Daniel Rigaud

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Dijon, Dijon, Bourgogne, France

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Publications (28)55.99 Total impact

  • Daniel Rigaud
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    ABSTRACT: Weight restoration is crucial for successful treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). Without it, patients may face serious or even fatal complications of severe starvation. Renutrition should take into account clinical characteristics unique to these patients, such as gastroparesis and fear of gaining body weight. The efficacy of tube feeding and home-tube feeding (Home-TF) has been suggested in AN and proven in bulimia nervosa (BN). TF and home-TF allow a better body weight gain (mainly fat-free mass) in AN patients and a strong decrease in the frequency and the intensity of binge-eating/purging episodes at relatively short-term (1 year) in BN patients. In AN, home-TF does not increase anxiety, depression, or worsen the eating behavior. In BN patients, home-TF decreases anxiety and depressive state and improves the quality of life. The goal of home-TF is not to cure the patients, but only to avoid serious malnutrition and its complications and to insure a better investment of the patients for their psychotherapy. Home-TF must be associated with psychotherapy, namely cognitive behavioural therapy and family therapy in adolescents. If the fear of gaining body weight is too high, the risk of failure of home-TF, because of poor compliance, is increasing. In any case, the aims and the goals of home-TF should be extensively explained.
    Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme 12/2013; 27(4):244–248. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To report the prognosis in 41 anorexia nervosa (AN) patients suffering from very severe malnutrition (mean BMI: 10.1 ± 0.57 kg/m(2)). Compared with 443 less malnourished AN patients, the 41 patients were older (27.8 ± 5.4 vs 22.4 ± 2.1 yrs), their AN was longer (9.6 ± 3.4 vs 5.0 ± 1.5 yrs) and more often of the restrictive subtype (P < 0.05). In 27% of the patients, all nutritional marker levels were in normal range. All patients received a prudent tube-refeeding: energy was increased from 12 to 40 kcal/kg/day, protein from 1.0 to 1.5 g/kg/day within 10 days. During stay, 1 patient died, 2 others suffered from myocardial infarction, 2 others from acute pancreatitis, and 5 from mental confusion. Compared with the other 443 AN patients, the 40 remaining patients had worse 6-yr prognosis: 2 died (7% vs 1.2%), 29% had severe outcome (vs 10%), and only 41% recovered (vs 62%). In AN patients with BMI < 11 kg/m(2), a prudent tube-refeeding could avoid short-term mortality, but long-term prognosis was bad.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 03/2012; 31(5):693-8. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In many binge-eating/vomiting patients, abstinence could not be obtained from classical treatments. Since the authors showed that tube feeding (TF) reduced such episodes in anorexia nervosa (AN)-hospitalized patients, they carried out a randomized trial on the efficacy of TF plus cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) vs CBT alone in AN and bulimia nervosa adult outpatients. The authors randomly assigned 103 ambulatory patients to receive 16 sessions of CBT alone (n = 51) or CBT plus 2 months of TF (n = 52). The main goal was abstinence of binge-eating/vomiting episodes. Other criteria were gains in fat-free mass and muscle mass improvements in nutrition markers, and quality of life (SF-36 Health Survey), depression (Beck Depression Inventory), and anxiety (Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale) scores. Evaluations were performed at 1, 2 (end of treatment), 5, 8, and 14 months (analysis of variance). TF patients were rapidly and more frequently abstinent at the end of treatment (2 months) than the CBT patients: 81% vs 29% (P < .001). Fat-free mass, biological markers, depressive state (-58% vs -26%), anxiety (-48% vs -15%), and quality of life (+42% vs +13%) were more improved in the TF group than in the CBT group (P < .05). One year later, more TF patients remained abstinent (68% vs 27%, P = .02); they were less anxious, were less depressed, and had better quality of life than the CBT patients (P < .05). TF combined with CBT offered better results than CBT alone.
    Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 05/2011; 35(3):356-64. · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical features of 238 eating disorder (ED) adult patients were compared, according to the subtype (restricting subtype of anorexia nervosa (RAN, binge eating/purging subtype (BPAN) and bulimia nervosa, BN). There were 75 RAN, 91 BPAN and 76 BN needing for hospitalization. BPAN and BN patients had had, before ED, higher BMI, higher frequency of obesity and binge eating and had been more often on slimming diet than RAN patients (p < 0.05). One third of BPAN and BN had begun with RAN. In 75% of the cases, a slimming diet preceded the ED. One quarter of BPAN and BN had had sexual trauma, vs 6% of the RAN (p < 0.01). In the family, there were more obesity, more ED, more anxiety, more depressive states than in population. The father or the mother had more often a thought of ideal thinness and of importance of sport. Meals were very often suppressed, food excluded (NS between groups). Binge/purging episodes occurred 16 ± 6 times a week and lasted 2,6 ± 1,1 h/day. Excessive exercise occurred in 60% of B and 70% of RAN and BPAN (NS) and lasted 2,7 ± 0,7 h/day. Obsessive compulsive disorders occurred in 50% of the cases (NS between groups) and lasted more in AN than in BN patients (BN: 1.9 ± 0.6 h, AN: 2,7 ± 0,8 h). Self-injury occurred in 32% of the cases (BN: 44%, AN: 23%). Smoking abuse was more frequent in BPAN and BN (40%) than in RAN (18%, p < 0.01). Among 18% of the patients received a disability pension from government health insurance. Chronic treated depression was observed in 27% (more in BPAN and BN than RAN, p < 0.05) and chronic treated anxiety in 52% of the patients. Quality of life was strongly impaired in all three eating disorders, and no more in AN than in BN, nor more in RAN than in BPAN: the QUAVIAM total score was similar in the three groups and in each very higher than that of 56 healthy subjects (405 ± 54 vs 88.6 ± 49; p < 0.0001) and than the QUAVIAM global score obtained in 49 recovered ED patients (157 ± 81; p < 0.0001). Each of the six sub-scores was higher (more deteriorated) than those of the healthy controls (p < 0.0001): physical, psychological, ED-related, hedonic, socioprofessional and emotional scores. Only two of the six subscores differed between AN and BN: the psychical and the ED-related subscores were less deteriorated in RAN than in BPAN and BN patients (p < 0.03).
    Cahiers de Nutrition et de Diététique. 02/2011; 46(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Body weight gain is an important goal in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, but inflation in body fluids could artificially increase body weight during refeeding. 42 malnourished adult AN patients were refed using a normal-sodium diet, then 176 other malnourished adult AN patients received a refeeding low-sodium diet (BMI of the 218 patients: 13.4 ± 1.9 kg/m(2)). Sodium balance, body composition by a 2-electrode impedance method (BIA, for assessment of total and extracellular water, fat-free mass, FFM), resting energy expenditure and energy intake were calculated. In the patients on normal-sodium diet, body weight, and total and extracellular water gains were higher than those of the low-sodium diet patients (P<0.01). Edema occurred more often in the former group (21% vs 6%; P<0.05). In almost all patients, BMI reached a plateau around 15-16 kg/m(2), then increased again. During this plateau, an increase in intracellular water and in "active FFM" was observed with BIA, together with a similar decrease in extracellular water. In AN patients, who are always afraid of gaining too much weight, in regard to their food intake, it will be useful to give a low-sodium diet until a 15-16 kg/m(2) BMI. This should be integrated into the cognitive behavioral therapy.
    Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 12/2010; 29(6):749-55. · 3.27 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Though it has been suggested that hedonic processing is altered in anorexia nervosa (AN), few studies have used objective measures to assess affective processes in this eating disorder. Accordingly, we investigated facial electromyographic, autonomic and subjective reactivity to the smell and sight of food and non-food stimuli, and assessed more particularly rapid facial reactions reflecting automatic processing of pleasantness. AN and healthy control (HC) women were exposed, before and after a standardized lunch, to pictures and odorants of foods differing in energy density, as well as to non-food sensory cues. Whereas the temporal profile of zygomatic activity in AN patients was typified by a fast drop to sensory cues within the 1000 ms following stimulus onset, HC showed a larger EMG reactivity to pictures in a 800-1000 ms time window. In contrast, pleasantness ratings discriminated the two groups only for high energy density food cues suggesting a partial dissociation between objective and subjective measures of hedonic processes in AN patients. The findings suggest that the automatic processing of pleasantness might be altered in AN, with the sensitivity to reward being modulated by controlled processes.
