[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rates of childhood obesity have risen at the same time rates of high blood lead levels (BLLs) have fallen. Recent studies suggest that higher BLL is inversely associated with body size in older children (ages 3-19 years). No contemporaneous studies have examined if having a detectable BLL is associated with body size in very early childhood. We examined if detectable BLL is associated with body size in early childhood. A total of 299 birth cohort participants completed a study visit at ages 2-3 years with weight and height measurements; prior to this clinic visit, a BLL was drawn as part of routine clinical care. Body mass index (BMI) percentile and Z-score were calculated; children with BMI ≥85th percentile were considered overweight/obese at age of 2 years. Detectable BLL was defined as BLL ≥1 μg/dL. A total of 131 (43.8 %) children had a detectable BLL measured at mean aged 15.4 ± 5.5 months. Mean age at body size assessment was 2.2 ± 0.3 years (53.2 % male, 68.6 % African-American). After adjusting for race, sex, and birth weight, children with a detectable BLL had a 43 % lower risk of BMI ≥85th percentile (P = 0.041) and a 0.35-unit lower BMI Z-score (P = 0.008) compared to children without a detectable BLL. Neither race nor sex modified this association (all interactions P > 0.21). Consistent with recent studies in older children, having a detectable BLL was associated with smaller body size at ages 2-3 years. Additional research on the mechanism of this association is needed but may include mechanisms of appetite suppression via lead.
Biological trace element research 09/2015; DOI:10.1007/s12011-015-0500-7 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Uterine fibroids are common, benign, smooth-muscle tumors that can cause major morbidity for reproductive-age women, often requiring invasive treatment. Despite this personal and public health burden, no prior study has attempted to periodically screen fibroid-free women with ultrasound to detect incident disease and identify risk factors.
We designed a study to prospectively investigate development of fibroids by enrolling women without a clinical diagnosis of fibroids and screening for fibroids with ultrasound at baseline. Enrollment procedures included extensive questionnaires and specimen collection (blood, urine, vaginal swabs). The cohort is followed at approximately 20-month intervals. At each follow-up there are updates to the questionnaire data, further specimen collection, and an ultrasound examination. We identify incident disease and measure tumor growth. The two exposures of primary interest are vitamin D insufficiency and reproductive tract infections. This manuscript provides a detailed description of the study methods, recruitment results, and participant characteristics.
The Study of Environment, Lifestyle and Fibroids enrolled 1,696 African American women aged 23-34 years. "Family and friends" was a leading recruitment source. More than 95% of participants contributed all the requested biological specimens at baseline. Study ultrasound examinations revealed undiagnosed fibroids in 378 women (22% of participants). The retention rate for the first follow-up was 87%.
Study design aspects likely to be important for long-term studies in young African Americans include personalized recruitment, multiple steps to the enrollment process that rely on the initiative of the participant, and methods for tracing highly mobile study subjects.
Journal of Women's Health 09/2015; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2015.5277 · 2.05 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early patterns of gut colonization may predispose children to adult disease. Exposures in utero and during delivery are associated with the infant gut microbiome. Although ~35% of women carry group B strep (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) during pregnancy, it is unknown if GBS presence influences the infant gut microbiome. As part of a population-based, general risk birth cohort, stool specimens were collected from infant's diapers at research visits conducted at ~1 and 6 months of age. Using the Illumina MiSeq (San Diego, CA) platform, the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Infant gut bacterial community compositional differences by maternal GBS status were evaluated using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were tested using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Data on maternal GBS and infant gut microbiota from either 1 (n=112) or 6-month-old stool (n=150) specimens was available on 262 maternal-child pairs. Eighty women (30.5%) were GBS+, of who 58 (72.5%) were given intrapartum antibiotics. After adjusting for maternal race, prenatal antifungal use and intrapartum antibiotics, maternal GBS status was statistically significantly associated with gut bacterial composition in the 6 month visit specimen (Canberra R 2=0.008, P=0.008; Unweighted UniFrac R 2=0.010, P=0.011). Individual OTU tests revealed that infants of GBS+ mothers were significantly enriched for specific members of the Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcoceae, and Enterococcaceae in the 6 month specimens compared with infants of GBS- mothers. Whether these taxonomic differences in infant gut microbiota at 6 months lead to differential predisposition for adult disease requires additional study.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Allergy-related studies that include biological measurements of vitamin D preceding well-measured outcomes are needed.
We sought to examine the associations between early-life vitamin D levels and the development of allergy-related outcomes in the racially diverse Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy, and Asthma Longitudinal Study birth cohort.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured in stored blood samples from pregnancy, cord blood, and age 2 years. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs for a 5 ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D levels for the following outcomes at age 2 years: eczema, skin prick tests (SPTs), increased allergen-specific IgE level (≥0.35 IU/mL), and doctor's diagnosis of asthma (3-6 years).
