms affected by these ubiquitous radio frequency fields? Since 1988 our group
has studied the effects upon the mammalian blood-brain barrier (BBB) by non-thermal radio frequency electromagnetic fields
(RF-EMF). These have been revealed to cause significantly increased leakage of albumin through the BBB of exposed rats as
compared to non-exposed animals—in a total series of about two thousand animals. One remarkable observation is the fact that
the lowest energy levels give rise to the most pronounced albumin leakage. If mobile communication, even at extremely low
energy levels, causes the users’ own albumin to leak out through the BBB, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood,
may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurons and glial cells of the brain. In later studies we
have shown that a 2-h exposure to GSM 915 MHz at non-thermal levels, gives rise to significant neuronal damage, seen 28 and
50 days after the exposure. In our continued research, the non-thermal effects (histology, memory functions) of long-term
exposure for 13 months are studied as well as the effects of short term GSM 1,800 MHz upon gene expression. Most of our findings
support that living organisms are affected by the non-thermal radio frequency fields. Studies from other laboratories in some
cases find effects, while in other cases effects are not seen. Our conclusion is that all researchers involved in this field
have the obligation to intensify this research in order to reduce, or avoid, the possible negative effects of the man made
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated whether exposure of rat brain to microwaves (MWs) of global system for mobile communication (GSM) induces DNA breaks, changes in chromatin conformation and in gene expression. An exposure installation was used based on a test mobile phone employing a GSM signal at 915 MHz, all standard modulations included, output power level in pulses 2 W, specific absorption rate (SAR) 0.4 mW/g. Rats were exposed or sham exposed to MWs during 2 h. After exposure, cell suspensions were prepared from brain samples, as well as from spleen and thymus. For analysis of gene expression patterns, total RNA was extracted from cerebellum. Changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, were measured by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependencies (AVTD). DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Effects of MW exposure were observed on neither conformation of chromatin nor DNA DSBs. Gene expression profiles were obtained by Affymetrix U34 GeneChips representing 8800 rat genes and analyzed with the Affymetrix Microarray Suite (MAS) 5.0 software. In cerebellum from all exposed animals, 11 genes were upregulated in a range of 1.34-2.74 fold and one gene was downregulated 0.48-fold (P < .0025). The induced genes encode proteins with diverse functions including neurotransmitter regulation, blood-brain barrier (BBB), and melatonin production. The data shows that GSM MWs at 915 MHz did not induce PFGE-detectable DNA double stranded breaks or changes in chromatin conformation, but affected expression of genes in rat brain cells.