    Biological psychology 12/2010; 86(3):265-72. · 4.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although patients with anorexia nervosa have been suggested to be anhedonic, few experiments have directly measured their sensory pleasure for a range of food and non-food stimuli. This study aimed to examine whether restrictive anorexia nervosa (AN-R) patients displayed: i) a generalized decline in sensory pleasure or only in food-related sensory pleasure; ii) a modification of hedonic responses to food cues (liking) and of the desire to eat foods (wanting) as a function of their motivational state (hunger vs. satiety) and energy density of foods (high vs. low). Forty-six female participants (AN-R n=17; healthy controls (HC) n=29) reported before/after lunch their pleasure for pictures/odorants representing foods of different energy density and non-food objects. They also reported their desire to eat the foods evoked by the sensory stimuli, and completed the Physical Anhedonia Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. AN-R and HC participants did not differ on liking ratings when exposed to low energy-density food or to non-food stimuli. The two groups also had similar physical anhedonia scores. However, compared to HC, AN-R reported lower liking ratings for high energy food pictures regardless of their motivational state. Olfactory pleasure was reduced only during the pre-prandial state in the AN-R group. The wanting ratings showed a distinct pattern since AN-R participants reported less desire to eat the foods representing both low and high energy densities, but the effect was restricted to the pre-prandial state. Taken together these results reflect more the influence of core symptoms in anorexia nervosa (fear of gaining weight) than an overall inability to experience pleasure.
    Psychiatry Research 11/2010; 180(1):42-7. · 2.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate hedonic reactivity and the influence of unconscious emotional processes on the low sensitivity to positive reinforcement of food in anorexia nervosa (AN). AN and healthy women were exposed to palatable food pictures just after a subliminal exposure to facial expressions (happy, disgust, fear and neutral faces), either while fasting or after a standardized meal (hunger versus satiety). Both implicit [facial electromyographic (EMG) activity from zygomatic and corrugator muscles, skin conductance, heart rate, and videotaped facial behavior] and explicit (self-reported pleasure and desire) measures of affective processes were recorded. In contrast to healthy women, the AN patients did not display objective and subjective indices of pleasure to food pictures when they were in the hunger states. Pleasure to food cues (liking) was more affected than the desire to eat (wanting) in AN patients. Subliminal 'fear faces' increased corrugator muscle reactivity to food stimuli in fasting AN patients, as compared to controls. The results suggest that unconscious fear cues increase the negative appraisal of alimentary stimuli in AN patients and thus contribute to decreased energy intake.
    Psychological Medicine 08/2009; 40(3):503-14. · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the aim to explore the efficacy of tube feeding (TF) in ambulatory anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, we prospectively treated 60 AN patients by tube feeding (TF) at home, using a nasogastric tube. Nutritional (clinical, biological) and psychological (Hamilton and Beck scores) markers were assessed before and after 2 months of NEAD. While the patient's body weight was decreasing during the previous 2 months, it significantly increased (P<0.001) during the 2-month TF, both in the restrictive and the binge/purging form: +3,42 +/- 2,39 kg in the restrictive ones and +2,82 +/- 2,17 kg in the binge/purging ones. Patients were rapidly (48 h) and frequently abstinent from binge/purging during TF: 90% had no more binge/purging episodes (P<0.0001). TF did not worse the eating behavior, and did increase neither anxiety nor depressive levels (Hamilton and Beck scores). Biological nutritional markers were normal before TF and remained so (2nd month), except haptoglobin which was low before and reached normal range during TF (P<0,01). Ambulatory TF seems to be useful in AN patients at home. This could permit to avoid hospitalization, but needs to be confirmed by a randomized trial.