Prenatal 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with eczema (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.75-0.96). The association was stronger in white children (white children: OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.57-1.09; black children: OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.82-1.12), although this was not statistically significant. Cord blood 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with having 1 or more positive SPT responses and aeroallergen sensitization. Both associations were statistically significant in white children (positive SPT response: OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80; ≥1 aeroallergen sensitization: OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.28-0.92) in contrast with black children (positive SPT response: OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.68-1.14; ≥1 aeroallergen sensitization: OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.65-1.11). 25(OH)D levels measured concurrently with outcome assessment were inversely associated with aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66-0.96) only among black children (white children: OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.87-1.69).
Prenatal and cord blood 25(OH)D levels were associated with some allergy-related outcomes, with a general pattern indicating that children with higher 25(OH)D levels tend to have fewer allergy-related outcomes.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 06/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.04.017 · 11.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To observe the occurrence of pregnancy in women undergoing minimally invasive and open myomectomy for symptoms attributed to uterine fibroids and who desire future pregnancy.
We performed a retrospective chart review of women who had undergone myomectomy at least two years previously within the Henry Ford Health System in Detroit, MI. We reviewed the subsequent fertility outcomes according to the fertility goals identified by each woman.
During the seven-year observation window, 310 women underwent myomectomy and 124 (40%) of these women desired pregnancy. Forty-nine women desiring pregnancy (40%) conceived, and 30 (61% of those who conceived) delivered a viable infant from their first pregnancy. In addition, two women had a live birth after a miscarriage, and one had a live birth after an ectopic pregnancy. Five women had a second live-born baby. There were no differences in the occurrence of pregnancy or pregnancy outcome according to surgical approach, patient age or race, number of uterine incisions, or whether the endometrial cavity was entered. In addition, five of 186 women who did not have a fertility goal (3%) conceived, and one woman delivered two babies.
Myomectomy performed to preserve fertility resulted in approximately one in four women having a live birth, independent of surgical technique.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 03/2015; 37(1):46-51.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Separately, prenatal antibiotics and Caesarian delivery have been found to be associated with increased risk of allergic diseases. It is not clear whether these factors may modify the effect of each other.Objective
To assess whether the associations between delivery types and eczema, sensitization and total IgE at age 2 years were modified by maternal use of prenatal medications.Methods
Prenatal charts of women enrolled in the WHEALS birth cohort were reviewed for delivery mode and medications prescribed and administered throughout their entire pregnancy, including systemic antibiotics and vaginally applied antifungal medications. The associations between the delivery mode and select medications and, eczema, sensitization (≥ 1 of 10 allergen-specific IgE ≥ 0.35 IU/mL) and total IgE at age 2 years were assessed.ResultsThere was a lower risk of eczema among vaginally vs. c-section born children (relative risk adjusted for race = aRR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.56, 1.05). Although not statistically significantly different, this association was stronger among the subset of children born vaginally to a mother who did not use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications (aRR = 0.69, 95% CI 0.44, 1.08) compared to those born vaginally to mothers who used systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungals (aRR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.57, 1.14). A protective association between vaginal birth and sensitization (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.72, 1.03) was similar for those children born vaginally to a mother who did not (aRR = 0.87, 95% CI 0.69, 1.10) and who did (RR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.70, 1.04) use systemic antibiotics or vaginal antifungal medications. There were no associations with total IgE.Conclusions
Children born vaginally had lower risk of eczema and sensitization compared with those born via c-section; however, the protective association with eczema may be slightly weakened when mothers took systemic antibiotics or vaginally applied medications during pregnancy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is consistent evidence demonstrating that pet-keeping, particularly of dogs, is beneficial to human health. We explored relationships between maternal race and prenatal dog-keeping, accounting for measures of socioeconomic status that could affect the choice of owning a pet, in a demographically diverse, unselected birth cohort.
Self-reported data on mothers' race, socioeconomic characteristics and dog-keeping practices were obtained during prenatal interviews and analyzed cross-sectionally. Robust methods of covariate balancing via propensity score analysis were utilized to examine if race (Black vs White), independent of other participant traits, influenced prenatal dog-keeping.
A birth cohort study conducted in a health care system in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan between September 2003 and November 2007.
1065 pregnant women (n=775 or 72.8% Black), between ages 21 and 45, receiving prenatal care.
Participant's self-report of race/ethnicity and prenatal dog-keeping, which was defined as her owning or caring for > or =1 dog for more than 1 week at her home since learning of her pregnancy, regardless of whether the dog was kept inside or outside of her home.
In total, 294 women (27.6%) reported prenatal dog-keeping. Prenatal dog-keeping was significantly lower among Black women as compared to White women (20.9% vs 45.5%, P<.001), and remained significantly different even after propensity score analysis was applied.
