[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the duration of fecal shedding and changing loads of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in feces and serum from patients with acute HEV infection, HEV RNA was quantitated in periodic serum and fecal specimens obtained from 11 patients with sporadic acute hepatitis E. All 11 patients had detectable HEV RNA in serum at admission, with the highest viral load being 1.9 x 10(3) to 1.7 x 10(7) copies/ml, and HEV viremia lasted until days 17 to 48 (mean, 28.3) after the onset of hepatitis. Even at the initial examination on days 10 to 29 (mean, 17.6), the HEV load in fecal supernatant was less than 5.7 x 10(4) copies/ml for 10 of the 11 patients, while for the remaining patient (patient 1) it was markedly high, 2.0 x 10(7) copies/ml on day 22. In addition, although HEV RNA in fecal supernatant continued to be positive until days 14 to 33 (mean, 22.4) for patients 2 to 11, that for patient 1 was detectable even on day 121. HEVs in fecal specimens obtained on days 22, 24, 26, 28, and 30, but not day 121, from patient 1 grew efficiently in PLC/PRF/5 cells, reaching the highest titer of up to 10(7) copies/ml in culture medium on day 50 postinoculation. The HEV genome recovered from patient 1 had 29 unique nucleotides that were not seen in any of the 25 reported HEV isolates of the same genotype over the entire genome, with six amino acid substitutions in the ORF1 protein.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 12/2007; 45(11):3671-9. · 4.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) genotypes and characteristics of HBV isolates among Japanese patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV), serum samples collected between September 1990 and March 2002 from 471 HIV-infected patients (age, 38.8 +/- 11.4 [mean +/- standard deviation] years; male, 90%) were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV DNA. Positivity for HBsAg and HBV DNA was seen in 42 patients (8.9%), 41 of whom had contracted HIV infection through sexual activity and 1 had hemophilia. Genotypes of HBV were determined by comparative and phylogenetic analyses of the S gene sequence (396 nucleotides [nt]). The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 42 HBV-viremic patients was: A (50%), B (5%), C (24%), D (5%), E (2%), H (10%), A plus D (2%), A plus G (2%). The hemophilia patient had HBV genotype D. Genotypes E, G, and H which had not been reported in Japan, were found in one patient each who had traveled to Zambia, the US, and South America, respectively. Genotypes A and D, which are rare in Japan, were found in patients who had no history of traveling abroad. The entire genome of the HB-JI411 (genotype E [3,212 nt]), HB-JI444G (genotype G [3,248 nt]), and HB-JI260 (genotype H [3,218 nt]) isolates had the highest identity of 98.3%, 99.9%, and 98.5%, respectively, with reported HBV isolates of the same genotype. Most Japanese patients coinfected with HIV and HBV had HBV genotypes that are found rarely or had not been reported in Japan.
Journal of Medical Virology 06/2005; 76(1):24-32. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of reddish markings appearing on the surface of the liver.Methods: Subjects were patients with Hepatitis B virus-related (n = 232) or Hepatitis C-related (n = 246) chronic liver disease. Reddish lesions were obtained from this population using punch biopsy (n = 30) or wedge biopsy (n = 4), then studied histopathologically. In addition, the incidence and macroscopic forms of reddish markings in each laparoscopic stage for the 478 subjects were examined to determine when reddish markings appeared.Results: Reddish markings on the liver surface appeared only after the appearance of hepatic parenchymal destruction subjacent to the liver capsule, rather than with the appearance of piecemeal necrosis in the portal area. Moreover, following expansion of necrotic hepatic parenchyma subjacent to the liver capsule and distortion of hepatic lobular architecture in this lesion, net-like or hemorrhagic fleck-like reddish markings appeared. Therefore, this was recognized as changes at the liver capsule, such as capillary proliferation and dilatation, and blood flow changes in both the capsule and hepatic parenchymal lesions subjacent to the liver capsule. With regards to timing, reddish markings were most frequently observed in the transition to liver cirrhosis. After the appearance of reddish markings on the liver surface, chronic hepatitis rapidly progressed to liver cirrhosis.Conclusion: Reddish markings correspond to hepatic parenchymal destruction subjacent to the liver capsule, and not to piecemeal necrosis. Reddish markings appear in the transition to liver cirrhosis and might offer a useful marker of the progression to liver cirrhosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and relative titre of TT virus (TTV) DNA, and to examine the relationship between the extent of TTV viraemia and the immune status among 144 patients with HIV infection; 178 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were also studied.