    La Presse Médicale 07/2009; 38(12):1739-45. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twenty-one subjects were studied to evaluate the effect of renewal of sensory stimulations of previously eaten foods on sensory-specific satiety and intake. The subjects ate French fries then brownie cakes ad libitum in three situations: "monotonous" - fries then brownies were consumed alone; "simultaneous" - condiments (ketchup and mayonnaise for the fries, vanilla cream and whipped cream for the brownies) were added during intakes; "successive" - after intake of fries alone, ketchup then mayonnaise were available with fries and, after intake of brownies alone, vanilla cream then whipped cream were offered with brownies. The quantities eaten in the "simultaneous" and "successive" situations were higher (p<0.001) than those in the "monotonous" one (1485+/-582 and 1682+/-777 kcal vs 1195+/-552 kcal, respectively). In the "successive" situation, hedonic ratings for fries diminished during intake but increased after the introduction of ketchup, leading to additional intake of fries. Similarly, hedonic ratings for brownies diminished during intake and increased after the introduction of vanilla cream leading to additional brownie intake (mayonnaise and whipped cream had no significant effect). Food variety, obtained by adding condiments can increase food intake in the short term. The mechanism by which food consumption is increased after the addition of condiments is introduced is at least partly related to the attenuation of sensory-satiety for a given food.
    Physiology & Behavior 04/2009; 97(1):44-51. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Daniel Rigaud
    La Revue du praticien 02/2009; 59(1):37-9.
  • Daniel Rigaud
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    ABSTRACT: Body weight is dependent on the mass of the body and on the fat-free mass. In order to accomplish its mechanical and biochemical functions, the Krebs cycle is activated and generates ATP formation. From ATP, ADP is generated, releasing energy. Total energy expenditure (EE) includes: resting EE, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-based EE and EE from thermoregulation. They represent 65%, 15%, 20% and 2% of total EE in sedentary human being. The subjects who will being overweight have, as a mean, decreased REE, DIT, PAEE and EETR. At the opposite, the thin subjects have elevated REE, DIT, PAEE and may be EETR. When an obese people is slimming, REE, DIT, PAEE and EETR decrease. When a thin people is gaining weight, REE, DIT, PAEE and EETR increase. This adaptative phenomenon explains why change in body weight and body masses are not linear.
    La Revue du praticien 02/2009; 59(1):41-7.
  • Daniel Rigaud
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol has an energy content of 7 kcal/g of pure alcohol. However, there was no clear statistical correlation between alcohol consumption and body mass index in transversal as well as in longitudinal studies. This is related to the fact that alcohol stimulates NADPH oxidation, from NADH. Now, this is the couple NADH-ATP which produces energy, and thermogenesis. Thus alcohol is consumed more than it is stored. Futhermore, alcohol increases vasoactive processes (vasodilatation) and catecholamine secretion. Thus, resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis increase.
    La Revue du praticien 02/2009; 59(1):75-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction In the aim to explore the efficacy of tube feeding (TF) in ambulatory anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, we prospectively treated 60 AN patients by tube feeding (TF) at home, using a nasogastric tube. Methods nutritional (clinical, biological) and psychological (Hamilton and Beck scores) markers were assessed before and after 2 months of NEAD. Results While the patient's body weight was decreasing during the previous 2 months, it significantly increased (P < 0.001) during the 2-month TF, both in the restrictive and the binge/purging form: +3,42 ± 2,39 kg in the restrictive ones and +2,82 ± 2,17 kg in the binge/purging ones. Patients were rapidly (48 h) and frequently abstinent from binge/purging during TF: 90% had no more binge/purging episodes (P < 0.0001). TF did not worse the eating behavior, and did increase neither anxiety nor depressive levels (Hamilton and Beck scores). Biological nutritional markers were normal before TF and remained so (2nd month), except haptoglobin which was low before and reached normal range during TF (P < 0,01). Conclusion ambulatory TF seems to be useful in AN patients at home. This could permit to avoid hospitalization, but needs to be confirmed by a randomized trial.
    Presse Medicale. 01/2009; 38(12):1739-1745.