Findings suggest that there are persistent racial differences in dog-keeping not fully explained by measures of socioeconomic status. Racial differences in prenatal dog-keeping may contribute to childhood health disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Caesarean-section (CS) delivery increases risk of childhood obesity, and is associated with a distinct early-life gut microbiome, which may contribute to obesity. Household pets may alter human gut microbiome composition. We examined if pet-keeping modified the association of CS with obesity at age 2 years in 639 Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study birth cohort participants. Pet-keeping was defined as having a dog or cat (indoors ≥1 h/day) at child age 2 years. We used logistic regression to test for an interaction between CS and pet-keeping with obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) at age 2 years, adjusted for maternal obesity. A total of 328 (51.3 %) children were male; 367 (57.4 %) were African American; 228 (35.7 %) were born by CS; and 55 (8.6 %) were obese. After adjusting for maternal obesity, CS-born children had a non-significant (P = 0.25) but elevated 1.4 (95 % CI 0.8, 2.5) higher odds of obesity compared to those born vaginally. There was evidence of effect modification between current pet-keeping and delivery mode with obesity at age 2 years (interaction P = 0.054). Compared to children born vaginally without a pet currently in the home, children born via CS without a pet currently in the home had a statistically significant (P = 0.043) higher odds (odds ratio 2.00; 95 % CI 1.02, 3.93) of being obese at age 2 years. Pets modified the CS-BMI relationship; whether the underlying mechanism is through effects on environmental or gut microbiome requires specific investigation.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 11/2014; 19(6). DOI:10.1007/s10995-014-1649-y · 2.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
Atopic sensitization (ie, atopy) is the most commonly reported risk factor for asthma. Recent studies have begun to suggest that atopy, as conventionally defined, might be an umbrella term that obfuscates more specific allergic disease types.
We sought to determine whether distinct and meaningful atopic phenotypes exist within a racially diverse birth cohort using 10 allergen-specific serum IgE (sIgE) measurements from children aged 2 years.
Using the Wayne County Health, Environment, Allergy and Asthma Longitudinal Study (WHEALS) birth cohort (62% black), we analyzed sIgE data on 10 allergens (Dermatophagoides farinae, dog, cat, timothy grass, ragweed, Alternaria alternata, egg, peanut, milk, and German cockroach) obtained from 594 children at age 2 years. Conventional atopy was defined as at least 1 sIgE level of 0.35 IU/mL or greater.
A 4-class solution (latent class model) was the best fit. Class types were labeled “low to no sensitization” (76.9% of sample), “highly sensitized” (2.7%), “milk and egg dominated” (15.3%), and “peanut and inhalant(s)” (5.1%). Almost one third (32.2%) of the low to no sensitization group met the criteria for conventional atopy. The highly sensitized group was significantly associated with a doctor's diagnosis of asthma after age 4 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% CI, 1.6-17.4), whereas the milk and egg dominated and peanut and inhalant(s) groups were not (ORs of 1.6 [95% CI, 0.8-3.0] and 1.8 [95% CI, 0.6-4.9], respectively). Children of black race were more likely to be in the 3 multisensitized groups (P = .04).
Classification by sIgE patterns defined groups whose membership is more strongly associated with atopic dermatitis, wheeze, and asthma compared with conventional atopy.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2014; 134(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.01.022 · 11.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose:
To determine the effect of cervix removal at hysterectomy on patient-centered outcomes including post-operative pain, dyspareunia, well-being, and overall satisfaction during the 3-month post-operative period.
This is a prospective cohort study of 228 women who underwent elective abdominal, laparoscopic and robotic hysterectomy without concomitant urogynecological or cancer-related procedures, at the Henry Ford Hospital (Detroit, MI). Participants completed a baseline survey evaluating quality of life measures including pain, well-being, sexual and daily function and repeated this survey at serial intervals through 12 weeks post-operatively. Medical record review was performed to confirm demographic and obtain surgical data.
Hierarchical generalized linear models were used to model the trajectory of pain, well-being and satisfaction over the course of the post-surgical period. Subanalysis including only laparoscopic cases was performed. There was no difference in satisfaction (p = 0.48, OR 0.80 [CI 95% 0.43, 1.48]), well-being (p = 0.55, OR 1.12 [CI 95% 0.84, 1.79]), or dyspareunia (p = 0.57, OR 0.75 [CI 95% 0.27, 2.04]) scores between laparoscopic/robotic supracervical and total hysterectomy groups. This was unchanged when all hysterectomy approaches were included in analysis. Cervix removal was associated with higher pain scores with all surgical approaches although this did not reach statistical significance.
Patient-centered outcomes suggest overall equivalent tolerance of supracervical and total hysterectomy procedures with a trend towards short-term pain improvement with cervical retention.
Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics 08/2014; 291(2). DOI:10.1007/s00404-014-3420-4 · 1.36 Impact Factor