Methods: TTV DNA was detected quantitatively by two distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods [untranslated region (UTR) and N22]. UTR PCR detects all TTV genotypes, and N22 PCR can primarily detect four major TTV genotypes (1-4).
Results: Using UTR PCR and N22 PCR, respectively, TTV DNA was detected significantly more frequently in HIV-infected patients than in controls (99 versus 91%, P < 0.001; 56 versus 27%, P < 0.0001), and the relative titre (10N/ml) was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients [4.5 ± 1.2 (mean ± SD) versus 3.1 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001; 2.6 ± 1.5 versus 1.5 ± 0.9, P < 0.0001]. Age, sex, co-infection with hepatitis B or C virus, and risk factors for HIV transmission did not appear to be significant factors associated with the titre of TTV viraemia. However, the titre of TTV DNA was significantly higher in HIV-infected patients with AIDS (P < 0.0001), those with low CD4 T cell count (P < 0.0001), or those with high HIV viral loads (P = 0.0047).
Conclusion: TTV is highly prevalent and high-titred in HIV-infected patients. The TTV viral load may reflect the degree of immune status of these immunocompromised hosts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TT virus (TTV) has not yet been cultured or visualized. We attempted to recover and visualize TTV-associated particles from the serum samples and feces of infected humans. Serum samples were obtained from 7 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Three patients had a high TTV DNA titer (108 copies/ml), three had a low TTV DNA titer (102 copies/ml), and one was negative for TTV DNA. Fecal supernatant was obtained from a different TTV-infected subject. The serum samples were fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography, and TTV DNA-rich fractions were subjected to floatation ultracentrifugation in cesium chloride. Virus-like particles, 30–32 nm in diameter, were found in the 1.31–1.33 g/cm3 fractions from each of the three serum samples with high TTV DNA titer, but not in any fraction from the four serum samples that either were negative for TTV DNA or had low TTV DNA titer. The TTV particles formed aggregates of various sizes, and immunogold electron microscopy showed that they were bound to human immunoglobulin G. Similar virus-like particles with a diameter of 30–32 nm banding at 1.34–1.35 g/cm3 were visualized in fecal supernatant with TTV genotype 1a by immune electron microscopy using human plasma containing TTV genotype 1a-specific antibody.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2001; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It remains unclear whether the hepatitis C virus genotype is associated with the severity and outcome of HCV-related liver disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether hepatitis C virus genotype influenced the risk of developing hepatocelMar carcinoma. Two hundred and sixty nine patients who had chronic hepatitis C and cirrhosis without hepatocellular carcinoma were studied. The stage and activity of hepatitis were determined at laparoscopy and patients were followed up until the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or for a maximum of 16 years. Hepatitis C virus genotypes were determined by a genotyping enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A cross-sectional study revealed that the prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 increased and that of genotype 2 decreased with the progression of liver disease (pc 0.01). A follow-up study using the Kaplan-Meier method showed that hepatocellular carcinoma occurred more frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (p<0.01), patients with a more advanced disease stage (p<0.01), and patients with reddish markings (p<0.05). Cox multivariate proportional hazards analysis confirmed that these three risk factors were independent. Hepatocellular carcinoma developed more frequently in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 and pre-cirrhosis (stage 3 chronic hepatitis with nodules) or liver cirrhosis, in whom hepatitis showed continued activity and progression. (Dig Endosc 1999; 11: 24–31)
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: RNA of recently reported, putative non-A to E hepatitis virus designated GB virus C (GBV-C) was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in sera from 231 Japanese patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma. GBV-C RNA was detected in 21 patients (9% of the total), including two of the 23 patients (8%) with markers of hepatitis B virus infection, 11 of the 114 patients (10%) with markers of hepatitis C virus infection, seven of the 86 patients (8%) with markers of both hepatitis B and C virus infections, and one of the eight patients (13%) without such markers. These results indicate that the contribution of GBV-C infection to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma would be small either by itself or in cooperation with hepatitis B and C viruses.
Hepatology Research - HEPATOL RES. 01/1997; 8(1):37-43.