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    ABSTRACT: Negative alliesthesia to olfactory and visual stimuli was assessed in 29 normal-weight women who, on alternate days, were either fasting or in a postprandial state after an ad libitum lunch. The participants were alternatively exposed to food and non-food pictures and odorants, and then rated for their hedonic appreciation (liking) and their desire to ingest (wanting) the evoked foods. While negative alliesthesia was observed only for food stimuli, it did not equally affect all food categories in either sensory modality. The stimuli representing foods eaten in typical local main dishes or having high energy density (e.g., pizza, bacon, beef, cheese) evoked clear negative alliesthesia, whereas this was not the case for those less consumed within a customary meal or associated with desserts (i.e., fruits). Furthermore, the visual food stimuli triggered a more negative shift in liking than did the food odours. Finally, the shift in wanting between pre- and post-meal state was more important than the shift in liking. These results suggest that alliesthesia may be influenced by both metabolic and non-metabolic factors.
    Physiology & Behavior 08/2008; 95(3):464-70. · 3.16 Impact Factor
  • Daniel Rigaud
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    ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN) is often considered a multifactorial illness of unknown pathophysiology. Family and twin studies have consistently demonstrated that AN is strongly related to genetic factors. The probability of some genetic origin is 92%, genetic factors explaining around 20% of the variance. It must be remembered that 95% of the AN patients were girls or women, suggesting a role for gonadal hormonal systems and their effects on the brain and on cognitive functions. Most studies focused on the serotonin system, but other candidate genes have been suggested. At the present time, we have no evidence that women who develop AN have an adipose, metabolic, gonadal, pituitary, hypothalamic or some other dysfunctions that predispose them for the illness. It is suggested on the contrary that the symptoms of AN are physiological responses to starvation or to the response to altered body image and self-satisfaction. If this eating disorder is related to the fear of the alimentary desire of the patients, it will be easy to understand the plasma level of adiponectin, ghrelin and better understand a role for the low leptin level in the enhanced hunger. If we remember that almost 60% of these patients are engaged in a physical and mental hyperactivity, the abnormality in plasma level of cortisol, ACTH, and CRH. The decease in fat mass could explain why leptin level was low and low leptin level may explain the amenorrhea and the fall in LH, FSH, and LH–RH secretion. Moreover, anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorders and physical hyperactivity may be three interrelated factors, which could be related to serotonin and dopamine systems and in turn inhibit food intake.
    Nutrition Clinique et Métabolisme 12/2007; 21(4):143-150. · 0.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objectif Les formes sévères de boulimie entraînent des troubles nutritionnels, une grande angoisse et un état dépressif marqués. Peu de traitements sont disponibles. Une étude ouverte nous avait suggéré qu'une nutrition entérale par sonde nasogastrique était efficace contre les crises. Méthodes Nous avons réalisé une étude prospective randomisée ouverte sur l'intérêt d'une nutrition entérale à domicile (NEAD) de 8 semaines chez des malades boulimiques. Les malades ont été tirés au sort, soit dans le groupe contrôle (C = psychothérapie + diététique + groupe de parole), soit dans le groupe NEAD (C + NEAD). Un bilan par questionnaire (dont scores de dépression et d'anxiété), examens cliniques et biologiques était fait avant et 8 jours, 8 semaines (fin de traitement) et 3 mois après le début de la phase thérapeutique. Résultats Il y avait 24 malades dans le groupe contrôle et 23 dans le groupe NEAD. Les crises de boulimie et les vomissements ont disparu 3 fois plus vite et 2 fois plus souvent (65 contre 29 %, p < 0,01) dans le groupe NEAD que dans le groupe C. Trois mois après, les crises étaient absentes plus souvent dans le groupe NEAD que dans le groupe C (52 versus 33 %). L'amélioration de l'état nutritionnel était supérieure dans le groupe NEAD (p < 0,05). L'amélioration des scores de Beck (dépression) et Hamilton (anxiété) était plus grande dans le groupe NEAD que dans le groupe C (p < 0,05). Conclusion La nutrition entérale par sonde réduit notablement les crises et les vomissements et améliore fortement l'humeur et l'état nutritionnel de malades atteints de forme sévère de boulimie.
    La Presse Médicale 10/2007; 36(10):1354–1363. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Few effective treatments are available for severe forms of bulimia nervosa, which are accompanied by malnutrition, anxiety, and depressive mood. We previously showed in an open study that nasogastric tube feeding (TF) reduced binges and purging in patients with anorexia nervosa. This prospective randomized trial compared bulimia patients in two treatment groups: one group received TF at home, together with psychotherapy, nutritional counseling and a support group while the control group received only psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and a support group. Patients in the first group underwent TF for 8 weeks (exclusively for 10 days and associated with meals thereafter). Assessment was based on clinical examination, laboratory results, and a variety of questionnaires (our in-house instrument for measuring binge and vomiting episodes, eating disorder inventory, Beck's depression inventory and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety), all performed at the onset of treatment and at 8 days, 8 weeks (i.e., the end of TF), and 3 months after treatment began. Binges and vomiting disappeared faster and more frequently in TF patients than in the control group: 65% versus 29% (p<0.01). Three months later, these remained less frequent in the TF group than among controls (52% versus 33%, p=0.064). Nutritional status, depression, and anxiety improved more among the TF than control subjects (p<0.05). Tube feeding was effective in these patients with bulimia nervosa, reducing the number of binge and vomiting episodes and improving nutritional status and mood.
    La Presse Médicale 10/2007; 36(10 Pt 1):1354-63. · 0.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the high mortality rate in malnourished anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, very few trials have prospectively studied the efficacy of tube feeding. This open prospective study was conducted in malnourished AN patients, who were randomized in tube feeding (n=41) or control (n=40) groups during a 2-month period. Thereafter, body weight, body mass gain, energy intake, eating behavior and relapse rates were compared during a 1-year follow-up, using paired Student t-test and ANOVA. At the end of the 2-months period, weight gain was 39% higher in the tube feeding group than in the control group (194+/-14 vs 126+/-19g/day; P<0.01). The fat-free mass gain was greater in the tube-feeding group: 109+/-14 vs 61+/-17g/day (P<0.01). Energy intake was higher in the tube feeding group than in the control group (P<0.05), as well as the decrease in bingeing episodes (P<0.01). Most patients thought that CEN improved their eating disorder. After discharge, the relapse-free period was longer in the CEN group than in the control one: 34.3+/-8.2 weeks vs 26.8+/-7.5 weeks (P<0.05). CEN is helpful in malnourished AN patients for weight restoration, without hindrance on the eating behavior therapy nor inducing a more rapid relapse.
    Clinical Nutrition 08/2007; 26(4):421-9. · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Olfacto-gustatory sensory-specific satiety plays an important role in the termination of food ingestion. A defect in this mechanism, by increasing food intake, could be a factor in development of overweight. The present study was conducted to explore whether sensory-specific satiety in the overweight may be different from that in normal-weight subjects. 144 subjects (half men, half women; age range: 17-62 years; BMI range: 17-39 kg m(-2)). Olfactory pleasure (OP) and flavor pleasure (FP) were evaluated before and after ingestion of a single chosen food. Six foods from three classes were offered: cucumber and tomato, pineapple and banana, and peanut and pistachio. According to the subjects' preference for one of them, subjects were classified into six groups (24 subjects each with equal sex ratio). The experimental sequence was (1) evaluation of the six foods (OP), (2) ad libitum intake of the preferred food (FP) and (3) second evaluation of the six foods (OP). Food intake was limited by sensory-specific satiety (that is, a decline in FP for the ingested food) in overweight subjects just as it was in the leanest. There was no significant correlation between BMI and hedonic parameters (OP and FP) or intakes (quantity and volume). Pre-ingestive OP and FP correlated with the ingested food's weight (OP: r=0.468; FP: r=0.415; P<0.01), volume (OP: r=0.428; FP: r=0.407; P<0.01) and intake duration (OP: r=0.184; FP: r=0.343; P<0.05). The decline in OP, but not in FP, correlated with ingested weight (r=0.271, P<0.01) and volume (r=0.263, P<0.01) but not with duration. After intake of a single food, olfacto-gustatory sensory-specific satiety correlated with the ingested food's weight and volume and with the duration of ingestion, but not with bodyweight. This suggests that overweight and lean subjects have similar hedonic control of food intake with simple foods.
    International Journal of Obesity 06/2007; 31(6):987-95. · 5.22 Impact Factor